, 818; educated at New
uct, of the divine love; and, besides, in the pro‑ Inn Hall, Oxford, 1635. After taking the master's
for the Holy. Spirit is a factor, not merely $ p~_ difi' in GI 1
Presbyterian; b. at Csr‑
Spirit. But the attempt has been unsuccessful; Lp~0 C~,~p~R:
When John says, " God is love,, (I John iv. 16), he does not mean to give a metaphysical definition' of the essence of God, but to state God's feelings toward us. At the same time, the woods open a profitable field of speculation in regard to the part love holds in the divine constitution. Augustine first, Richard of St. Victor next, and, after him, others, have endeavored to reconstruct the Trinity by the principle of love. Thus, the Father loves the Son, and the Son loves the Father (rednmctndo); both loves are united in love for an object of common affection (corulilectio), that is, in the Holy
LOVE: That disinterested and unselfish relation between persons, in which the personality of the one is lost in the other, in which each esteems the other better than himself (Phil. ii. 3). It is not only one of the most comprehensive of BiblicalChristian conceptions, having basal signiflCanCe for dogmatics and ethics, but it also occupies a prominent place in the philosophy and literature of all . peoples and times.
Hiatoire critique des Eaenemanta de Lourdes. Apparitions et puWiaaona, Lourdes, 1905, Eng. tranal., Lourdes; A Hiat. of its Apparitions and Cures, New York, 1908; H. Laeeerre, Lea Episodes miraculeuz de Lourdes, Paris, 1888, Eng. tranal., Miraculous Episodes of Lourdes, London, 1884; R. F. Clarks, Lourdes, and its Miracles, London, 1889. The critical or antagonistic pointof view is set forth in E. E. C. A. Zola, Lourdes, Paris, 1884, Eng. tranel., same title, London, 1894; Dozous, La GroUe de Lourdes, Paris, 1874; Juatinue, Lourdes in het Licht der nieuwere toetenaehap, 's Hertogenbosch, 1895; J. B. Eatrade, Lea Apparitions de Lourdes, Lourdes, 1908.
BIBLIOGRAPHY :* For a description of Lourdes consult: G.
Mares, Lourdes et sea environs, Bordeaux, 1894. For the
phenomena from a sympathetic standpoint: G. Bertrin,
inaccurate but indispensable term, What passes for
love in literature and on the stage is too commonly
mere sexual longing. Love for gold (I Tim. vi. 10)
LOVE, FAMILY OF. See FAMILIttTA
and love for the world (I John 11.15) are Perversions of love, to its destruction.
LOVE FEAST. 8ee AoAPE_
KARL BURpER f,
Love THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 60
degree he was obliged to leave Oxford for refusing
to subscribe Archbishop Laud's canons. He went
to London, and became domestic chaplain to the
sheriff, and took a bold stand against the errors of
the Book of Common Prayer and the religious
tyranny of the times. He was cast into prison on
account of an aggressive sermon at Newcastle, and
in various ways persecuted in London. At the out
break of the Civil War he was made preacher to
the garrison of Windsor Castle, where he gave great
offense to the prelatical party by his pointed ut
terances. He was one of the first to receive prea
byterial ordination under the new organization in
Jan. 23, 1644, at Aldermanbury; London; and be
came pastor of St. Laurence Jewry in London,
where he was highly esteemed for the eloquence
and vigor of his preaching. He was a strong Pres
byterian, the leader of the younger men of that
party. In this way he became involved in a trear
sonable correspondence with the Presbyterians of
Scotland to restore Charles IL; and, with many
others, was arrested May 7, 1651, and chosen to
make an example of, to check the Presbyterian agi
tation against Cromwell and in favor of Charles II.
He was condemned and beheaded on Tower Hill,
Aug. 22, 1651. This excited the indignation and
wrath of the entire Presbyterian party, which had
petitioned, by ministerial bodies and parishes, in
vain for his pardon. He went to his death as their
hero and martyr. His funeral sermon was preached
by Thomas Manton to an immense sympathizing
audience. His sermons were published, after his
death, under the auspices of the leading Presby
terians of London. The moat important of his
works are: Grace, the Truth and Growth, and differ
ent Degrees thereof (226 pp., London, 1652); Heaven's
Glory, Hell's Terror (350 pp., 1653); Combats between
the Flesh and the Spirit (292 pp., 1654); Treatise of
Effectual Calling (218 pp.,1658); The Natural Man's
Case Stated (Svo, 280 pp., 1658); Select Works (8vo,
Glasgow, 1806‑07, 2 vole.). C. A. BRIGGS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Neat, Hist. of the Puritans, ed. J. Toul
min, 6 vble., Bath, 1793‑97; W. Wilson, Hilt. and An
tiquitiea of the Dissenting Churches in London, i.
330, 4 vola., London, 1808‑14; Memoirs of the Life of Am
ed. W. A. D. Longetaffe for the $urteea So
ciety, no. 50, Durham, 1887; W. A. Shaw, H%et. of the
English Church . . . Iel,O‑1880,
ii. 149, 321, 404, London,
1900; DNB, amiv. 155‑157.
LOVE, WILLIAM DE LOSS: Congregationalist;
b. at New Haven, Conn., Nov. 29, 1851. He was
graduated from Hamilton College (A.B., 1873),
and Andover Theological Seminary (1878); was
instructor in mathematics and natural science in
the Military Academy at Leicester, Mass., in 1873
1874, and principal of the Broadway Grammar
School, Norwich, Conn., in 1874‑75. After being
pastor of the Evangelical Congregational Church,
Lancaster, Mass., from 1878 to 1881, he traveled
and engaged in commercial pursuits until 1885, be
sides acting as supply for the Second Congrega
tional Church, Keens, N. H., for a year. Since
1885 he has been pastor of the Farmington Avenue
Church, Hartford, Conn. He has written The Fast
and Thanksgiving Days of New England (Boston,
1895) and Samson Occom and the Christian Indians
of New England
See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF.
LOWDER, CHARLES FUGE: London mission preacher; b. at Bath June 22, 1820; d. at Zell‑amSee (40 m. e.s.w. of Salzburg), Austria, Sept. 9, 1880. He studied at King's College School, London, and at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1843; M.A., 1845), and took orders in 1843. He was curate at Walton, near Glastonbury, 1843‑44, chaplain of the Axbridge workhouse 1844‑45, curate of Tetbury, Gloucestershire, 1845‑‑51, then curate at St. Barnabas' Church, Pimlico, 1851‑58. In 1856 he entered upon his life‑work as head of the mission at St. George's‑in‑the‑East. The scene of his labors was in East London, among the lowest classes. Through his efforts was erected St. Peter's Church, London Docks, which was consecrated in 1866. Lowder became vicar of the new church and remained in this charge till his death. He held Highchurch views, was a strict ritualist, and resembled a Roman Catholic priest in his celibacy and his general mode of life. He published, besides some pamphlets, Ten Years in St. George's Mission (London, 1867); and Twenty‑one Years in St. George's Mission (1877). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Charles Lowder, a Biography, London, 1882; DNB, xxidv. 187.
LOWS, WILLIAM HENRY: Church of England; b. at Whaplode Drove (42 m, s.s.e. of Lincoln), Lincolnshire, Apr. 10, 1848. He was educated at Christ College, Cambridge (B.A., 1871; M.A., 1874). He was Hebrew lecturer in his college (1874‑91), and chaplain there (1874‑‑81). He was curate of Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire (1873‑75); Milton (188082); Willingham (1886‑90); and vicar of Fen Drayton (189091); and since 1891 at Brisley, Norfolk. He has edited: The Psalms, with Introdvctiorta arid critical Notes (in conjunction with A. C. Jennings; 2 vole., London, 1877); has written: The Hebrew Student's Commentary on Zechariah (1884); the commentaries on Zechariah and Malachi in Ellicott's Bible for English Readers (1884); and A Hebrew Grammar (1887); and translated: Twelve Odes of Hafiz (Cambridge, 1877); and Murttakhab‑i Tawarikh (Calcutta, 1884).
LOWER SAXON CONFEDERATION: A federation of Reformed churches in Lower Saxony which has existed for more than two centuries. It is the one church body in Germany in which the Presbyterian system was fully carried out. In Electoral Hanover, especially in the cities of Cells, Liineburg, Hameln, and Hanover, Huguenot fugitives had been received and had formed congregations, also in the neighboring territories of Schaumburg‑Lippe and Brunswick. On Nov. 13, 1699, it was decided at Hanover to establish a closer union between these scattered members of the Reformed Church. German Reformed bodies in Hanover, Cells, and Bitekeburg joined the confederation. The governments of Brunswick‑Liineburg and Schaumburg‑Lippe gave permission for the establishment of the confederation, granting the union and its congregations self‑government but reserving the so‑called jars circa sacra. The first synod of the United Reformed churches in Lower Saxony was held in July, 1703, at Hameln. The government
51 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Love
of Hanover expressly stipulated that the state commissary, who was to be present at every synod, have a seat, but not a vote. There were at first five French and three German congregations of the confederation. In 1708 a German‑Dutch and a Huguenot congregation in Brunswick joined the confederation; in 1711 the German Reformed congregation of Munden (Hanover) was included, followed, in 1753, by the Reformed in Gottingen, and finally, in 1890, by the congregation of Altona. On account of the removal of Huguenots to the large cities, their congregations dwindled and were finally united with the local German congregations. The first to suffer this fate was the congregation at Biickeburg (1755), followed by those of Cells (1805), Brunswick (1811), and Hanover (1812), while the congregation of Hameln was dissolved altogether.
Since 1812 the confederation has consisted of the
congregations of Brunswick, Buckeburg, Cells,
Hanover, Gottingen, and Munden, with Altona
since 1890. In 1824 the congregations of the king
dom of Hanover were recognized as possessing equal
rights with the Lutheran churches, and as having
the rank of state churches. In 1839 a new agenda
for all congregations of the federation was adopted
which guards the independence of the individual
congregations but vests the ultimate authority in
matters affecting church discipline and doctrine in
a synod of the whole confederation. The State
adheres to the right of its territorial power; and
the resolutions of the synod must be confirmed by
the State. The election of a minister formerly re
quired the consent of the government, and the gen
eral state laws in Prussia still require that it be
communicated to the provincial president, who
may veto the election within thirty days. In sen
tences of synods in matters of discipline the right
of an appeal de abuse to the government is recog
nized. The presbyteries and synods have remark
ably advanced the life of the Church and of the
educational institutions as well as the material
resources of the communities. From the first the
confederation provided for the surviving members
of the families of their pastors, and at a later time
also of their teachers. The widows' fund, founded in
1706, has a capital that would amount to 60,000
marks for each congregation. The confederation has
sought to live in peace with its Lutheran neighbors.
In the agenda of 1711 the synod adopted the resolu
tion of the Conference of Charenton (1631), according
to which Lutherans are permitted to take part in the
worship of the Reformed Church without sacrificing
their own confession. (F. H. BRANDEa.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Huguea, Die Ronjbderalion der rejormierten Kirchen in Niederaachaen, Cells, 1873; the publications of the German Hugenotten‑Verein, particularly the Geschichtabllftter, Magdeburg, 1891 aqq, in which the contributions of Drs. F, Albrecht, F. H. Brandea, H. Tollin and H. Villarat are especially pertinent.
LOW=, lau'ri, SAMUEL THOMPSON: Presbyterian; b, at Pittsburg, Pa., Feb. 8, 1835. He was graduated from Miami University (B.A., 1852) and Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. (1855); remained for an additional year at Allegheny, after which he spent two semesters at the University of Heidelberg (1856‑57). After being
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Alexandria, Pa., from 1858 to 1863, he spent nine months at Berlin, and then held pastorates in his denomination at Bethany Church, Philadelphia (1865‑69), and Abington, Pa. (1869‑74). From 1874 to 1878 he was professor of New‑Testament literature and exegesis in Western Theological Seminary, after which he returned to the ministry, being pastor of Ewing Church, near Trenton, N. J., in 1879‑‑8b and chaplain of the Presbyterian Hospital in Philadelphia, as well as minister of a mission Sundayschool (now Emmanuel Presbyterian Church) in the same city, in 188689. From 1891 to 1896 he was co‑pastor with T. W. J. Wylie, of the Wylie Memorial Church, Philadelphia. He was also corresponding secretary of the Presbyterian Historical Society from 1893 to 1906, when he retired from active life. In addition to assisting D. Moore in preparing the volume on Isaiah for the American Lange series (New York, 1878) and A. Gosman in preparing Numbers for the same series (1879), he has translated H. Cremer's Ueber den Ztsatand each dem Tode (Giitersloh, 1883) under the title Beyond the Grave (New York, 1885), and written Explanation of the Epistle to the Hebrews (1884) sad The Lord's Supper (1888).
LOWRIE, WALTER: Statesman and missionary secretary; b. near Edinburgh, Scotland, Dec. 10, 1784; d, in New York City Dec. 14, 1868. He was brought to America when eight years of age; studied for the ministry with marked zeal and swift progress, but, being prevented from finishing his studies, went into politics, and in 1811 was chosen to the senate of the State of Pennsylvania; after seven years' service there he was United States senator, Dec. 6, 1819‑Mar. 3, 1825. At the expiration of his term he was made secretary of the senate of the United States, serving till 1836 when he became secretary of the missionary society of the synod of Pittsburg, which became, the year following, the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. He was corresponding eeoretary of this organization until his retirement in 1868, shortly before his death, and to his faithful service much of the great success attained by the board must be attributed.
LOWRY, ROBERT: American Baptist; b. in Philadelphia Mar. 12, 1826; d. at Plainfield, N. T., Nov. 23, 1899. He was graduated at Lewisburg University (1854). He was pastor at West Chester, Penn. (1854‑58); in New York (1858‑61); in Brooklyn (1861‑69); at Lewisburg, Penn. (18691875); and at Plainfield, N. J. (1876‑85). He was professor of belles‑lettres in Lewisburg University (1869‑75). He was the editor of several popular hymnals, and also wrote a number of hymns, the beat‑known of which are " Shall we gather at the river," " One more day's work for Jesus," and " Where is my wandering boy to‑night? "
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 8. W. Duffield, English Hymns, p. 479, New York, 1888; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 899‑700.
LOWTH, lauth, ROBERT: Bishop of London; b. at Winchester Nov. 27, 1710; d. in London Nov. 3, 1787. He was a eon of William Lowth (q.v.)
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
and studied at Winchester and at New College, Oxford (B.A., 1733; M.A., 173?; D.D., 1754). In 1735 he was instituted to the vicarage of Overton, Hampshire, and, in 1741, was appointed to the professorship of poetry at Oxford, which he held till 1750. He became archdeacon of Winchester in 1750, rector of Woodhay, Hampshire, in 1753, prebendary of Durham and rector of Sedgefield in 1755, and bishop of St. David's in 1766. He was translated to the see of Oxford the same year and to the see of London in 1777. In this position he remained till his death, having declined the primacy in 1783. Lowth achieved permanent fame by his lectures on Hebrew poetry, De sacra Itoeai Hebrteorum prtelectiones academieta Oxonii habitta (Oxford, 1753; 3d ed., 1775; ed. J. D. Michaelis, 2 parts, Gottingen, 1770; ed. E. F. C. Roaenmiiller, Leipeic,1815; reprinted, with notes by Rosenmiiller, C. Weiss, K. F. Richter and others, Oxford, 1821; Eng. transl., 2 vole., London, 1787, and frequently); and by his Isaiah, a New Translation, with . .
Notes (London, 1778; 13th ed., 1842; Germ. tranal., 4 vole., Leipaio, 1779‑81). Another important work by Lowth is his Life of William of Wykeham (London, 1758; 3d ed., Oxford, 1777). P. Hall collected and edited, with introductory memoir, his Sermons and Other Remains (London, 1834).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An anonymous Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Bishop LowEh appeared London, 1787; DNB, :zziv. 214‑218 gives a list of scattered references. Consult further: 8. A. Allibone, Critical Dictionary of English Literature, i. 114D‑1141, Philadelphia, 1891; C. A. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture, pp. 228 eqq. et passim, New York, 1899; J. H. Overton and F. R.elton, The English Church (1714‑1800), pp. 170‑172 et passim, London, 1908.
LOWTH, WILLIAM: English theologian; b. at London Sept. 3, 1660; d. at Buriton (17 m. e.s.e. of Winchester), Hampshire, May 17, 1732. He was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, London, and at St. John's College, Oxford (B.A. 1679; M.A., 1683; B.D. and D.D., 1688), where he became a fellow. With his Vindication of the Divine Authority and Inspiration of the . . . Old and New Testament (London, 1692), an answer to Le Clerc, he attracted the attention of Peter Mew, bishop of Winchester, who made him his chaplain, gave him a pretend in Winchester Cathedral in 1696, and presented him to the living of Buriton and Petersfield, Hampshire, in 1699. While lees eminent than his son, Robert Lowth, he was probably the profounder scholar of the two. Many scholars were indebted to him for valuable aesiatance. In addition to the work mentioned he published Directions for the Profitable Reading of the Holy Scriptures (London, 1708), a little work that has gone through many editions; and a now superseded commentary on the prophets (1714‑25), which has been frequently reprinted as a continuation of Bishop Patrick's commentary.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. A. Allibone Critical Dictionary of Enplisn Literature, p, 1141, Philadelphia, 1891; DNB, zzriv. 218‑217.
LOYOLA. See IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA.
LOYSON, Iwtl"sen, CHARLES JEAN MARIE AUGUSTIN HYACINTHE (Father Hyacinths): French Independent; b. at OrlSaas Mar. 10, 1827.
Lucian the Xastyr
He was educated privately and at the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris, where he studied from 1845 to 1849. He was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood in 1851, and was then professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Avignon in 1851‑54, and of dogmatic theology at the Seminary of Nantes in 1854‑56. Already a member of the Sulpicisa order, he was curate of St. Sulpice, Paris, in 18b61857, but, determining to enter the monastic life, he made a six months' novitiate in the Dominican order in 1858. This not being sufficiently severe, he entered the order of Diecaloed Carmelites in 1862, and rapidly attained fame as a preacher. The freedom of his utterances, however, was such as to draw upon him the admonition of the general of his order, and in 1869 he was excommunicated. He then went to the United States, where he was greeted with fervor. By this time his break with the Church had become final, and in 1871 he attended the Old Catholic conference at Munich. In the following year Loyaoa went to Rome, where he established the Eaperartce de Rome, and in the same year still further manifested his antipathy for his former faith by marrying a widow who had long been working against certain distinctive doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. From 1873 to 1874 he was an Old Catholic pastor at Geneva, but disapproving the rationalistic views of the Old Catholics, he again visited London, only to return before long to Paris, where he sought in vain to have his religious services authorized by the government. In 1877, however, he was permitted to hold private services, and speedily opened a " Catholic Gallirsn Church," which was legalized in 1883. Loyson remained at its head until 1884, since which year he has resided at Geneva, part of the time seeking to found a religious society in which Christians, Jews, and Mohammedans may ell join in worship. Among his numerous writings, special mention may be made of the following: La h'amilk (Paris, 1867); La Societe cite a dam sea rapporta suet le chriatianiame (1867); De la r4forme tx(1872; Eng. travel. by his wife, Catholic Reform, London, 1874); Liturgic de 1'egliae catholique de Genklle a (usage ties ,fideslea (Neueh$,tel, 1873); Catholicisme et ltrotestantisme (1873; Eng. travel., London, 18?4); Trois twn&ences au Cirque d'hitrer (Paris, 1877); Lea Principea de k reform txitholique (1878; Eng. tranal, by Lady Durand, London, 1879); Liturgic de l'kgliae catholique‑gallicane (1879); La Worm eatholique et l'ggliae arlglica»z (1879; Eng. travel. by Lady Durand, London, 1879); Ni dPricatvz ni ath&a (1890); Mon testament (1893; Eng. travel. by F. Ware, London, 1895); Qui eat le Christ f Pour lea juifa, lea chxEtaena et lea muatslmana (1900); and L'Ath&ame contemporaine (1907).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult the Preface, by F. W. Farrar, to the Eng. travel. of Mon testament, ut sup.
LUARD, HENRY RICHARDS: Church of England; b. in London Aug. 17, 1825; d. at Cambridge May 1, 1891. He was educated at King's College, London and at Trinity College, Cam‑
bridge (B.A., 1847; M.A., 1850; B.D., 1875; D.D., 1878). He became fellow of Trinity College (1849) and was assistant tutor in mathematics there (18b5‑
1865); junior bursar (1853‑81); and regiatrary of the University of Cambridge (1882‑91). He was ordained deacon and priest (1855) and was vicar of Great St. Mary's, Cambridge (1860‑‑87). He wrote: On the Relations between England and Rome during the Earlier Portion of the Reign of Henry 111. (Cambridge, 1877); and edited the Diary of E. Rzed (1851): the Correspondence of Richard Parson (1851); Liwa of Edward the Confessor (1858); Bartholmntei de Cotton Hiatoria Anglicans (1859); Roberti C3rosaeteste Epiatolo; (1881); Annalea mowatici (18849); Matthaei. Pariaienais Chronica majors (1872); and Flares historiarnm (1890); he also prepared a Catalogue of the Manuscripts Preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (1858); and Grad ati Cantabrigiertaea (1884).
Biaraooaurar: DNB, zariv. 226‑228.
LUBBERTUS, SIBRAHDUS: Dutch theologian;
b. at Langwarden in East Friesland, 1558 or 1557;
d. at Franeker (60 m. n.n.e. of Amsterdam) Jan. 11,
1825. He was educated in Bremen, afterward at
Wittenberg, Marburg, and Geneva, where he became
a follower of Beza. In 1577 he was at Basel, then
removed to Neuatadt, at that time the seat of the
Evangelical theological faculty of Heidelberg. In
1583 he was active in visiting the poor in Emden,
in 1584 went to Friesland as a preacher in order to
advance there the cause of the Reformation. In
1585 he became professor at the University of
Franeker, lecturing on dogmatics. He attracted
many students, and as a preacher made a deep im
pression upon his hearers. He took an active part
in the struggle with the Remonstrants, and com
bated Rome and Socinienism. From his innermost
conviction he wets a decided Calvinist, without
sacrificing thereby his independence. He published:
De prineipiis Chriatianortcm dogmatism It3ri aeptem
(Franeker, 1591‑95); De papa Romano libri decem,
scholastics et theologire collali cum diaputationi3ua R.
Bellarmini (1594); De coruriliia 14m: quinque (Geneva,
1801); De eccleaya libri sex (Franeker, 1807); Rely
licatio de.pn:mripiia Chriatianorlem dogmatism (1808);
Replicatio de papa Romano (1809); De Jean Chriato
S'eruatore libri quatuor contra Faustum Socinum
(1611); Epiatolica diaceptatio de fide iuatificante,
rtoatraque coram Deo juattfi.catione (Delft, 1812);
Declaratio reaportsionia D. Voratii (Franeker, 1611);
Commeatarii ad norugtnta novem errorea C Vorstii
(1813); Resportaio ad pietatem Hatgonie flrotii
(1814); Cammentarirta in Cateeheain Palatino
Belgicam (1818). S. D. vert V>e>rar.
BIHLIOaS.APHT: E. L. Vriemoet, Athmarurn Friuoarmn libri duo, pp. 1‑19, Leeuwarden, 1768; E. J. H. Tjsden, Dal Qetehrfe Oslfriesland, i. 246‑282. Auriob, 1785; C. SDP, Hot podpelcad ondayoijs in Nederland, i. 136‑143, Leyden. 1873: W. B. 8. Boeke, Friedaade HoopucAoot en hat Rifles Athenaeum to Froneker, ii. 28 34, Leenwarden,
LUCAS OF TUY (TUDEASIS) : Spanish bishop; b. at Leon (112 m. n. of Salamanca) is the latter part of the twelfth century; d. at Tuy (80 m: n. of Oporto) 1250. After officiating as a canon. in his native city, he went to Tuy as s deacon, and in 1227 made a pilgrimage to Palestine, visiting Gregory IX. and Elise of Cottons, the general of the Franciscans, in the course of his travels. In
1239 he was consecrated bishop of Tuy, where he spent the remainder of his life. Lucas was the compiler of an exhaustive chronicle of Spain, the first two books containing the history of Isidore with additions, and the last two that of Ildefoneus and Julian, together with a supplement of his own to 1238. He likewise wrote s refutation of the Albigenses and other heretics, consisting chiefly of excerpts from Gregory the Great and Isidore, but important for the history of sects in Spain and southern France. In this work he assailed those who denied the future life and he likewise rejected as heretical representations of God and the Trinity in human form, se well as crucifixes having both feet of Christ pierced with a single nail. It is uncertain whether the book on the miracles of St. Isidore which he mentions in the preface of his polemics is to .be identified with the Vita laidori edited by the Bollandiata (ASB, Apr., i. 330). (R. SCHMID.)
Ba3itoassret: H. Florea, Eepafia saprada, vol. x:oi. 108 eqq., :acv. 383‑384, Madrid, 1754 eqq.; J. A. Fsbrioiue, Bibliotheca Latino medics et inflma a•,tatis, iii. 883, 8 vole., Hamburg, 1734‑48; RL, viii. 192.
LUCIAN THE MARTYR: Presbyter of Antioch; b. probably at Samosata about the middle of the third century; d. at Nicomedia, Bithynia, 312. Of his life few details are known. He was educated at Edeesa, and he may have studied at Ctesarea as well. He finally nettled at Antioch, where he founded a school of exegesis. In the autumn of 311 MA=:msnua became sole emperor and immediately resumed his persecution of the Christians, although in the spring of the same year he had signed the edict of toleration promulgated by his colleague Galerius. Lucian, whose prominence rendered him especially odious to the emperor, was taken from Antioch to Nicomedia, where Masiminus himself was then residing. His profession of faith, though it made an impression on his hearers, was unavailing, and he suffered martyrdom early in the following year, the Church at Antioch celebrating the anniversary of his death on Jan. 7. His corpse was taken by the Christians to the city of Drepanum, which Constantine rebuilt in his honor, though he called it Helenopolia after his mother.
The scantiness of the data concerning Lucian receives, at least a partial explanation from his dootrinal views. Alexander of Alexandria expressly states that Lucian accepted the teachings of Ebioa, Artemas, sad especially his fellow townsman Paul of Samoeata, and consequently withdrew from the Church of Antioch during the bishoprics of Domnus, Timeeus, and Cyrillus. It is probable_ that Lucian left the Church when Paul was deposed about 288, and the two were evidently in sympathy in their Christological views, so that, when Paul died, Lucian became the head of the nationalistic Syrian ecclesiastical party as opposed to the Greco‑Roman faction. On the other hand, the agreement between these two teachers was neither complete nor lasting, and Lucian's doctrine of the antemuadane creation of the Logos and its perfect incarnation in Jesus was s later development of his thought. His chief importance, however, lies in the feat that he was the real founder of Arianism, as was ad‑
Lucian the Xartyr THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 64
Lucian of Ssmoeata
mibted by Arius himself, who was one of his numerous pupils, declared in a letter to Eueebius of Nicomedia, also a scholar of Lucian's school. Although it is clear from the statements of Alexander that Lucian returned to orthodoxy before he died, Epiphaniua says that he was reckoned a martyr by the Arians, and Philoatorgius, who praises him highly, declares that almost all the important Arian and semi‑Arian theologians of the first half of the fourth century were pupils of Lucian. Nevertheless, his theological opponents were not altogether blind to his virtues. Eusebius, who mentions him but twice (Hist. ecd., viii. 13, ix. 8), praises the purity of his life, his knowledge of the Scriptures, and his noble martyrdom; the pseudo‑Athanasius terms him a great and holy ascetic and martyr; Chryaostom delivered a eulogy upon him; and the Church finally recognized the martyrdom of St. Lucian, especially as it was contained in the calendar of Nicomedia, the prototype of all Greek calendars.
Of the literary activity of Lucian scant remains
survive. Jerome mentions his recession of the manu
scripts of the Bible (his chief work), as do Suidas and
Simeon Metaphraetes, and Jerome also alludes to his
treatises on faith and his letters, to which must be
added his defense preserved by Refines. A fragment
of a letter is contained in the Chronicon Paschale
(p. 277, ed. Ducange), describing the martyrdom
of Bishop Anthimus, Paris, 1648 eqq. Lucian's
apology (Refines, ed. Cacciari, i. 515) reveals the
Chriatological standpoint of its author, postulating
that " there is one God, revealed to us through
Christ and inspired in our hearts by the Holy
Spirit." The importance of Christ is restricted to
his office as a teacher and lawgiver, who gave
mankind an example of patience by his incarnation
and death. Scarcely a trace of Lucian's writings
on faith hex survived, although they may form the
basis of the statement of Epiphanies that Lucian
and his followers affirmed that Christ had only a
human body, but not a human soul, all human emo
tions being ascribed directly to the Logos, so that
the Son was inferior to the Father, evidently a
cardinal doctrine in his system. The creed adopted
by the bishops assembled at Antioch in 341 is as
cribed to Lucian by some writers of the early Church
as well as by‑the semi‑Arias Synods of Seleucia
(359) and Caria (367), but this can at most mean
little more than that part of his doctrines were ac
cepted with many interpolations and additions.
According to Jerome, Lucian's version of the Sep
tuagint was received from Constantinople to An
tioch, but varied widely from the current text. Of
the recession of the New Testament Jerome speaks
in terms of disapproval, and its use was forbidden
by the Decretusn. Gelaaiantcm. It was formerly sup
posed that in his New Testament Lucian adhered
closely to the Peshitto, but it now seems inadvisable
to attempt to trace any family of manuscripts to
his work (see BIBLE Vnitsioxs, A, L, 1, 15). Prac
tically nothing is known concerning Lucian's exe
getical treatises, although it is probable that he
wrote on hermeneutics. (A. HwxNecg.)
Brsrtooswrsr: DOB, iii. 748‑749; NPNF, 2 eer., i. 380,
ool. i., note 4; Jerome, De vir. ill., Ixxvii.
LUCIAN OF SAMOSATA.
Lucian's Attitude Toward Christianity (¢ 1). The Peregrinua (¢ 2). Historical Basis of the Peregrinua (¢ 3). Lucian's Knowledge of Christianity (¢ 4).
In the second half of the second century, with the single exception of Celsus, few of the cultivated classes of the Roman Empire paid more than a superficial attention to Christianity. Fronto, the friend of Marcus Aurelius, is said to have written
against it, but nothing is certainly z. Lucian's known of his book. Marcus Aurelius
Attitude himself, Epictetus, Galen, and the ora‑
toward for Aristides mention the Christian re‑
Christianity.ligion only in passing. Nor did the
great satirist Lucian think it necessary to take special notice of it. Only twice‑cursorily in the Alexander and more at length in the Peregrinus Proteus‑‑does he deal with the subject; but the interest of his account for modern times has led to frequent exaggeration of the interest which the topic had for him. His attitude toward Christianity has been represented in every possible light, from a fanatical hatred to a secret friendship. Still, Lucian's description of the Christians in the Peregrines is actually one of the most interesting and instructive accounts of the early Christians which have been preserved from a pagan pen.
The Peregrines is a satire aimed at the Cynics, and more particularly, as Bernays has shown, at the contemporary Cynic philosopher Theagenea. This school, among whom a considerable proportion
of unworthy elements existed, was antis. The pathetic to Lucian. He was specially Peregrines. stirred up to this attack by the ex‑
aggerated admiration of Peregrines expressed by the baser sort of Cynics, as well as by some of a higher class. Lucian had known the man personally; and when Theagenes, his closest associate, began to make a name for himself in Rome, the satirist felt that it was time to take the field. His work, addressed to the Platonist Cronies, gives an account of the life and death of Peregrines, whom he calls, on grounds of personal knowledge, a common criminal. On reaching manhood, Peregrines was, according to him, convicted of adultery and suitably punished in Armenia; then seduced a boy, and saved himself from the vengeance of the parents only by a money payment; and finally, in his birthplace, Parion on the Hellespont, murdered his father to get possession of his inheritance. Suspicion attaching to him he was forced to flee, and after considerable wandering came to Palestine or possibly to Antioch. Here he became acquainted with the Christians, insinuated himself into their fellowship, and became a respected teacher. He was imprisoned as a Chris. tian, but was released by the governor of Syria and returned to Parion, where he was able to meet the
charge of parricide only by surrendering his portion of the inheritance, fifteen talents, to his fellow citizens. He had appeared there in the dress of a Cynic, but on his further journeys he was received and supported by the Christians as one of their
own. Falling into discredit with them (Lucian thinks on account of eating forbidden meats), he
resolved to simulate the life of a great ascetic, and after a training in Egypt went to Rome, where he attracted great attention by his cynical freedom of speech, especially by his unmeasured attacks upon the mild and just emperor. The prefect of the city banished hire, which only increased his fame. He went to Greece, and continued his assaults on the social order, choosing the great Olympic gatherings for special manifestations. At the third which he attended, finding his reputation declining, he announced that he would burn himself alive at the next; and this Lucian says he actually did, claiming to have been an eye‑witness of the occurrence as well as part author of the legends which were soon spread abroad in relation to the Cynic's death. He closes by relating some further instances of the baseness of Peregrinus, which he asserts that he witnessed on a voyage from Troae to Syria.
A brief investigation of the historical basis for this story is now in order. There is no reason to doubt the existence of a Cynic philosopher named Peregrinua Proteua. The oldest notice of him is
possibly that of Aulus Gellius~ (xii. 11), 3. Histor‑ who met him at Athens and speaks
ical Basis 'well of him. His remarkable suicide
of the is mentioned by Athenagoras (" ApolPeregrinus. ogy," xxvi.; ANF, ii. 143), Tertullian
(Ad martyraa, iv.; ANF, iii. 695), and Eusebius (Chron. ad ann. 2181; Marcus Aurelius, v.), as well as by Philostratua (Vine sophistarum, IL, i.) and Ammianua Marcellinua (XXIX., i. 39); there is no doubt that it caused a great sensation. A column was erected to him in his birthplace, and was supposed to be the seat of an oracle. Euaebius gives the date of his death as 165 A.D., and there is no reason to question this, or Lucian's statement that it was at the fourth Olympic meeting which he attended. The banishment from Rome would then fall at latest in 152‑153; and the Christian episode between 140 and 150. That Tatian and the later apologists say nothing of his having been a Christian for a time is not surprising, even if they knew it. It is most unlikely that Lucian invented it; but it is, on the other hand, not probable that he got his details at first hand. Zahn's theory that he intended his account of the Cynic's death as a parody of Christian martyrdom will not hold. The whole point of the work, as directed against Cynicism, would be lost; and though Lucian knows that the Christians willingly give up their lives for their faith, so far from using this to explain the act of Peregrines, he contrasts their sincere self‑sacrifice with the mingled fear of death and mania for notoriety which he attributes to Peregrines. Assuming the main facts‑that Peregrinua was for a time a Christian, and as such was imprisoned, but afterward released, and that he later abandoned Christianity, it is worth while to see what Lucian knew of Christianity and what his judgment of it was, taking his sketch as a document belonging to about 170 and relating primarily to Syrian Christianity.
The Christians are, then, a religious association in which a man crucified in Palestine is venerated. He has brought into life " new mysteries," and as the first lawgiver of the sect has convinced his
fiff RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lucian the Biartyr
Lucian of $smosata
followers that, when they have renounced the old
gods and begun to worship him and live according
to his laws, they are to consider them
;. Lucian's selves as brothers. They are per
Knowledge suaded that they are immortal, where
of Chris‑ fore they despise death and meet it
tianity. cheerfully and voluntarily. They con
sider all temporal goods as of small im
portance and hold them in common. They adhere
closely to each other, and take incredible pains
when any interest of the community is in question,
considering it a general calamity when a brother is
imprisoned. When Peregrinus was in prison,
" very early in the morning aged widows and or
phan children might be seen waiting near the place,
and the leading men among them gained over the
guards that they might pass the night with him.
Many meals were sent in to him, their holy writings
were read . . . even from the cities of the province
of Asia came certain who were sent by the Chris
tians in the name of their communities, to aid, de
fend, or comfort him." Every detail in this ac
count might be paralleled in Christian literature
from the first epistle of Clement to Tertullian, De
jeiunio, and the detail of the envoys from the cities
of Asia Minor is confirmed by the epistles of Igna
tius‑though there is not the slightest evidence of
any direct employment by Lucian of Christian
sources. The fact is simply that Lucian has named
the essential characteristics of the Christian body
as they presented themselves to a clear‑sighted,
disinterested observer, thus strengthening the evi
dence presented by Christian writers. So far from
relying on Christian documents, Lucian does not
seem to know the Christian writers of the second
century; the prisoner in Syria has as little in com
mon with Ignatius as the death of Peregrinus has
with the martyrdom of Polycarp. While one can
not assert positively that Lucian never read a line
of a Christian author, the proof that he did is not
forthcoming. For all this, his knowledge of Chris
tianity is not so " vague and superficial " as Keim
would have us believe. He brings none of the cus
tomary charges against the Christians, not even
that of hostility to the empire. Christianity seems
to be in his eyes a harmless movement. He con
siders it, indeed, without any token of sympathy;
but he, the accomplished mocker, does not mock
at the simplicity of the Christians which the im
postor turns to his account. He finds it of course
absurd that they should adore the crucified " soph
ist "; but their unshaken consciousness of brother
hood under all trials and their contempt for death
are mentioned only se characteristic differentiee.
And it is these very Christians who, outside of the
cultivated city‑dwellers and the Epicureans, are
the only people in the world to detect the hollow
ness of the pretentious of the false prophet Alexan
der of Abonoteichos; in fact, it is against them
that the first denunciation of Alexander is uttered
(Alexander, xxv., xxaviii.). In a word, in the Pero
grinus, where he has poured out the fulness of his
bitterest acorn upon the Cynics, he has contented
himself with drawing an accurate picture of the
Christians. It was not to be expected that he
should set out to glorify them; what is remarkable
is that he describes them not as deceivers, as criminals, or as revolutionaries, but merely as enthusiasts, credulous indeed, but capable of self‑sacrifice and deep brotherly love. The single word " sophist " applied to Christ sufficed to stamp the great satirist as a blasphemer in the eyes of later generations, and cause them to neglect the historical value of the evidence which he supplies for the purity and uprightness of the Christian life and ideal as they were seen in his day. (A. Hwx>,twcg.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Perhaps the beet edition of Lucian's works is by T. Hematerhuia and J. F. Reits, 3 vole., Amsterdam, 1743; a convenient one is by W. Dindorf, with Lat. trawl., 3 vole., Paris, 1840; another is by F. Fritsohe, 3 vole., Rostock, 1884‑82; and still another is in the Tauohnita series by C. H. Weise, 4 vole., Leipaic, 1887‑77. There is an Eng. trawl. by 'several hands, with life of Lucian by Dryden, 4 vole., London, 1711; one by T. Franeklin, 4 vole, ib. 1781 (of great merit); and one by H. W. Fowler, 4 vole., ib. 1905. A Fr. trawl. of the works is by L. Humbert, 2 vole., Paris, 1898, and an excellent Germ. trawl. is by Wieland, 8 vole., Leipeic, 1788‑89. Consult: J. Bernays, Lucian and die Kyniker, Berlin, 1879; C. T. Keim, Ceisw, Zurich, 1882; J. M. Cotterill, Perepriwus Protew, Edinburgh, 1879 (claims it is a forgery, perhaps by Henry Stephens the Reformation printer); M. Croiset, Eesai sur la vie et ks auvrea de Lucien, Paris, 1982: w. R. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, u. 812‑822, London, 1890: DCB, iii. 744‑798. The editions and translations have notes and introductions, and often s life of the author.
LUCIDUS, hi'sid‑us: A Gallic priest of the second half of the fifth century. He held decided predestinarian views, going further even than Auguatine and believing that at the fall man had utterly lost the freedom of his will, that God had determined beforehand that some were to be damned and others saved, and hence that Christ did not die for all but only for the elect, and finally that a " vessel unto dishonor " can never become a " vessel unto honor." A synod was summoned in 475 at Arles to condemn his views, and also one at Lyons in 476. Lucidus was compelled to recant chiefly through the influence of Faustus of Riez (q.v.), who, being a friend of Lucidus and also one of the most important members of the synod, had a lengthy correspondence with him on the subject. A letter to Lucidus by Faustus is in DIPL, liii. 683.
LUCIFER (Hebr. Held, "Shining one," R. V. " Day star ") : A term applied by Isaiah to the king of Babylon (Isa. xiv. 12), and not occurring elsewhere in the Bible. By Tertullian, Jerome, and others the name was applied to Satan. and in the Middle Ages it became common in this sense. By Gunkel (Sch6pjtcng and Chaos, pp. 132 aqq., GtSttingen, 1895) the passage in Isaiah is regarded as embodying a reference to a nature myth.