Origin of Movement (§ 1). Austria (§ 2). Germany end France (§ 3). Other Countries (§ 4). Influence of " Modernimm " (§ b).
One of the most interesting features of recent religious life has been the growing movement away from Rome which has taken place during the past
half century. In the beginning of the r. Origin of nineteenth century it seemed to be un‑
Movement. questioned that the bounds of Protes‑
tantism and Romanian were finally settled and that a new Reformation was not to be looked for. But the middle of the century saw a great intellectual, political, and religious awakening which was destined to have unexpected results in the ecclesiastical world. It became impossible to maintain the persecuting laws against Protestants which characterised all Roman Catholic countries, and these laws gradually disappeared or were mitigated, and mission work began. These missions have been carried on with varying suoteas, partly by the small native Protestant Churches, partly by missionary societies in England, America, and Germany. But the movement away from Rome has not been due entirely or even mainly to these missionary efforts. It has been due to movements of various kinds inside the Church of Rome itself. The growth of political liberty made men dissatisfied with the despotism of the Vatican; and as the middle of the last century wag characterized in the political sphere by a fierce struggle between absolutism and democracy, so in the ecclesiastical world there was a similar struggle between ultrar montanism and the desire for greater freedom and elasticity of organization. In the political world democracy triumphed, but in the ecclesiastical ultramontanism won the day, and the result of its victory was the Vatican Council and the decree of papal infallibility (bee VATICAN COUNCIL). Owing to the reluctance of DtSllinger (q.v.) to create a schism and to the cowardice of some of the bishops who fought in the council against the decree, but accepted it when it had passed, the Old Catholic Church did not begin its career with numbers at all as large as were expected; but it hex continued its course with a hopeful future in Holland, Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, and with a few followers in France, Italy, and Mexico. Its friendship for Protestantism has drawn it more and more away from the characteristic doctrines of Romanian, and in some places it serves as a temporary spiritual resting‑place for those who are discontented with Rome, but not yet prepared for the decisive step of adopting a thoroughly Evangelical Protestantism. See OLD CAT80LICf3.
A movement away from Rome which was at first very promising, but in the end proved more or less abortive, was that known as German Catholicism
Free Religious Congregations. This promising movement failed for want of a sufficiently vital religious and Evangelical element and from the excessive predominance of the political factor
(see FREE CONGREGATIONS IN GERMANY). The German‑speaking Roman Catholics, who furnished the greater part of these two movements, have recently given birth to a movement much more important than either of them, the " Loa von Rom " movement in Austria. For 4 long time there has been a considerable alienation of both the German and Slav inhabitants of Austria from the Church of Rome and its services, but whether this would have led to a movement toward Protestantism and what form such a movement might have taken it is difficult to conjecture. The actual initiation of the movement toward Protestantism was due to a combination of racial and political influences which can only be referred to here. The war of 1866 with Prussia had transferred the leadership of the German states to that state, and eventually, after the defeat of France, had led to the formation of the German Empire, from which Austria was excluded. This loos of political position and power was keenly felt by the Austrian Germans, who saw themselves displaced by a new Protestant power from the position they had occupied for ages, and the explanation that forced itself on many minds was that Romanian had sapped the vigor of their race. Their resentment against Rome was intensified by the attitude Rome assumed in the racial struggles between Germans and Slave. Having found France an ineffectual instrument for the promotion of its political aims, the Vatican began to throw its influence on the side of the Slavs against the Germans in order to build up a strong Slav Catholic power on which it could depend. Bitter antiRoman political feeling was excited by this, and at length on Nov. 5, 1898, Schonerer, the leader of the German National Party, made an appeal for a secession from Rome, issuing the watchword by which it has been since known, " Los von Rom," i.e., Away from Rome, or Free from Rome. The movement has been pronounced purely a political maneuver, but this entirely misrepresents its character. The possibility of the political movement arose out of the religious dissatisfaction that existed, and many, even at the beginning, came out under the cover of the political passion of the moment, whose impelling motive was religious. The political element began rapidly to recede into the background, and after two or three years became entirely subordinate, till eventually it almost disappeared. In this transformation from the political to the religious a very deep influence has been exercised by the celebrated novelist Peter Rosegger, who has shown deep interest in the movement, though remaining nominally a Roman Catholic. The secessions have taken place almost entirely from the German‑speaking portions of the population. Those who are most familiar with the Czech portions of Bohemia consider that the conditions exist for an important movement from Rome, but for the present the priests have succeeded in utilizing the strong racial hatred to prevent it by teaching their flocks that Protestantism is a German religion and to become Protestants is to be Germanized. The converts have joined one or other of the two Protestant confessions recognized by the government, the Augsburg or the
There is not space to follow the movement in
detail t11TOllgh t~) ffignt ROMM V9JjJic coun‑
tries. In Belgium there is a vigorous and growing mission church, almost exclusively 4. Other composed of converts from Roman‑
Countries. ism and their children. In Italy the
ceased to hold, and have turned to civil life. The growth of Protestantism among the French people in numbers and influence has been considerable, but in the absence of religious statistics it can not be accurately estimated. Leading Roman Catholics are not blind to its reality, and have begun to speak in alarm of " the Protestant peril." This new movement from Rome, like that of the sixteenth century, has been closely associated with a fight with the monasteries. This struggle has reached a crisis first in France and has there issued in the dissolution of the greater number of them and the transfer of the education of the people to government schools. The attitude of the Church of Rome toward the monasteries and the schools convinced the leading French statesmen that it was necessary to disestablish .that Church, and an act for that purpose was carried in 1905. It was thought that this act would lead to a secession of those priests and congregations who were restive under the spiritual tyranny of Rome, but the provision that the associations to which the Church property was transferred must be in connection with the general organization of the form of worship they propose to secure, prevented to a large extent the occurrence of a schism. The pope refused to allow the formation of the proposed associations for the management of the churches and other ecclesiastical property. CoWu2nlly the State seized the presbyteries, seminaries, and other buildings, and many of these have been put to i secular uses. The Vatican apparently assumed that the government would also close the churches and thereby cause a reaction on the plea of religious persecution. But the government has not done so, and the priests have been allowed to continue their services„ but the State endowments which were to have continued for four years have ceased on account of the refusal of the Church to accept the act. Some two or three hundred congregations have formed associations and have thereby set the papal decision at defiance. These may form the nucleus of a wider schism on those lines, but the outlook in that direction is not encouraging.
through it he became the leader of an extensive revolt of the priests of France, which is one of the most remarkable of recent religious movements. His aim at first was the formation of a National Catholic Church, free from the tyranny and superstitions of Rome. The course of events has convinced him of the futility of hoping for a reformed Roman Catholic Church, and he is now working not for the organization of such a national Church, but for the conversion of Roman Catholics to Protestantism. His paper has at the same time changed its title to Le ChrEtie9a. A somewhat similar work was car ried on by another converted priest, Corneloup, in connection with his paper Le PHtre converti. When the Separation Act was passed (1905) M. Meillon, Corneloup's successor, plunged into an agitation for the formation of " Associations cultuelles " by priests, and the consequent organization of an independent national Church, but the attempt failed. M. Meillon's work has been taken up with more sue. case by M. Revoyre and his paper Le Chrqien Libra. There are no authentic statistics of the seemione from the priesthood, but those who are well informed believe that they amount to over a thousand, perhaps not far short of 1,500. A large pro. Portion of these have become Protestants and BpITIG of them are working as pastors and Evangelists. Many have lapsed from Christian belief, but felt unable to continue preaching a creed they had
Church, and became two years later minister of the
Protestant Church of &vres‑Bellevue. He started
a paper, Le Chrdien Frangais, which soon obtained
a large circulation among the French priests, and
have shown very alight increase. In
3. Ger‑ the year 1890 3,105 Roman Catholics
many and became Protestants, in 1895 3,896, in
France. 1900 6,143, in 1905 9,339; while in the
same years the conversions to Roman‑
Helvetic, mainly the former, or the Old Catholic Church. Up to the end of 1908 over 51,000 had become Protestants and about 16,000 Old Catholics, besides a large cumber that worship in the Protestant churches who are prevented by fear of persecution from publicly enrolling themselves as Protestants. The conversions to Protestantism have during the past few years remained steadily about 4,500 annually, and the movement shows no sign of abating. See AUSTRIA.
In the German Empire (see GERMANY) there has been a growing movement away from Rome for many years while the conversions to Romaniam
¢g RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Los von 8om
last half‑century has seen a great re
vival of the Waldensian Church and the spreading
of its organization and activities all over the pen
insula, as well as the prosecution of mission work
by different English and American churches. In
Spain there was a promising revolt against the
Church of Rome immediately after the granting of
liberty of worship in 1868, but it was soon arrested
and since then the work of Protestantism has been
the slow and often discouraging gathering of units.
But during the last few years there have been fns ‑
quest manifestatioq p( djgKtW$o~ion with the I~I~ domination, and a growing agitation against
and a recent decision of the supreme court bay a)_
Los von Rom
Lots, Hebrew Use of
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
lowed the unreserved distribution of the Scriptures. The former colonies of Spain and Portugal have been moving more rapidly than their mother countries. Most encouraging mission work has been carried on in the Spanish republics of South and Central America,, especially by the churches of the United States, and the power of Rome in those countries is rapidly decaying. In Brazil, for a long time one of the most hopeless fields, very remarkable progress is being made in recent years. In many respects the Philippines, since they came under the dominion of the United States, have presented the most remarkable revolt from Rome of modern times. Under the leadership of Aglipay an Independent National Philippine Church has been organized, which will probably grow into a vigorous Protestant communion. It claims at present to have the support of about half the population. In Canada and among the French Canadians in the United States the work inaugurated by Chiniquy has been moat successful, and it is calculated that there are now over 30,000 French‑Canadian Protestants in Canada and at least 40,000 in the United States. The exodus from the Church of Rome among the immigrants to the United States and their descendants has been very great, and Roman Catholic authorities estimate that they have lost in this way between twenty and thirty millions. It is known that in England Rome is losing by tens of thousands. The number of English Roman Catholics, when Irish and foreigners are excluded, is very small.
But the hope of a revolt from Rome is probably derived by many more from the progress of Modernism (q.v.) inside that Church than from any other
cause. This movement is wide‑spread 5. Influ‑ and varied in ibB character. It in‑
ence of eludes men like the late Professor
" Modern‑ Schell in Germany, Professors Ehrism." hardt and Wahrmund in Austria,
Murri, Graf, Semeria, Minocchi, and Fogazzaro in Italy, Loisy and Houtin in France, Tyrrell in England, some of them men who recognize the impossibility of reconciling the scholasticism of Aquinas with the philosophical conceptions of the present day, men who desire to reconcile the Church with the democratic spirit of their time, men who desire to bring the Church into living contact with the great social movements of the present day and thereby infuse a Christian spirit into these movements, men who feel compelled to accept the results of modern criticism of the Bible and to hold these independently of the antiquated standpoint of the Vatican, and men who wish to see a more Christian and a less political spirit brought into all the activities of the Church. All such find themselves in irreconcilable conflict with the supreme authorities of their Church. Murri, Minocchi, and Loisy have been excommunicated by the Vatican, and Tyrrell died under the ban of the Church. The future alone can tell the issue of the conflict. It is difficult to see how they can permanently retain their position in a Church whose head is " infallible " and whose decisions are given promptly and unmistakably against them. Also
Bee MODERNISM. JOHN A. BAIN.
B113LIOGRAPHY: Indispensable are the Berichte caber den Fortgang der Loa von Rom Bexoepung, a aeries of publications edited by P. Briiunlich, Munich, 1899, still in progress, covering the different countries in which the movement exists. Consult also: J. A. Bain, New Reformation. Recent Evangelical Movements in the Roman Catholic Church, 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1909; A. Bourrier, Ceus qui s'en vont, Paris, 1905; H. Wegener, Margendammerung in der Steiermark, MSrs, 1904; A. Houtin, La Criae du derpd, Paris, 1907; A. Briand, La Separation des egliaea et de fetal, ib. 1905; P. Rosegger. Mein Himmelreich, Leipaic, 1907; J. McCabe, Decay of Church oJRome, New York, 1909. LOSERTH, lo'zart, JOHANN: Austrian Protestant; b. at Fulneck (a village near Neutitschein, 26 m. e.n.e. of Prerau), Moravia, Sept. 1, 1846. Ids was educated at the University of Vienna (Ph.D., 1870), and after being a gymnasial professor in Vienna (187L‑75) was professor. of general history at the newly founded University of Czernowitz until 1893, when he was called to his present position of professor of history at Graz. He has devoted himself especially to the study of early Bohemian history, the Wyclif and Hussite movements, and the history of Anabaptism and the Counter‑Reformation. Among his numerous publications, special mention may be made of the following: Beitrage xur Geschichte der hussitischen Bewegung (5 parts, Vienna, 1877‑94); Huns and Wiclif (Prague, 1884; Eng. transl. by M. J. Evans, Wydif and Hess, London, 1884); Die Stadt Waldshut and die vorderosterreichische Regierung 16Q31626 (Vienna, 1891); Der Anabaptismus in Tirol (1893); Btxlthasar Hubmaier urtd die Anfange der 1=Viedertaufe in M6hren (Briinn, 1893); Studien zur englischen Kirchenpolitik im vierzehnten Jahrhundert (2 parts, Vienna, 1894‑1907); Der Communismus der mahrischen Wiedertaufer im sechzehnten Jahrhundert (1895); Die steirische ReligionsPazifikation (Graz, 1896); Der Sankt Pauler‑Fornxular, Briefs and Urkunden aus d:~r Zeit Konig Wenzels 11., (Prague, 1896); Erzherzog Karl 11. and die Frtzge der Errichtung sires Klosterrates fur Inner6sterreich (Vienna, 1897); Die Reformation and Gegenreformation in den innerosterreichischen Landern im sechzehnten Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1898); Die Salzburger Provinzialsynode von 161,9 (Vienna, 1898); and Geschichte des spateren Mitte7alters, 1197‑1.¢9Q (Munich, 1903). He has likewise edited for the Wycliffe Society Wyclif's De ecclesid (London, 1886); Sermones (4 vo1s., 1887‑90) ; De etteharistia tractatus major (1892); Opus Evangelicum (4 vole., 189rr96); De eivili dominio (4 vole., 1900‑04), De potestate papee (1907); and Dos Archiv des Hawses Stubenberg (Graz, 1908) as well as the collection of acts and correspondence for the history of the Counter‑Reformation in Inner Austria under the Archdukes Karl II. and Ferdinand II. in the Fortes rerum Austriacarum, vole. 1., lviii., lx. (Vienna, 1898‑1907).
LOT: The son of Haran and nephew of Abram. According to the story in Genesis, in his migration from Haran to Canaan and Egypt, Abram was accompanied by Lot (Gen. xii. 4); but afterward Lot separated from Abram (xiii. 1 sqq.), and settled in the plain of Jordan at Sodom, where he was taken captive, but was liberated by Abram (xiv. 1 sqq.). He incurred still more danger in the ce,tastrophe brought by God upon the vale of Siddim
(xviii.‑xix.). The angels, appointed to investigate the iniquity of the Sodomites, were hospitably received by Lot, who in order to fulfil the duties of hospitality was even ready to sacrifice his own family, while on the other hand the Sodomites, in their lust, trampled under foot the rights of the strangers. So the angels protected the family of the righteous Lot and rescued them from the judgment of Sodom. Lot's sons‑in‑law mocked at the warning and stayed in the city. Lot himself had to be torn away by force (xix. 16 sqq.). Lot was bidden not to look about him, neither to rest till he came to the mountains. But this was beyond his strength, so he begged leave to remain in Zoar, according to Gen. xiii. 10, the southernmost point of the vale of Siddim. Lot's wife could not refrain from looking back, and' by thus transgressing that express prohibition she brought about her own punishment, for she was turned into a pillar of salt. (This detail is consistent with the nature of the Dead Sea, which is so saturated with salt that its vapor deposits a salty crust on surrounding objects.) Hence she stood conspicuous, a pillar of salt on the shore (Luke xvii. 32; cf. Wisdom, x. 7; Josephus, Ant., L, xi. 4).
The judgment is described as a rain of fire and brimstone (cf. Pa. xi. 6; Ezek. xxxviii. 22), in consequence of which the whole region became decolate. That the latter was a historic event is undoubted. It profoundly impressed the surrounding peoples, and was borne in mind, especially in Israel, throughout all ages as a remarkable divine judgment (cf. Dent. xxix. 22; Amos iv. 11; Hos. xi. 8; Isa. i. 9, iii. 9; Jer. xx. 16, xxiii. 14; Zeph. ii. 9). The classic writers also speak of the catastrophe. Strabo, xvi. 2, knows of thirteen cities that were destroyed in that region; whereas he ascribes the origin of the sea to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and hot springs of both asphalt and brimstone. Tacitus, Hist. v. 7, tells of a monstrous fire that swept this district, kindled by lightning. Even the geographical nature of the Dead Sea might vouch for that violent eruption of destructive elements: at a'1 events, to render it more easily conceivable. See PALESTINE. It is consistent with the Biblical narrative, according to which only the valley plain was stricken by the shower, that the surrounding mountain ranges exhibit no traces of volcanic disturbance. The Dead Sea, to be sure, did not owe its original existence to the catastrophe; it was then, however, that the southern tract of the sea subsided. Lot did not stay in Zoar, but went up into the mountains with his two daughters, and lived there in a cave. His daughters thinking they could obtain no husbands in that isolated situation unlawfully contrived to get offspring of their father by stealth: a circumstance recalled by the Hebrews in the names Moab and Amnion (Gen. xix. 3g), However, it might be noted that the story is possibly taken from the genealogical tradition of Moab and Amnion, since in the estimation of primitive antiquity, it was of so high importance for a woman to obtain posterity that in order to achieve this end she would not scruple even at incest, and that in fact people would regard such conduct of the tribal mothers even in a heroic light.