Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG


ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF


RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE


Editor‑in‑Chief


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.


Editor‑in‑Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes




LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY


BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN







THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

0R

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE



EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.



(Editor‑in‑Chief )

WITH THE 80L6 ASSISTANCE, AFTER VOLUME Vi., OF

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.



(Associate Editor) .

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.


(Department of Systematic Theology)

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.


(Department of Minor Denominations)



JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.


(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders)



JAMES FREDERIC IIcCU$DY, PH.D., LLD.


(Dtpartment of the Old Testament)
HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)
ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, )).D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)


FRANK HORACE PIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and 71tpography)

VOLUME VII

LIUTPRAND ‑ MORALITIES




BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953

EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOp3tINTED BY GUSHING ~ MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1955


EDITORS


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR‑IN‑CHIEF.) Professor of Church History, New York University.



GEORGE WILLLdM GILMOB.E, M.A.

(A$$OCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion,

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME VII



CLARENCE AU(iUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology. Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.



JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Arribrose's, New York City.



JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist

Theologicsl Seminary, Waco, Tex.

FRANK H03LACE QIZETELLY, F.8.8.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc.,

New York City.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VII



HAMS ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halle.



JEAN GERARD RICHARD ACAUOY (t),

D.D.,


Late Professor of Church History and the History of

Dogma, University of Leyden:



OTTO WILHELM FERDINAND

ALBRECHT, Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Naumburgon‑the‑Saale.



JOHN ALEXANDER BAIN, M.A.,

Pastor of the Westport and Newport Presbyterian

Churches, County Mayo. Ireland.

EDOUARD BARDE (t), D.D.,

Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, School of

Theology, Geneva.

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HEINRICH BEHBi, Ph.D.,

Superintendent in Doberan, Mecklenburg.



EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Iitinigsberg.



IMMANTTEL GUSTAV ADOLF

BENZIN(#ER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice‑Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.

CARL ALBRECHT BERNOULLI, Th.Lic.,

Author at Arleshetm, near Basel



CARL BERTHEAV, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Michael's, Hamburg.





33ERNHARD BEES, Th.Lic.,

Librarian, University of Halle.



WILLIAM LLOYD BEVAN, Ph.D.,

Assistant Editor of The Churchman, New York City.


EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS, D.D.,

Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D. C.


THEODORA CROSBY BLISS,

Writer on Missions.



CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VII

HEINRICH BOEHHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.

HERMANN BOZNIG,

Gymnaalal Professor in Konigsberg.

AMY GASTON CHARLES AUGUSTE

BONET‑1lIAURY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of

Divinity, Paris.

GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH,

Th.D.


Professor of Church History, ~Tniveraity .of Gottingen.

FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDES,

Th.D.,


Reformed Minister and Chaplain at Btickeburg. Schaum­

burg‑Llppe.

CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D.,


Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics,

Union Theological Seminary, New York.

JAMES MONROE BUCKLEY, D.D., LL.D.,

Editor of The Christian Advocate, New York City.

OSKAR GOTTLIEB RUDOLF

BUDDENSIEGF (t), Ph.D.,

Late Director of the Teacher's Seminary in Dresden.

FRANTS PEDER WILLIAM BURL, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.



B:eB,L BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Coneletorlal Councilor, Munich.

JACQUES EUGENE CHOISY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

J083CPH BOURNE CLARK, D.D.,

Editorial Secretary of the Congregational Home Mis­

sionary Society, New York.

FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lie.,

Conelatorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany.

HENRY COW", D.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Aberdeen,

Scotlad.


AUGUST HERMANN OUZX31B (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

Greifewald.

OU$TAV HERMAN DALHAN, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis University of Leip­



sic, and President of the German >;vangelical Arche­

ological Inatitute, Jerusalem.

SAMUEL MARTIN D31CUTSCH ( f ), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

HENRY MARTYN DEXTER (t), D.D.,

Late Editor of The Conyrepationaliat, Boston.

GORTON DEXTER, M.A.,

Congregational Clergyman and Author, Boston.

WILHELM DILTHEY, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Berlin.

PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWS, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Have.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Pastor of St. Ambrose's Church, New York City.

DUCHEMIN,

Pastor in Neuilly‑sqr‑Seine, France.

7RIEDRIOH HERMAN CHRISTIAN

DUE$TERDIEO$ (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late General Superintendent, Osuabriick, Germany.

EMIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

RUDOLF EIBACH, Th.D.,

Consiatorlal Councilor, Dotzheim, near Wiesbaden,

Germany.

HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D.,




Member of the Editorial Stall of the Encyclopaedia Bri­

tannica Company, New York.

JOHN OLVF EVJEN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Theology in Aupaburg Seminary,

Minneapolis, Minn.

HERMANN AUGUST PAUL EWALD,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis,

University of Erlangen.

CHRISTIAN THEODOR, FICHER, Ph.D.,

Emeritus Pastor at Eythra, near Leipeic.

DAVID HAY FLEXING, LL.D.,

Honorary Secretary of the Scottish Historical Society,

Edinburgh.

FRITZ FLIEDNER (t), M.D.,

Late German Evangelist in Spain.

GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (t) Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatics Symbolics , and Christian

Ethics, University of Vienna.

GEORG FROBOE$S,

Director for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia.

EMANUEL VOGEL G ERHART (t), D.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology at Lancaster, Pa.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, X.A.,

Formerly Lecturer. on Comparative. Religion, Bangor

Theological Seminary, Associate ditor of TaE

NEW SCHAPP‑)~EHZOfi ENCYCLOPEDIA.

FRANZ (iOERREB, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School,

and Professor, Military Academy, Munich.

JOHANNES FRIEDRICH fiOTTSCHICH(t),

Th.D.,


Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Ethics, and

Practical Theology, Evangelical Theological

Faculty, University of Tilbingen.

CASPAR REN$ GREGORY, Ph.D.,

Th.D., D.D., LL.D., Dr. Jtrx.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipeic.

PAUL CiRQENBER(i, Th.D.,

Pastor In Strasburg.

GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th. Lie.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University

of Heidelberg.

PETER REINHOLD GRUNDEMANN,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor in Mors, near Belzig, Prussia.

EDUARD GfUEDER (t), Th.D.,

Late Preacher in Biglen, Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

HERMANN QUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.


.HEINRICH HAHN, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History and German In the

Luisenstadt Realgymnasium, Berlin.

ADOLF HARNACS, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jur., M.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.






CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VII

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th:D.; Dr. Jur.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipaic,

Editor‑in‑Chief of the Hauck‑Herzog ReaiencykiopBdie.

HERHIAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor, and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

JOHANNES HAUSSLEITER, Ph.D., Th.D.,




Consistorial Councilor, Professor of New Testament The­

ology and Exegesis, University of Greifswald.

MAX HEINZE ( t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipaic.

ERNST HENKE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Marburg.

WILHELM HEYD (tJ, Ph.D.,

Late Oberstudienrat, Stuttgart.

KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor, of Church History,. University of.Berlin.

LOUISE SEYMOUR HOUGHTON,

Author and Translator.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH 13KEN Q

Late Pastor in Bremen.

HEINRICH FRANZ JACOBSON (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Law, University of KtSnigsberg.

ALFRED JEREMIAS, Ph.D., Th. Lie.,

Privat‑docent for Old Testament Exegesis, Leipaic.

GUSTAV ADOLF JUELICHER, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History and New Testament Exegesis,

University of Marburg.

ADOLF HERMANN HEINRICH BAMP­

HAUSEN.(t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Bonn.


FERDINAND FRIEDRICH WILHELM

BATTENBUSCH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halls.

PETER GUSTAV BAWERAU, Th.D.,

Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology,

and University Preacher, University of Breslau.

KONRAD KESSLER (t)y Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Semitic Languages, University of

Greifswald.

OTTO BIRN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipaic.

RUDOLF BITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Leipsic.


FRIEDRICH EDUARD KOENIG,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

HEINRICH ADOLF X03ESTLIEN (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Privy Councilor in Cannatadt, formerly Professor of

Theology, University of Giessen.

JULIUS 80ESTLIN (t), Ph.D., Th:D.,

Dr. Jur.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halls.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN

80LDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

RICHARD BRAETZSCHMAB, (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Marburg.

HERXANN'GUSTAV EDUARD KRUEGER,

Ph.D., Th.D.;

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.

JOHANNES WILHEL3k BUNZE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,




Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, Univer­

sity of Greifawald.

GE03ELG RITTER VON LAUBMANN (t),

Ph.D.,


Late Director of the Royal State Library in Munich.

WILLIAM LEE (t), D.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Glasgow.

FRIEDRICH LEZIVS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.

RUDOLF LIECHTENHAN, Th. Lie.,

Pastor In Buch, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland.

FRIEDRICH LIST (t), Ph.D.,

Late Studiendirektor, Munich.

FRIEDRICH ARM'!N LOOFS; Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halls.

JOHANN LOSERTH, Ph.D.,

Professor of History, University of Graz.

JAMES FREDERICK XcOURDY,

Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.

PEDER MADSEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Theology. University of Copenhagen.

WILHLLM JULIUS MANGOLD (t),Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Bonn.

THEODOR MEINHOLD,

Superintendent in Barth, Prussia.

JOHANNES MERZ, Ph.D.,

Consiatorial Councilor, Stuttgart.

PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consiatorlal Councilor, Hanover.

GEROLD XEYER VON BNONAU,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of History, University of Zurich.

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.

WILHELM ERNST MOELLER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology in Kiel.

RICHARD CARY XoRSE, X.a.,

General Secretary of the International Committee of Young

Men's Christian Associations.

GE03ELG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Leipsic.

CHR,ISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor in the Theological Seminary, Maulbronn,

W Urttemberg.

ALBERT HENRY NEWXAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Theo­

logical Seminary, Warn, Texas.

CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Re.

ligion, University of Basel.

MARGARET BLOODGOOD PEEBE (t),

Late Inspectresa‑General of the Martiniet Order for

America.




CARL PFENDER,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church,

Paris.

ERWIN PREUBCHEN, Ph.D., Th.D.,



Pastor at Hirachhorn‑on‑the‑Neckar, Germany.

QOTTHILF PAUL EVIL LEOPOLD

FRIEDRICH RANgE, Th.D.,

Head Pastor and Senior at Ltibeck.

GEORG CHRISTIAN RIETBCHEL, Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Leipaic.

ROBERT WILLIAM ROGERS, M.A.,

Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Drew

Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey.

FERDINAND SANDER,

Councilor for Schools in Bremen, Germany.

DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, Western Theological Semi­

nary, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania:

PHILIP SCHAFF (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Sem­

inary, New York, and Edior of the Original

SCHAFF‑HERZOO ENCYCLOPSDiA.

REINHOLD BCHMID, Th. Lie.,

Pastor in Oberholzheim, WUtttemberg.

CARL WILHELM BGHOELL (t),

Ph.D., D.D.,

Late Pastor of the Savoy Church, London.

THEODOR FRIEDRICH SCHOTT (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Librarian and Professor of Theology. University of

8tuttkart.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH BITTER VON

SCHULTE, Dr. Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Bonn.

LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE, Ph.D.,

'i'h.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

REINHOLD BEEBER(i, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Berlin.

EMIL B'EHLING, Dr. Jnr.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, Univer­

sity of Erlangen.




CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME VII


EDUARD BIMONS, Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Practical Theology, University

of Berlin.

PHILIPP FRIEDRICH ADOLPH THEO­

DOR SPAETH, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor in the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Mt. Airy,

Philadelphia.

GEORG EDUARD STEITZ (f), Th.D.;

Late Pastor in Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main.

HERMANN LEBERECHT BTRACS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Eae,

m B rl,


nd Semitic Languages, University of Berlin.

ERNST PETER WILHELM TROELTBCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

Heidelberg.

JOHANN GERHARD WILHELX

UHLH03ELN (t), Th,D.,

Late Abbot of Lokkum, Germany.

BIETBE DOUWEB VAN VEEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Utrecht.

JOHN PIENOT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of

Divinity, Paris.

JOHN VINSON,

Founder of the Church of the Living God.

WILHELM VOL03K (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Rostock.

GUSTAV WARNECS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Formerly Honorary Professor of the Science of Missions,

Halls.


JOHANNES WEISS, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of

Heidelberg.

EDWARD ELIHU WHITFIELD, M.A.,

Retired Public Schoolmaster, London.

ALBERT EDMUND WILLLA MBON,

Pastor in Brooklyn, N. Y.

OTTO ZOECSLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, Uni­

versity of Greifswald.

BA>lILTEL MARINUS ZWEMER,

Formerly Missionary in Arabia.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX‑yOLS. I‑VII

The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles contained in vole. L‑VII., and brings the literature down to March, 1910. In this list each title entry is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a rule only first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the latest edition, and in case the book is published both in America and in some other country, the American place of issue is usually given the preference.

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA: Werke in Ausleae, ed. H. Strigl, 6 vole., Vienna, 1904‑07.

ADAM OF BREMEN: P. W. Kohhnann, Adam von Bremen, Leipsie, 1909.

ADENEY, W. F.: See below, GOD.

AFRICA: S. A. Donaldson, Church Life and Thought

in North Africa, A.D. 200, London, 1909.

J. C. Lambert, Missionary Heroes in Afros, Philadelphia, 1909.

AGRICULTURE, HEBREW: F. Lundgreen, Die Be‑

2utzu der Pflanzenwelt in der alfte8tament­liMeligion, Giessen, 1908.

AINGER, A.: E. Siehel, The Life and Letters of Alfred Ainger, London, 1910.

ALEANDRO, G.: J. Pa uier, Lettres familihrea de JErome Alfandro 1610‑1f0), Paris, 1909.

AMORITE$: A. T. Clay, Amume, the Home of the Northern Semites; a Study showing that the Religion and Culture of Israel are not of Baby­lonian Origin, Philadelphia, 1910.

ANDERSON, G.: Hitherto Untold, New York, 1910.

ANDREwES, L.: An edition of his Manual for the Sick is published, New York, 1909.

ANGELS: T. Laval, Le Monde invisible, ou traits dogmatique et ascetique des angea, Paris, 1909.

ANGELUS: The Angelus and the Regina. Coeli; with a few short Notes, explanatory and historical, New York, 1910.

APOCRYPHA: H. M. Hughes, The Ethics of Jewish Apocryphal Literature, Lohdon, 1909.

APOLOGETICS: E. Boutraux, Science and Religion in Contemporary Philosophy, London, 1909.

H. C. KiLetters on the Greatness and Sim­plieity the Christian Faith, Boston, 1909.

A. S. Peale,, Christianity: its Nature and its Truth, New York, 1909.

W. S. Turton, The Truth of Christianity. Being an Examination of the more important Argu­ments for and against Believing in Christianity, New York, 1909.

C. D. Williams, A Valid Christianity jor To‑day, ib., 1909.



ARABIA: O. Weber, Eduard Glaser's Forschungs­reisen in Siidarabien, Leipsic, 1909.

ARIANISM: D. H. von Schubert, Das alteste germa­nische Christentum, oder der sogenannten "Arianismus" der Germanen, Tubingen, 1909.

ARISTOTLE: The Works of Aristotle are to be trans‑

lated into English under the editorship of J. A. Smith and W. D. Roes; of this series there have appeared the Parva naturalis, De lineus inaexTiua, Metaphysics.

I. Bywater, Aristotle on the Art of Poetry (Text,

Introduction, Tranel.), London, 1908‑1909.

ARNOLD, T.: H. M. Butler, Ten. Great and Good Men, New York, 1909.

ART AND CHURCH: L. von Sybel, Chriatliehe Antike. EirkJ'ithrung in die altchriatliche Kunst, vol. ii., Plastik, Architektur, urul Malerei, Marburg, 1909.

ASBURY, F.: G. P. Mains, Francis Asbury, London,

1910.


ATHANABIAN CREED: W. Hay, The Athanasian Creed, London, 1909.

ATONEMENT: E. DeW. Burton, and J. M. P. and G. B. Smith, Biblical Ideas of Atonement, Chicago, 1909.

AUGUSTINE: Scnpta. contra Donatistsa, pare iii., ed. M. Petachenig, Vienna, 1910.

BAALBEK: K. Maurer, Baalbek, Darmstadt, 1909.

BACON, B. W.: See below, JOHN THE APOSTLE.

BACON, R: Tuber primua Communium naturalium; Panes prima et seconds ed. R. Steele, New York, 1909, also Metaphysics, de viciia con. tractis in studio, ib., 1909.

BANKS, L. A.: The Problems of Youth; A Series of Discourses for Young People on Themes of the Book of Proverbs, New York, 1909.

BARNARA$: J. M. HeerDie veraio Latina des Barna­basbriejea and hr Yerhdltnia zur altlateini­sehen ibel, Freiburg, 1908.

BELLARMINE: J. de la SerVl6re, La ThklOg2e de Bel­larmine, Paris, 1909.

BIBLE TEXT: Der Codex Boerleerianua der Brieja des Apoatela Paulus in Liehtdruck naehgebildet, Lelpsic, 1909.

BIBLE VERSIONS: H. von Soden, Daa lateiniache

Neue Testament in Afrika zur Zeit Cypriana,

in T U, xxxiii., Leipsic, 1909.

Die aramdisehen B£bel‑Yersionzn (Targumim); Targum Jonatan ben Uzxiel and Targum Jeru­salem, Tent, Umschrift, and Ueberseizung . von M. Altschiiler, vol. i., Genesis, Vienna, 1909.




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