Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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LUND, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: A former metro­politan see in Denmark (now in Sweden), founded about the middle of the eleventh century, and raised to metropolitan dignity probably in 1103‑04, replacing the former jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg‑Bremen. This transfer was not rec­ognized by Innocent II. and was long contested by the Germans; it was confirmed, however, by Ad­rian IV., with the addition of the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden. The last Roman Cath­olic archbishop was imprisoned in 1536, to be re­leased only on condition of withdrawing his op­position to the change of religion, and in 1537 the first Lutheran bishop took possession of the see. In 1660 it was transferred to Copenhagen.

131BLIOGRAPHY: The occupants of the see are named, with their terms of office, in Gams, Series episcoporum, p. 330. Consult further: Ads poutiftcum Dan%ca . . . 1318‑1638, Copenhagen, 1904: KL, viii. 29fr300.
LUPUS, lupus, SERVATUS: French Bene­dictine; b. probably in the archdiocese of Sens c. 814; d. at Ferrii3rea (23 m. s.w. of Sens) 862. He was a scion of a distinguished family and received his education in the monastery of Ferricres from Abbot Aldric, later archbishop of Sens. Dissatis­fied with instruction there, however, he went to Fulda and studied under Rabanus Maurus, re­maining there from 830 to 836 and forming close friendships not only with his teacher but also with other German scholars, especially with the famous Einhard, the author of the biography of Charle­magne. He returned to Ferri6rea in 836, but in the following year accompanied his abbot, Odo, to Germany. His activity as a teacher at FerrWea, of which traces are still extant in his pupils' notes of his lectures quickly made him famous, and in 838 he enjoyed the favor of the Emperor Louis the Pious and the Empress Judith. In the civil wars which followed the death of the emperor, Lupus

took the side of Charles the Bald, who made him abbot of Ferrii'rea (842) in place of Odo, the latter having been a partizan of Lothair, the rival of Charles. In the troublous times which followed his appoint­ment he proved his fidelity to his king, whom he accompanied on his unlucky expedition against Aquitaine. He was taken prisoner in the defeat of the Franks on June 14, 844, but returned to his monastery on July 5. The ware had brought the cloister into dire poverty and in 846 he was ob­liged to beg for money. Ascribing the misfortunes of Ferri6res to Charles' alienation of the cell of St. Judocus, which he had enfeoffed to a temporal dignitary, Lupus finally succeeded in regaining it in the latter part of 848. In the following year he was sent by Charles on a mission to Rome, where for the first time he came into direct contact with the controversy between Gottschalk and Hincmar. Lupus, as a firm adherent of Augustine, favored the former, and both orally and in his De tribus qucestionxrus opposed the doctrine of the freedom of the will and defended the teaching of election, although be did not press it to the extent of pre­destination to condemnation. On the other hand, he carefully refrained from any personal appeal on behalf of the imprisoned Gottschalk and remained on friendly terms with Hincmar. After 850 his letters coptain scarcely any allusions to the contro­versy. He was now busily employed in restoring his cloister and was steadily increasing in favor with the king. He remained at the court for months both as a diplomat and scholar and as a boon com­panion. His fidelity to his monarch was unshaken even after the disasters of 858, when Charles lost his throne to Louis the German and retired to Burgundy. There he was followed by Lupus and Hincma,r, but the excitement and the privations shattered the abbot's health and brought on a fatal illness.

The writings of Lupus, in addition to the work

already noted, which is one of the best theological

contributions of the time, include the Vita Wig­

berti and the Vita Maximini. The theory that he

was the author of the pseudo‑Isidorian Decretals

is unsupported by evidence. On the other hand,

he edited the canons of the Synod of Verneuil (843),

which were directed primarily against the misuse

of ecclesiastical property by princes. His most

important writings were his letters, which are char­

acterized by personal charm and at the same time

form valuable historical documents, especially as

he corresponded with almost alt the important

men of the period, including kings, popes, and

ecclesiastics. (R. SCHMID.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Opera of Lupus, including his Epis­

tolo;, ed. E. Baluse, appeared at Paris, 1884, Antwerp

1710, and in MPL, eaiz. A very excellent issue of his

Epietola, ed. Deedevisea du Desert, appeared Paris, 1888.

Consult: F. 8protte, Biographic des Abtea Sernatua Lupus

non FemaPrea, Regensburg, 1880; Hiato%re 1%tt€ra%ra de la

France, v. 255 eqq.; G. Phillips, Vermiachte 3chriften,

i. 198 eqq.. Vienna, 1858; B. Nicolas, ‑0tudea our lea letlrea

de SerroahLoup, Paris 1882; E. Ebert, Allpemeine (io‑

achichte der Ldtteratur des Mitte7aitere, ii. 203‑209, Leipaie

1880; Girt', in etudes d'hietoire du molten 8ge dedikea is

a. Mtnwd. Paris. 1898: Haack, AD. ii 809 aqq. et pas. aim; KL, viii. 300‑304.


German Lutheran theologian; b. at Maroldsweisach


Luther, Martin

(55 m. n.n.w. of Nuremberg) Mar. 22, 1823; d. at

Leipsic Sept. 21, 1902. He studied theology at

Erlangen and Berlin (1841‑45) and was teacher in

the Munich gymnasium (1847‑51). He was privat­

docent at Erlangen (1851‑54), extraordinary pro­

fessor at Marburg (1854‑56), and ordinary profes­

sor of systematic theology and New‑Testament

exegesis at Leipaic (1856‑1902). He became consti­

tutorial councilor (1865) and privy ecclesiastical

councilor (1887). Luthardt was a voluminous writer

of the Erlangen school of theologians, one of the

attractions of the University of Leipsic, an eloquent

preacher, and an ecclesiastical statesman.

Among his works may be mentioned: Daa johanneiache

Evanpelium each aelner Eigenthfimlichkeit peachiZdert and

erkllirt (2 vole., Nuremberg, 1852‑53, Eng. transl. by C. R.

Gregory, 3 vole., Edinburgh, 188b‑78); Die Lehre van den

letzten Dingen (Leipeic, 1861); Die Lehre vom freien Willen

and aein Verhttltnias zur Grade (1883); Apolagetiache Vor­

trllpe itber die Grundwahrheitan des Chriatenthuma(1865: Eng.

Early Life and Religious Training (¢ 1).

Initial Changes of View (¢ 2).

The Doctrine of Grace (¢ 3).

The Ninety‑five Theses (¢ 4).

Denial of the Power of the Pope (¢ b).

Development of Views on Euchar­

ist, Priesthood, Church, and works

(¢ 6).

Appeal to the Laity for Reform (¢ 7).

Doctrine of the Sacraments (¢ 8).

At the Diet of Worms (¢ 9).

In Hiding at the Wartburg (¢ 10).

Opposition to Extreme Radicalism

(¢ 11).

transl.. Apologetic Lectures on the Fundamental Truths of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1865) Compendium der Dopmatik (1885); Die Ethik Lathers in ihren Grundzagen (1887); Apolo­Detiache Vortrage fiber die HeilavHIhrheiten lea Christenthuma (1867; Eng. trans]., Apologetic Lectures on the Saving Truths of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1868); Die Ethik Ariatoteles im Unterachied von der Moral lea Chriatenihuma (186x); Vortr6pe fiber die Moral lea Chriatenthuma (1873; Eng, trans]., Apolo­getic Lectures on the Moral Truths of Christianity, Edinburgh, 1873); Der johanrudache Uraprunp lea vierten Evanyeliuma (1874; Erg. transl. by C. R. Gregory, St. John the Author of the Fourth Gospel, Edinburgh, 1875); Die modernen Weld­anachauungen and ihre praktiache» Ifoneequenun (1880): Licht and Leben (1885); Die anti)ce Ethik in ihrer peschirhh lichen Entv»ekelung ale Einleitunp in die Geachichte der chriah lichen Moral dargeatellt (1887); Geachichte der chriatlichen Ethik (1888‑93; Erg. tranel., History q/ Christian Ethics, Edinburgh, 1889); Die vier Evangelien (1899); Die ehriaUielw Glaubenalehre (1898); and ICompendium der theolopiachers Efhik (1898). He was editor of the Allgemeine evanpeliache lu• theraniaclae Rirdunzeitung.

Bisrroonwrav: J. Kunse, ChriatopA Ernst Luthardt, Leipsic,

1903; F. J. Winter, Die Thedopie des D. Luthardt, ib.,1883.



Correspondence with Other Sectaries and Break with Erasmus (¢ 12).

Polemics Against Carlstadt and Miinster

(¢ 13).

Transformations in Liturgy and Church Government (¢ 14).

Eucharistic Views and Controversies

(§ 15).

The Diet of Augsburg and the Question of Civil Resistance (¢ 18).

The Authority of Church Councils Denied (¢ 17).

Attacks on Zwingli, and Recognition of the Bohemian Brethren (¢ 18).

Martin Luther, the German Reformer, was born at Eisleben (23 m. w. of Halls) Nov. 10, 1483, and died there Feb. 18, 1546. His father, Hans, was a miner, formerly living at Mohra, while his mother, Margarete (rrke Ziegler), came from a family of the middle class. At the age of six months, Luther was taken by his parents to Manefeld, and was there brought up in an atmosphere of strictness and pro­bity. His father's financial condition

z. Early gradually improving, Luther was sent

Life and to the Latin school, first at Mansfeld,

Religious then at Magdeburg (probably to an

Training. institution conducted by Brethren of

the Common Life) in 1497, and finally,

in 1498, at Eisenach, where his mother had rela­

tives. There, with other poor students, he was

obliged to sing in the streets begging for bread.

and there he gained the sympathy of Ursula, the

wife of Kunz Cotta. From Eisenach he went, in

1501, to the U>ziversity of Erfurt, where his prin­

cipal teachers were the nominalists Trntvetter and

Arnoldi, and where he was a friend of at least some

of the young humanistic " poet " circle. He re­

ceived his bachelor's degree in 1502 and the mas­

ter's degree three years later; and was destined by

his relatives for a legal career.

Brought up in the strict religious atmosphere of

the Roman Catholic Church, but without any knowledge of the Bible, Luther was terrified by thoughts of the wrath of God, intensified by the sudden death of a friend. He resolved to become a monk, and on July 17, 1505, entered the Augus‑

Luther as a Preacher and Exegete (¢ 19).

Theory of Confession and the Law (¢ 20).

Establishment of Consistoriee and the Marriage of Philip of Hesse (¢ 21).

Renewed Eucharistic Controversies (¢ 22).

The Death of Luther (¢ 23).

Summary of Luther's Doctrinal Devel­opment (¢ 24),

Theory of the Church and the World (¢ 25).

The Style of Luther (¢ 28).

The Personal Life of Luther (¢ 27).

His Hymns (¢ 28).

tinier monastery at Erfurt, to the grief of his father, and without a clear comprehension of his act. In 1507 he was ordained to the priesthood, but his theological studies brought him no inward peace, and he eagerly followed the advice of an old master of studies in the monastery, who urged him to center his hopes in the article of the forgiveness of sins. He was also aided by the instruction of Johann von Staupitz, the vicar of the order, but the decisive change was brought about by his study of the Scriptures. In 1508, at the suggestion of Johann von Staupitz, the Elector Frederick appointed Lu­ther professor of philosophy at Wittenberg, where he received the degree of baccalaureua ad bxblia in the following year. He was then recalled for some unknown reason to Erfurt, but in 1511 (or possibly in 1510) went to Rome in the interests of his order. Returning to Wittenberg, he received the doctorate of theology on Oct. 18, 1512, and three years later was appointed Augustinian vicar for Meissen and Thuringia, being also active as a preacher both in his own monastery and in Wittenberg.

Even at this time his radical change of views had become evident. Turning from philosophy, he sought the kernel of the trust of salvation in the

Bible, especially in the Epistle to the s. Initial Romans and in the Psalms, which he Changes interpreted entirely from the New of View. Testament. He next lectured on Ga.

latiana, Hebrews, Titus, and Judges, his lectures being partly published and partly pre­served in manuscript. Of the Fathers, Augustine

Luther, 7eartia THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 70

had the profoundest influence on him, though he grasped more deeply than his teacher the meaning of the faith which is the direct road to the right­eousness of God. Among medieval teachers he was most impressed by Bernard of Clairvaua, while in 1516 he came under the influence of the mysticism of Tauler.

Although still devoted to the Roman Catholic Church, Luther had now reached essentially the conclusions which were to lead him to combat her claims. Resting salvation entirely on the grace of God, he held that all the good works of the natural man are sin, and that divine grace

3. The comes solely through the eternal eleo­Doctrine tion and predestination of God. Lu‑

of Grace. they also held with Paul that man is

purified by faith inwrought by the

divine spirit and word of grace, and that the spirit of

God then works inward righteousness in them that

believe. Nevertheless, those who are thus regenerate

still sin constantly and are without honor or merit,

persisting only through pardoning grace and through

faith before God. Like the mystics, Luther's con­

cept of the plan of salvation is based on the rela­

tion of the individual to God and Christ in faith.

Faith is identical with entire devotion, renuncia­

tion of all self‑righteousness, and surrender of all

self‑will. Both faith and hope are directed only to

Christ, who alone fulfilled the law and bore our

sins; while man is justified solely by the imputa­

tion of God. While inward righteousness is in­

cluded in justification, it follows the forgiveness of

sins which forms a part of faith. From faith Lu­

ther also derives love, and the strength, impulse,

and delight to do good. Christ, who dwells in

man through faith, himself does all and conquers

all; but the deeds of the just are not for his own

righteousness, but for the service of God and man.

All this grace is bestowed by the Word, in which

dwells Christ, the bread of life; and this bread of

life is given outwardly in preaching and the Eucha­

rist, and inwardly by " God's own teaching." That

the current ecclesiastical views were opposed to

those which formed the center of his belief and life

was still unknown to Luther. In contradistinc­

tion to the prevailing custom, he held that the

bishops should regard preaching as their prime

duty, and that sermons should be free from false

legends and the opinions of men, nor should the

subjects longer be restricted to character and

works, but should be devoted especially to faith

and justice. Nevertheless, Luther entertained no

doubt of the authority of the visible Church, and

obedience to her was to him identical with obedi­

ence to Christ. The sources for his views at this

period are his lectures on the Psalms, Latin ser­

mons beginning with 1515, a preface to Tauler's

Deutsche Theologie (1516), a German exegesis of

the seven penitential Psalms, theses in Bernhardis

of Feldkirchen and Giinther's Disputation (1516­

1517), sermons on the Decalogue (Latin ed., 1518),

and a German exegesis of the Lord's Prayer (1517),

besides the letters of these years.

The sale of indulgences by Johann Tetzel near Wittenberg incited Luther to a polemic attitude, yet not, in his opinion, against the Church, but for

her honor. He began by assailing the misuse of indulgences, while his dogmatic views concerning

them gradually developed out of the 4. The cardinal principles of his belief. On

Ninety‑five Oct. 31, 1517, he nailed his ninety­Theses. five theses on the castle church at

Wittenberg, though he had no inten­tion of making a decisive attack nor did he wish them to be generally circulated. The content of the theses was in accord with his sermons: penance was repentance, not priestly confession and satis­faction; mortification of the flesh, implying pun­ishment until entrance into the kingdom of heaven, must coexist with inward repentance; this punish­ment only is remitted by papal indulgence, which can not remove the actual guilt of the smallest sin, being able to grant remission only in virtue of the proclamation and confirmation of divine pardon; the merit of Christ and the saints work grace to the inner and death to the outer man without the co­operation of the pope; the true " treasure of the Church " is the Gospel of the grace of God, though God subjects those whom he forgives to the priests as his representatives. Luther accordingly re­stricted indulgences to the penalties and works prescribed by the Church, and herein he purposed to express the true intention of the pope, who could scarcely know how they were misused.

Luther's theses spread throughout Germany in two weeks, gaining an unanticipated notoriety. He was egged on still further by his opponents, Tetzel, Silvester Prierias (the papal " master of the palace," q.v.), Johann Eck (prochancellor of In‑

golstadt and his chief adversary; q.v.), g. Denial and Hoogstraten, to all of whom he

of the replied individually, though his moat

Power important work on the questions ia­of the volved in the controversy was his

Pope. Reaolutionea diaputationum de indul­

getttiarurn virEute (1518). Meanwhile

he took part in an Augustinian convention at Hei­

delberg, where he presented theses on the slavery

of man to sin and on divine grace. In the course

of the controversy on indulgences the question

arose of the absolute power of the pope, since the

doctrine of the " treasure of the Church" was

based on a bull of Clement VI. Luther saw him­

self branded as a heretic, and the pope, who had

determined to'suppreea his views, summoned him

to Rome. Yielding, however, to the unwillingness

of the Elector Frederick to part with his theologian,

the pope did not press the matter, and the cardinal

legate Cajetan was deputed to receive Luther's sub­

mission at Augsburg (Oct., 1518). The latter,

while professing his implicit obedience to the

Church, boldly denied the absolute power of the

pope, and appealed first " from the pope not well

informed to the pope who should be better in­

formed " and then (Nov. 28) to a general council.

Luther now declared that the papacy formed no

part of the original and immutable essence of the

Church, and he even began to think that Anti­

christ ruled the Curia. He had already asserted

at least the potential fallibility of a council repre­

senting the Church, and, denying the church doc­

trine of excommunication, he was led by his con‑


oept of the way of salvation to the new tenet that the Church it the congregation of the faithful. Still wishing to remain on friendly terms with the elector, the pope made a last effort to reach a peaceable conclusion with Luther. A conference with the papal chamberlain B. von Miltitz at Al­tenburg in Jan., 1519, led Luther to agree to re­main silent so long as his opponents should, to write a horrible letter to the pope, and to prepare s work to testify his honor of the Roman Church. The letter was written, but was not sent, since it contained no retraction; while in a German trea­tise later prepared, Luther, while recognizing pur­gatory, indulgences, and the invocation of the saints, denied all effect of indulgences on purga­tory. When, moreover, Eck challenged Luther's colleague Carlstadt to a disputation at Leipsic, Luther joined in the debate (June 27‑July 18, 1519), denying the divine right of the papacy, and holding that the " power of the keys " had been given to the Church (i.e., to the congregation of the faithful), affirming besides that belief in the preeminence of the Roman Church was not essen­tial to salvation and maintaining the validity of the Greek Church.

There war no longer hope of peace. His wri­tings were now circulated moat widely, reaching France, England, and Italy as early as 1619, and students thronged to Wittenberg to hear Luther, who had been joined by Melanchthon in 1518, and

who now published his shorter com­b. Develop‑ mentary on Galatians and his Opera‑

meat of bones in Paalanoa, while at the came Views on time he received deputations from Eucharist, Italy and from the Utraquints of Bo­Priesthood, hernia. There controversies neces­Church, and easily led Luther to develop his duo‑

Works. trines further, and in his Sermon von

dem hochzvvrdigen Sakrament den Leich­

nams Christi (1519) he set forth the significance of

the Eucharist (see Loxn'$ SUPPER, IL, 2, § 5, IV.,

1, §§ 1‑2), interpreting the transubstantiation of

the bread as the transformation of the faithful into

the spiritual body of Christ, i.e., into fellowship with

Christ and the Taints. The basal concept of the

Eucharist, moreover, according to him, it the for­

giveness of sins; and his entire theory is closely

connected with his mystic view of the all‑embracing

participation in salvation shared by the believer with

Christ and his Church. At the same time, he ad­

vocated that a council be called to restore commu­

nion in both kinds, and denied the doctrine of seven

sacraments (letter of Dec. 18, 1519). He likewise

stripped the priesthood of all meaning other than

the general priesthood taught in the Bible, and

cast doubt on the entire doctrine of purgatory.

The Lutheran concept of the Church (see Cauacx,

THE CHRISTIAN, IV., § 2), wholly based on imme­

diate relation to the Christ who gives himself in

preaching and the sacraments, war already de­

veloped in his Yon dem Paloattum zu Rom, a reply

to the attack of the Franciscan Alveld at Leipsic

(June, 1520); while in his Sermon van guxen Weaken,

delivered in the spring of 1520, he controverted the

Roman Catholic doctrine of good works and works

of supererogation, holding that the works of the

believer are truly good in any secular calling or­dered of God.

From the time of his disputation at Leipaic, Luther came into relations with the humanists, particularly with Melanchthon, Reuchlin, Erasmus, and Crotur. The last was intimately associated with Ulrich von Hutten (q.v.), who

Appeal in his turn influenced Franz von Sick­to the , ingen (q.v.), so that, when it became

Laity for doubtful whether it would be safe for

Reform. Luther to remain in Saxony if the ban

which threatened should be pro­

nounoed against him, both Franz von Sickingen

and Silvester of Schauenburg invited him to their

fortresses and their protection. Under these cir­

cumstances, complicated by the crisis then con­

fronting the German nobles, Luther issued his An

den christlichen Add deutscher Nation (Aug., 1520),

committing to the laity, as spiritual priests, the

reformation required by God but declined by the

pope and the clergy. The subjects proposed for

amelioration were not points of doctrine, but eccle­

siastical abuser: diminution of the number of car­

dinals and the demands of the papal court; the

abolition of annat$ (see TAxATiorr, EccLEsin$­

TICAL); recognition of secular government; renun­

ciation of claims to temporal power on the part of

the pope; abolition of the interdict, abuses con­

nected with the ban, harmful pilgrimages, the mis­

demeanors of the mendicant orders, many holidays

which led only to disorder; the suppression of nun­

neries, beggary, and luxury; the reform of the uni­

versities; abrogation of the celibacy of the clergy;

and reunion with the Bohemians; besides demand­

ing a general reform of public morality and deny­

ing transubstantiation in favor of the doctrine of

the true presence of the natural body of Christ in

the natural bread.

The climax of Luther's doctrinal polemics war

reached in his De captivitate Babyloniaca, espe­

cially in regard to the sacraments. As

8. Doctrine concerned the Eucharist, he denied

of the transubstantiation, the sacrificial char‑

Sacraments. acter of the mars, and the withholding of the cup. In regard to baptism, he taught that it brought justification only when con­joined with belief, but that it contained the foun­dation of salvation even for those who might later fall. As for penance, its essence consists in the words of promise given to belief. Only there three can be regarded as sacraments, in virtue of the promises attached to them; and strictly speaking baptism and the Eucharist alone are sacraments, as being a " sign divinely instituted." The sacra­ment of unction was discarded by Luther with his doubts of the authenticity of the Epistle of James. In like manner, the acme of Luther's doctrine of salvation and the Christian life was attained in his Yon der Freiheit sires Christenrnenschen. Here he required complete union with Christ by means of the Word through faith, entire freedom of the Christian as a priest and king set above all outward things, and perfect love of one's neighbor. The three works may be considered the chief writings of Luther on the Reformation. [For their English translation by Buckheim and Wace nee below.]

In Oct., 1520, at the instance of Miltitz, Luther sent his De libertale Chrisliani to the pope, adding the significant phrase: " I submit to no laws of in­terpreting the word of God." Meanwhile it had been rumored in August that Eck lad arrived at Meissen with a papal ban, which was actually pro­nounced there on Sept. 21. This last effort of Luther's for peace was followed on Dec. 12 by his burning of the bull, which was to take effect on the expiration of 120 days, and the papal decretals at Wittenberg, a proceeding defended in his Warum des Papstes and seiner Jiinger Bucher verbrannt Bind and his Assertio omnium articulorum. The execu­tion of the ban, however, was prevented by the pope's relations with the elector and by the new emperor, who, in view of the papal attitude toward him and the feeling of the Diet, found it inadvis­able to lend his aid to measures against the Re­former.

The final judgment of the Roman Catholic Church had been pronounced on Luther in the ban, but the papal legate, Aleander, was obliged to acquiesce in the desire of the Diet to summon

g. At the Luther under a safe‑conduct to Worms.

Diet of Luther quietly awaited the result, oo­

Worms. cupied with polemics against Eraser

and the Dominican Ambrosiua Cath­

arinua, and with work on a postilla. Entering

Worms on Apr. 16, he was brought before the Diet

on the following day and asked simply whether he

acknowledged his writings, which were laid before

him and read by title, and whether he retracted

their contents or persisted in them, all debate on

the truth of their statements being excluded by the

emperor's agreement with Aleander. Luther re­

quested a day for consideration, and on the even­

ing of Apr. 18 replied to the question of Johann

von Eck, the official of the elector of Trevea, who

asked whether he defended all his writings or

would retract some, by distinguishing three divi­

sions of them: those on faith and life, recognized

as harmless and even useful by his opponents;

against papal institutions and claims injurious to

body and soul, of which he would retract none;

and polemics against protagonists of that falsehood

and tyranny, where again he would make no retrac­

tion of matter. His demand that he be refuted by

arguments from the Bible was met by referring him

to the decisions of the Church, particularly at the

Council of Constants, on similar heresies. The de­

bate which followed resulted in a stormy adjourn­

ment, though not before Luther had declared:

" Unless I shall be convinced by the testimonies of

the Scriptures or by clear reason, . . . I neither

can nor will make any retraction, since it is neither

safe nor honorable to act against conscience; God

help mel Amenl " (other versions vary slightly,

having, " I can naught elsel Here I standl God

help me I "; " Here I stand! I can naught else 1

God help me I"; and "God come to my help l

Amen 1 Here I am 1 "). The archbishop of Trevea

still sought to change Luther's views, but in vain,

since he persisted in the tenet, condemned by the

Council, that " the Church universal is the num­

ber of the elect." On May 25 he was declared an

outlaw, and, leaving Worms on the following day,

Luther, 'we in THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 72

he was seized, with his own connivance, by the Elector Frederick and taken to the Wartburg, where he remained in hiding under the name of Junker Georg.

With Luther's residence in the Wartburg began the constructive period of his career as a reformer; while at the same time the struggle was inaugu­rated against those who, claiming to proceed from the same Evangelical basis, were deemed by him to

swing to the opposite extreme and to io. In hinder, if not prevent, all constructive Hiding measures. In his " desert " or " Pat­at the moa " (as he called it in his letters)

Wartburg. of the Wartburg, moreover, he began

his translation of the Bible, of which the New Testament was printed in Sept., 1522 (see BIBLE VER$ION$, B, VIL, § 3). Here, too, besides other pamphlets, he prepared the first portion of his German postilla and his Von der Beichte, in which he denied compulsory confession, although he admitted the wholesomeness of voluntary private confessions. He also wrote a polemic against Arch­bishop Albrecht, which forced him to desist from reopening the sale of indulgences; while in his at­tack on Jacobus Latomus (q.v.) he set forth his views on the relation of grad and the law, as well as on the nature of the grace communicated by Christ. Here he distinguished the objective grace of God to the sinner, who, believing, is justified by God because of the justice of Christ, from the sa­ving grace dwelling within sinful man; while at the same time he emphasized the insufficiency of this " beginning of justification," as well as the persistence of sin after baptism and the sin still in­herent in every good work.

Meanwhile some of the Saxon clergy, notably Bernhardi of Feldkirchen, had renounced the vow of celibacy, while others, including Melanchthon,

had assailed the validity of monastic ii. Opposi‑ vows. Luther in his De votia monaa‑. lion to tieia, though more cautious, concurred,

Extreme on the ground that the vows were gen‑

Radicalism. erally taken " with the intention of

salvation or seeking justification." With the approval of Luther in his De dbrogandca missd pri2rata, but against the firm opposition of the prior, the Wittenberg Auguatinians began changes in worship and did away with the mesa. Their violence and intolerance, however, were dis­pleasing to Luther, and early in December he spent a few days among them. Returning to the Wart­burg, he wrote his Eine treue Vermahnung . . . vor Aujruhr and Empbrureg; but in Wittenberg Carl­stadt and the ex‑Augustinian Zwilling demanded the abolition of the private mass, communion in both kinds, the removal of pictures from churches, and the abrogation of the magistracy [i.e., the non­interference of the civil ruler in ecclesiastical mat­ters.‑a. a. N.]. About Christmas Anabaptists from Zwickau added to the anarchy. Thoroughly op­posed to such radical views and fearful of their results, Luther entered Wittenberg Mar. 7, sad the Zwickau prophets left the city. The canon of the mass, giving it its sacrificial character, was now omitted, but the cup was at first given only to those of the laity who desired it. Since confession had


been abolished, communicants were now required to declare their intention, and to seek consolation, under acknowledgment of their faith and longing for grace, in Christian confession. This new form of service was set forth by Luther in his Formula missa' et communionis (1523), and in 1524 the first Wittenberg hymnal appeared with four of his own hymns. Since, however, his writings were forbid­den by Duke George of Saxony, Luther declared, in his Ueber die weltliche Gewnlt, wie weft man ihr Gehoraam echuldig eei, that the civil authority could enact no laws for the soul, herein denying to a Ro­man Catholic government what he permitted an Evangelical.

Luther watchfully followed the effect of his preaching, commending the town of Leisnig when it introduced a new agenda in 1523, honoring the memory of two martyrs in Brussels (1523) and of Henry of ZUtphen (1524, see Mor.LEx), and coun­seling those of like views in Riga, Revel, Dorpat, and elsewhere. At this same period

:a. Corre‑ he entered into correspondence with spondence the Bohemian Brethren, and in this with Other connection he wrote the Vom Anbeten Sectaries, des Sakramenta (1523), in which he and Break maintained the natural presence and with actual physical participation. In 1522 Erasmus. Luther wrote the Bohemian Estates to continue firm against the pope, and in the following year he sent, through the Bohe­mian Gallus Cahera, his De instituendia ministria to Prague, defending the right of a congregation to provide themselves with new ministers of the Word if their clergy withheld the Gospel from them, his argument being based upon the theory of the universal priesthood. Soon, however, the Bohe­mians, headed by Cahera himself, sought reconcilia­tion with the pope, and Luther is not known to have had further dealings with them. At the same time he answered the criticisms of Henry VIII, of England on his De captivitate Babylareiea in his Contra Henricum regem, a work of character­istic coarseness, for which he apologized in 1525 humbly, but in vain. The moat important event in Luther's war with the Roman Catholic Church at this period was his break with Erasmus, who was followed by a large body of humanists in his return to the Church. Erasmus had long been of­fended by Luther's harshness and coarseness, while the latter charged his former friend with timidity and lack of recognition of the grace of God, which alone brought salvation. In 1524 Erasmus pub­lished his De libero arbitrio, to which Luther re­plied in 1525 with his De servo arbitrio. Here he identified foreknowledge and predestination, and distinguished between God as preached and God himself. Though the lost perish through the un­conditioned will of God, this is right because God wills it, the reason, into which man may not in­quire, being one of the mysteries of the divine majesty. Free will can, accordingly, be predicated only of God, never of man, whose duty it is simply to trust to the Word, accepting the inconceivable as such until the Son of Man shall reveal it.

It now became Luther's task to war on the spirit of false freedom which had arisen within his own

followers. Carlstadt denied the presence of the body of Christ in the Eucharist, while, on the basis of the Old Testament, he forbade pictures, but per­mitted polygamy. Others, likewise

13. Polem‑ claiming the Old Testament as their ics against support, sought to secure the restorer Carlstadt tion of the Mosaic year of jubilee; and while Munster, the leader of the Zwick‑

Milnster. au fanatics, who had become pastor

at Allstedt in 1523, plotted a revolu­

tion to establish a kingdom of his " saints." Lu­

ther attacked the entire tendency in his Wider die

himmlischen Propheten (1525), in which he declared

that the Mosaic law had been abrogated by Christ,

who was the end of the law, the only law of the

Christian being that written in the heart of every

man. Nevertheless, the revolution, really caused

by the political, economic, and social conditions of

the peasants, was still threatening, especially as

they hoped to find in the new religious movement

a confirmation of the rights and freedom which

they claimed. Luther therefore sought to show

them that Christian freedom might coexist with

earthly bondage, and that they moat got attack

their temporal superiors. On the other hand, he

sharply criticized the princes and nobles; but when

the Peasants' War actually broke out, he urged its

merciless suppression, though he advocated clem­

ency after the victory had been won (cf. his Er­

mahnung zum Frieden; Wider die mWderiwhen Rot­

ten; S'endbrixf von dam harten Biiehlein; ate.).

During this time of conflict, Luther, learning of at­

tempts on his life and already feeling himself old

and near death, married the ex‑nun Katharina von

Bore (q.v.) on June 13, 1525. His motive was not

love, but defiance of his opponents, and at the

same time to testify his esteem of the married state

and to obey his father's desire for posterity.

Luther marked a further step in his revision of the liturgy by his Deutsche Masse in 1526, making provision for week‑day services and for catechetica,l instruction. He strongly objected, however, to making a new law of the forms, and

14. Trans‑ urged the retention of other good lit­formations orgies. The gradual transformation in Liturgy of the administration of baptism was sad Church accomplished in the Taufbiichlein Govern‑ (1523, 1527); and in May, 1525, the meat first Evangelical ordination took place at Wittenberg. Luther had long since rejected the Roman Catholic sacrament of ordina­tion, and had replaced it by a simple calling to the service of preaching and the administration of the sacraments. The laying‑on of hands with prayer in a solemn congregational service was considered a fitting human rite. Conditions now seemed to Luther to require the introduction of a higher offi­cial authority. As early as 1525 he had complained of the state of affairs, and be held that the secular authorities should take part in the administration of the Church, as in making appointments to eccle­siastical office and in directing visitations. Never­theless, the discharge of these functions did not appertain to the secular authorities as such, and Luther would gladly have vested them in an Evan­gelical episcopate, had he known of any persona

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