LUCIFER OF CALARIS AND THE LUCIFERIANS: Bishop of Calaria (the modern Cagliari) in Sardinia, and his followers. The dates of Lucifer are uncertain; he died perhaps 371. He first appears in history as the envoy of Pope Tiberius (q.v.) to the Emperor Constantius to urge the calling of a new synod. At the Synod of Milan, 355, he stood with the opposition, held firm with a few others, and, like these, was exiled. For a while he then lived at Germanicia in Commagene; next, at Eleutheropolis in Palestine, and afterward in the Thebaid. During his exile, he wrote some vehe‑
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
ment polemics (ed. Hartel, in CSEL, vol. xiv., Vienna, 1886) against Emperor Constantius, as a patron of heretics and the enemy of the true faith. These writings may, with some degree of probability, be arranged in the following order: De non conveniendo cum hterdicis, de regtbus apoataCicis, de Afhanaaio 1 and 11., all prior to the autumn of 358; De non Parcendo in Deurn delinquentx'6na, after June, 359; Mariendum ease pro Des Filio, 360 at the earliest, perhaps not until 361. Copious Biblical quotations give these documents no little value as bearing on the text of the Bible before Jerome sad on the history of the canon. But, in other aspects, they are diffuse and repetitious, void of literary originality, and omit giving credit to authors from whom citations are made. Yet Lucifer's writings afford a vivid picture of the narrow yet honest zeal of a man loyal to his convictions.
The death of Conetantiua and the advent of Julian ended Lucifer's exile. In 362 he was at Antioch, trying unsuccessfully to settle the state of confusion there (see MEL)CTIU6 OF ANTIOCH). He combated with especial severity the lenient treatment of ecclesiastics who had become compromised by their defection from the right faith under Conatantius, and insisted that they be stripped of their ecclesiastical offices. When at Naples, he refused church fellowship to Bishop Zoaimus. He retired, eventually, and in sullen temper, to Calaris; where he lived revered, indeed, for his confessional constancy and his austere conversation, but in separation from a Church that he believed to be stained by indulgence of heretical doctrine. He was ever afterward the " Holy Sardinian"; and in 1623 his remains were deposited in the cathedral of Cagliari.
After his death Sardinia continued the center of
the Luciferian coterie, a sect persistently entan
gling itself in the thought that the Church had be
come a harlot. The Luciferians were not confined
to Sardinia, however. In Spain they reverenced
Bishop Gregory of Elvira (q.v.); at Trevea, their
ideas were advocated by the Presbyter Bonosus;
in Rome itself there was a Luciferian party (not to
be confused with the followers of Ursinus, q.v.),
against which Jerome wrote his Altercatio Lticir
feriani d orthodoxt (MPL, xxiii. 153‑182); and
Hilsrius, the Roman deacon (q.v.), was a Luci
ferian. Epheaius, on a journey to the East (382
or 383), fell in with some Luciferiana at Oxyrhyn
choa (Heptanomos, Egypt), who had for their bishop
a monk Heraclidaa, titular of Eleutheropolis (Pales
tine). And at Eleutheropolia were the two pres
byters, Faustinua and Marcellinus, charged with
holding assemblies for divine worship in the houses
of their associates and opposed by the resident
bishop. They complained against the bishop, and
not in vain, to the Emperor Theodosius (see
FAUBTINUB), since a rescript of 384 forbade the
persecution of those who stood in ecclesiastical
fellowship with the Spaniard Gregory, and the
oriental Heraclidas. By the irony of history, this
imperial edict is the last intelligence concerning
the Luciferiana. G. KRiraER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The four most important treatments of the subject are: G. Krtlger, Lucifer, Bischoj you Cakais,
6"r RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lnoidus
and daa Schisms der LuciJerianer, Leipeic, 1888; w, von
Hartel, in Arehiv JAr 7attiniadee LexikograpAie and Gram
matik, iii (1888), 1‑b8; L. $eltet, in Bulletin de ZittErature
ecclEsiattique, 1908, pp. 300‑328 (claims for the Luciferiane
a great literary activity); and P. Lejay, L'HEritage de
GrEpoired'Elvire, in Revue BEnfdidine, xxv (1908), 435‑457.
Consult further: DCB, iii. 749‑751; Ceillier, AuteurasatrEs,
iv. 239‑271; Hsrnaek, Dogma, vole. iv.‑v. passim; Neander,
Christian Church, ii. 2b8‑2b7, 441‑942, 4b8‑4b8, b59.
LUCIUS, lu'shiua: The name of three popes.
Lucius L: Pope 253‑254. He was the successor
of Cornelius, elected probably June 25, 253, and
died Mar. 5 following. His election took place
during the persecution which caused the banish
ment of Cornelius, and he also was banished soon
after his consecration, but succeeded in gaining
permission to return. From a letter of Cyprian'a
(lxviii. 5) it is evident that he took the same position
as Cornelius in regard to the restoration of the lapsed
after due penance. His tombstone is still extant in
the cemetery of St. Calixtus. (N. $oNwEZ'scx.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontiJZealia, ed. Mommsen, in MGH,
Geet. punt. Rom. i (1898), 32; JaV, Repeats, i. 19‑20;
R. A. Lipeius, Chronolopie der rsmiachen BieehiiJe PP. 123
eqq., 207 eqq., Kiel, 1889; B. Plating, Lives of the Popes,
i, 50‑b2, London, n, d.; Bower, Popes, i. 29.
Lucius II.: Pope 1144‑1145. As Gerard, car
dinal‑priest of Santa Croce, he was active in the
German controversies under Honorius II. and In
nooent II. He became pope Mar. 12, 1144, and at
first had a certain measure of success in suppress
ing the recalcitrant senate. But in the autumn his
friendly relations with Roger of Sicily were dis
turbed; the Romans restored the senate, under the
leadership of Giordano Pierleoni, who took the title
of patricitcs and claimed all the regalian rights of the
Roman Church. Lucius hrd recourse to arms against
the citizens, and died Feb.15,1145. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jaffd, Repeats, ii. 7 eqq.; J. M. watterich,
PonCiJteum Romanorum vita., ii. 278 eqq., Leipeic, 1882;
W. Giesebreeht, GeechiclUe der deutaehen Kaiaerzeit, iv.
222 eqq., Brunswick, 1877; F. Gregoroviue, Hiat. of the
City of Rome, iv. 487‑491, London, 1898; B. Plating,
Lives of the Popes, ii, 43‑44, ib. n.d.; Bower, Popes, ii.
478‑477; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 242‑243.
Lucius III.: Pope 1181‑1185. As Hubald,
bishop of Ostia, he was one of the moat influential
cardinals under Alexander III. He was elected
pope Sept. i, 1181, and consecrated on the follow
ing Sunday. His pontificate was an unsuccessful
one. He was unable to control the Romans, and
his residence in the city was limited to the period
from the beginning of Nov., 1181, to the middle of
Mar., 1182. The rest of the time be spent in vari
ous places, chiefly at Velletri and Anagni. The
controversy over the succession to the inheritance
of the Countess Matilda had been left unsettled by
the peace of 1177, and the Emperor Frederick pro
posed in 1182 that the Curia should renounce its
claim, receiving in exchange two‑tenths of the im
perial income from Italy, one‑tenth for the pope
and the other tenth for the cardinals. Lucius con
sented neither to this proposition nor to another
compromise suggested by Frederick the neat year;
nor did a personal discussion between the two po
tentates at Verona in Oct., 1184, lead to any defi
nite result. Meantime other causes of disagreement
appeared, in the pope's refusal to comply with
Frederick's wishes as to the regulation of German
episcopal elections which had taken place during the schism, and especially as to the contested election to the see of Trevea in 1183. In pursuance of his anti‑imperial policy, he declined finally in 1185 to crown Henry VI, as Frederick's destined successor, and the breach between the empire and the Curia became wider on questions of Italian politics. Lucius died in Verona Oct. 25, 1185, having led up by his negative policy to the new contest between papacy and empire which soon broke out. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: JaffE<, Regeata, 11. 335 8qq.; J. )fi. w8tterich, Pontiltcum Romanorum vita, ii. 850, Leipeic, 1882; P. 8cheffer‑Boichoret, Friedrich# 1. lekter Streit mil der Kurie, pp. 20 eqq., Berlin, 1888; W. Gieeebreeht, Geachichte der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, vole. iv.‑vi., Brunswick, 1888; J. Langen, Geachichte der rz;miachen Kirche, iv. 557 eqq., Bonn, 1893; F. Gregorovius, Hiat. of the City of Rome, iv. 809‑612, London, 1898; B. Plating, Lives of the Popes, ii. 58‑80, ib. n. d.; Bower, Popes, ii. 524‑528; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 439‑440.
LUCIUS, PAUL ERNST: German Protestant; b. at Ernolaheim (about 12 m. w. of Strasburg) Oct. 16, 1852; d. at Strasburg Nov. 27, 1902. He studied theology at Strasburg, Zurich, Paris, Jena, and Berlin. He was vicar at Seaenheim (1878‑79); at Strasburg (1879‑80); privat‑docent there (18801883); professor extraordinary (1883‑89); and professor (1889‑1902). He wrote: Die Therapettten and Are Stellung in der Geschichte der Aakeae (Strasburg, 1879); Der Esseniamus in seinem Verhiiltrtis zum Jttdenthum (1881); Die Krajtigung des Missionsainnes in der Gemeinde (1885); Zur hussern and innern Mission (1903); and Die Anfdnge des Heiligenkulta in der christlichen Kirche (1904).
LUCgOCg, HERBERT MORTIMER: Church of England; b. at Great Barr (9 m. s.s.w. of Litchfield), Staffordshire, July 11, 1833. He was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge (B.A., 1858; M.A., 1862), and was ordered deacon in 1860 and ordained priest two years later. He was vicar of All Saints', Cambridge, in 1862‑63 and 1865‑75, rector of Gayhurst and Stoke‑Goldington in 18631865, and canon of Ely (of which he had been honorary canon in 1874‑75) in 1875‑92, besides being principal of Ely Theological College in 1876‑87. Since 1892 he has been dean of Lichfield. He was also select preacher at Cambridge in 1885, 1874‑75, 1883‑84, 1892, and 1901, examining chaplain to the bishop of Ely in 1873,87, and proctor for the dean and chapter of Ely in 1892. Theologically he belongs to the Anglo‑Catholic school, and has written: Tables of Stone (sermons; London, 1867); After Death, the Stale of the Faithful Dead and their Relationship to the Living (1879); Studies in the History of the Prayer Book (1881); An Appeal to the Church not to withdraw her Clergy from the Universities (1882); Footprints of the Son of Man as traced by St. Mark (1884); The Bishops in the Tower, a Record of Stirring Events a, feeling the Church and Nonconformists from the Reformation to the Revolution (1886); The Intermediate State between Death and Judgment (1890); The Divine Liturgy, being The Order for Holy Communion, historically, duotrinally, and devotionally set forth (1889); John Wesley's Churchmanahip (1891); Who are Wesley's Heirs f (1892) ; History of the Church in Scotland (1893); History of Marriase, Jewish and Christian,
Luenke THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 58
with especial Reference to its Indissolubility and certain forbidden Degrees (1894); Footprints of the Apostles as traced by St. Luke in the Ads (2 vole., 1897); Four Qualifications for a Good Preacher (1897); The Characteristics of the Four Gospels (1900); Beautiful Life of an Ideal Priest; or, Reminiscences of Thomas Thelluaon Carter (1902); Life and Works of Dr. Johnson (1902); Spiritual Difficulties in the Bile and Prayer Book: Helps to their Solution (1905); and Eucharistic Sacrifece and Intercession for the Departed (1907). He has also edited Bishop J. R. Woodford's Great Commission: Twelve Addressee on the Ordinal (London, 1886) and Sernwna (2 vole., 1887).
LUD, LUDIM. See TABLE OF NATIONe.
LUDLOW, JAMES MEEKER: Presbyterian; b. at Elizabeth, N. J., Mar. 15, 1841. He was educated at Princeton (B.A., 1861), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1864). He was then pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Albany, N. Y. (1864‑68), Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church, New York City (1868‑77), Westminster Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1877,85), and of Munn Av•;nue Presbyterian Church, East Orange, N. J. (1886‑1909). He has written: My Saint John (New York, 1883); Concentric Chart of History (1885); Captain of the Janizaries (1886); A King of Tyre (1891); That Angelic Woman (1893); History of the Crusades (1896); Baritone's Pariah (1897); Deborah (1901); Incentives for Life (1903); Sir Raoul (1905); Jesse ben David (1907); and Judge West's Opinion, Reported by a Neighbor (1908).
LUDOLF, 1U'dolf, HIOB: German Orientalist, founder of the study of the Ethiopic language and literature in Europe; b. at Erfurt June 15, 1624; d. at Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main Apr. 8, 1704. He studied at Erfurt and Leyden, then traveled extensively. In Rome he learned Ethiopic from the Abyssinian Gregorius. He became tutor to the children of the duke of Sage‑Goths in 1652, afterward sulk councilor, in 1675 chamberlain in Altenburg, and in 1691 president of the Collegium Imperials Historicum in Frankfort, where he had settled in 1678. His principal works are: Lexicon Xthiopico‑Latinum (3 parts, London, 1661; 2d ed., Frankfort, 1699); Grammatica linguts Xthiopicas (London, 1661; 2d ed., Frankfort, 1702); Sciagraphia historice Xthiopica: (Jena, 1676); Historic Xthiopica (Frankfort, 1681; Eng. transl., London, 1684; French transl., Paris, 1684), to which he added a Commentaries (1691) and two appendices (1693‑94); Grant.. matica lingu(1698); and Lexicon Amharico‑Latinism (1698). He also published the Ethiopic Psalter, with Latin translation (1701).
BIHLIOp$ApHy; C. Junker, De roils et aeriptia lobi Ludolphi,
Leipeic, 1710: J. Flemming, in Beitrdps sur Aaayriolopie, vole. i.‑ii., ib. 1890‑91.
LUEBECg: One of the three city‑states of the German Empire, comprising the inner city, with suburbs, and several enclaves in the surrounding country; area 115 square miles; population (1905) 108,857 of whom 101,724 were Evangelical Lutherans, 760 Reformed, 2,457 Roman Catholics, 638
Jews, and 231 sectarians (Baptists, Irvingites, Adventists, Mormons, etc.). The Reformation was established in Liibeck by Bugenhagen in 1531, and since that time the city has been Lutheran. Rigorous measures were taken against the Roman Catholics, and against adherents of the Reformed faith, though the former continued to hold religious services, and in 1693 the latter received permission to build a church and, under certain restrictions, hold their own service. Admission to the council was denied to all non‑Lutherans till the beginning of the nineteenth century. The senate issued regulations for the Reformed parish in 1825, and for the Roman Catholics in 1841; and both denominations received full political and civil rights under the constitution of 1848 (revised 1851 and 1875). At present there are fourteen Lutheran parishes and fifteen churches. The present " Constitution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the State of Lubeck " went into effect in 1895. It vests the church government in the senate, which either exercises its authority directly through its Lutheran members, or delegates it to the ecclesiastical council, which is composed of two Lutheran senators, of whom one is chairman, the senior (chairman) of the clerical ministerium, and four other members, viz., a clergyman and three laymen, who are elected by the senate for a period of six years, the clergyman on the recommendation of the clerical ministerium, the laymen on the recommendation of the synod. In matters affecting ecclesiastical law, church taxes, the liturgy, and the boundaries of parishes, the acts of the ecclesiastical council have to be sanctioned by the synod and confirmed by the senate. The clerical ministerium includes all the clergy who have charges. This body has a word in all matters affecting the doctrine and formularies of the Church. Since 1902, in accordance with an agreement with the consistory of Schleawick‑Holstein, candidates have been examined by the board of examiners in Kiel, those passing becoming eligible for appointment in Liibecli, as well as in Schleawick‑Holstein. The synod consists of forty‑seven members, of whom three are appointed by the eccleaiasical council, the remainder being members of the local parochial boards. Such a board is composed of the local clergy and a number of laymen, who are elected for six years. Each pariah is divided into as many pastoral districts as it has clergy. The finances of the Church are regulated by s law of Jan. 18, 1895. The basis of the general church treasury is a fund of 150,000 marks formed by the surplus of the cloister of St. John, the Hospital of the Holy Ghost, and the Burg Cloister. The interest on this sum is supplemented by a yearly income of 16,000 marks from the cloister of St. John, and by a church tax. Church attendance on the part of adults is not good, and the number of communicants, which seems to be on the decrease, is less than sixteen per cent. of the population. Attendance by children is better. There are now services for children in every Lutheran parish of the city and suburbs. The oldest is that in the Church of St. James, which was established in 1875. The total attendance averages about 2,000. (L. F. RAN%E.)
BIBLIOO$AP$y: Lfib. Verordnunpea and Bekanrdmaehunpen,
ii. 291, iii. 25, 308; Statiat. Mitlheilunpen aua dens deutsche$
59 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
evanyedischen Landeskirehen. 1880: W. I)eiae, Geachichte der avanpeliaeh‑reformierten Gemeinde in Ltibeck, Liibeck, 1880; E. Illigene, Geschichte der dfibecdcischen Ruche 1681718SB, Paderborn, 1898; 8. Csrlebaob, Geachichta der Juden in LOberk, Liibeck,1899.
LUEBECS, BISHOPRIC OF: An ancient
episcopal see of northern Germany, established
originally at Oldenburg by Otto L, probably in
968, and subject to the metropolitan jurisdiction
of Hamburg. The first bishop, Egward, was con
secrated by Archbishop Adaldag. His diocese in
cluded the whole of the Wendish territory, which
was under Hamburg, or from the bay of Kiel south
east to near the southern boundary of the present
Mecklenburg. The Wendish risings of 990 and
1018 destroyed the work here, and when it was re
vived by Archbishop Adalbert the diocese was re
stricted to eastern Holstein. It was not till the
time of Vicelin (q.v.) that the work was established
on a permanent basis, and in 1158 the see was
transferred to Liibeck by his successor Gerold
(1155‑63). The bishopric never attained great
importance, being overshadowed by the growing
power of the city. (A. HAUCx.)
The bishopric was made immediately subject to the empire under Conrad II. of Querfurt (1183‑86). It had secular jurisdiction over a considerable territory; but the episcopal residence was usually at Eutin. The Reformation was first introduced under the influence of King Frederick I. of Denmark in 1524, and definitely established in 1530. It was not yet, however, possible to suppress or wholly to secularize the bishopric, so for a time bishops of Lutheran sympathies were elected. From 1586 the dignity was usually an appanage of the younger sons of the dukes of Holstein until 1706; and by the settlement of 1803 it was constituted a secular principality in favor of Peter Frederick William of Oldenburg and his heirs.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are Urkundenburh des Biatume Lii6eck, ed. W. Leverkue, Oldenburg, 1858; Adam, Geata Hammenburgenaia eccdeaim, ed. J. M. Lappenberg, in MGH, Script., vi (1848), 287‑389; Helmold, Chroaica Slavarum, ed. idem, ib. axf (1889), 1‑99; Arnold, Chronica Slavorum, ed, idem, ib. pp. 100‑250; Annalea Lubicenaes, ed. idem, ib, xvi (1859), 411‑429; Series epiacaporum . Lubicenetum, ib. aiii (1881), 347. Consult: Hauck,
KD, vole, iii. iv.; E. A. T. Laepeyres, Die BekshrungNord
AZ6inDiena, Halle, 1884; O. I)ehio, Geachichte des Erebea
tume Hamburg‑Bremen, 2 vole., Berlin, 1878; C. Eubel,
Hierarchic cathodica medii avi, 2 vole., M duster, 1898‑1901.
LUECgE, lake, GOTTFRIED CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH: German Lutheran theologian; b. at Bgeln (18 m. s.w. of Magdeburg) Aug. 24, 1791; d. at GtSttingen Feb. 14, 1855. He was educated at the cathedral school of Magdeburg and at the universities of Halls and Gdttingen. In 1816 he went to Berlin, where the influence of Bunsen and Lachmann won him Schleiermacher's friendship and a position as licentiate and privat‑docent in theology. He gladly took part in the " Evangelical union " which was sealed by the united communion service of Oct. 31, 1817. His publications in this period were Grundrisa der nettteatamentlichen Hermeneutik urul ihrer Geachichte (GSttingen, 1816); Ueber den rteuteatamentlichen Kanon des Eusebius (Berlin, 1817); a new edition of Melanchthon's
" Apology" (1818); and, in collaboration with De Wette, Synopsis evaatgeliorum (1818). In the autumn of 1818 he was called to the chair of theology in the new University of Bonn. Here for eight years he exercised a great and happy influence on the students, at the same time taking an active part in the reorganization of Evangelical church life in Rhenish Prussia. At Bonn he published his principal work, the Kommentar abet die Schriflen des Evangdiaten Johannes (3 vole., 1820‑25; Eng. transl. in part, Edinburgh, 1837). The first volume was hailed as a powerful support to positive theology, and was attacked with equal warmth by the rationalizing party under Paulus of Heidelberg. Toward the end of his stay at Bonn Lucks engaged in another controversy with Ferdinand Delbriick, who urged a return to the standards of the primitive regula fidei and the Apostles' Creed in place of the Scriptural basis of Protestant theology. With his colleagues Sack and Nitzsch, Liicke issued three open letters Ueber daa Ansehen der heiligen,Schr(fl and ihr Verhdltnisa xur Glaubenaregel in der proteatantiachen and in der alien. Kirche (Bonn, 1827), of which the third and longest was all his own. He was also associated with Schleiermacher and De Wette in publishing the Theologische Zeitachr(/'t from 1819 to 1822, and with Gieseler in the shortlived Zeitschrift fur gebildete Christen der eaangeliachen Kirche (1823); and in 1827, together with Nitzsch, Gieseler, Ullmann and Umbreit, he established the still flourishing Theologische Studien arid Kritiken to represent, in a favorite phrase of his, " the alliance of the free scientific spirit with the power of the specifically Christian spirit."
Meantime, in the autumn of 1827, he had migrated to GSttingen to succeed StAudlin, and there he spent the rest of his life, devoting himself rather to New‑Testament exegesis and systematic theology instead of to church history which had been his special work at Bonn. In spite of the anxious days of the revolution of 1831 and the difficulties brought upon the university by the changes made in the constitution of Hanover in 1837 by King Erneat August, he declined calls to Kiel and Halls in 1838, to Jena in 1843, and to Leipsic in 1845. The government rewarded his constancy by the positions of councilor in the consistory at Hanover (1839) and of abbot of Bursfeld (1843). His later years were troubled by increasing theological isolation, as the younger men went off either to the radical camp of Baur and the Tiibingen school, or to the strict Lutheran party of Harlesa, Kahnis, and Thomasiua, with its center at Erlangen and Leipaic. Lucks and his friends attempted to hold a middle course between these two extremes, insisting in the spirit of Schleiermacher on the historical and permanent value of the Reformation confessions of faith, while avoiding any blind aymbololatry and vindicating the clear and practical nature of theology.
Lilcke's Gbttingen period was also one of busy literary activity. He completed his earlier Johannine work by a Verauch einer vollatdndigen Einleitung in die D,$'enbarurtg Johannis and die gesamte apokalyptiache Iritteratur (Bonn, 1832), besides issuing two revised editions of the commentary