Assessing students’ Reading Comprehension through Multiple Choice and True False Test



Download 89,58 Kb.
Date conversion28.12.2016
Size89,58 Kb.
Assessing students’ Reading Comprehension through Multiple Choice and True False Test
Chandra Arnida

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Email: chandraarnida@yahoo.com

Abstract


Assessing of the student development in reading comprehension is very important. It is aimed to evaluate how the students comprehend the text. One way to evaluate student’s reading comprehension by conducting a test. There are many types of test that can be applied like short answer, true- false, matching, multiple choices, and essay question etc.

However based on the data from researcher’s interview with some teachers, they still have problems to decide what kind of the appropriate format tests to be applied. This study will discuss about the effective of using multiple choice and true false format in assessing the students reading comprehension. It will be done to see which one is more effective in gaining students’ comprehended in reading.

The sample of this research will be a class of eight grade students in one of the SMP in Pangkalpinang Bangka Belitung. There are 235 students as population and 38 students as a sample of this study that consists of 12 boys and 26 girls. This study will employ quantitative research in which reading comprehension test will be used as the data collection techniques. The data in form of students’ reading comprehension mean scores in both test item formats will be analyzed and compare in order to find out which one of the two formats is more effective to be used in assessing students’ reading comprehension, particularly in this class.

Some parts becomes the conclusion of the research: (1) the multiple choice mean score is higher than the true false; therefore the multiple choice is the effective way in gaining students’ reading comprehension in this research site, (2) the correlation between multiple choice and true false is 0.832 which means that they have positive high correlation, and (3) Based on the comparison t test and t table it is found that t test is higher that t table (4.257 > 2.0262). It means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. It indicates that there is difference result of multiple choice and True False test item in gaining students’ reading comprehension achievement.

Keywords: assessment, reading comprehension, test, multiple choice, true false

Abstrak


Menilai perkembangan siswa dalam pemahaman mereka terhadap bacaan merupakan hal yang sangat penting. Penilaian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa paham siswa terhadap bacaan tersebut. Salah satu cara untuk menilai kemampuan siswa dalam memahami bacaan adalah dengan tes. Ada banyak tipe tes yang bisa dilakukan sepeti : jawaban singkat, betul atau salah, menjodohkan, pilihan ganda, pertanyaan essei dan lain lain.

Bagaimanapun juga, berdasarkan data dari hasil interview dengan beberapa guru, didapatkan hasil bahwa mereka masih mempunyai masalah dalam memutuskan jenis tes yang tepat dalam mengukur kemampuan anak terhadap pemahaman bacaan. Penelitian ini membahas seberapa efektif penggunaan pilihan ganda dan benar atau salah dalam menilai kemampuan tersebut. Penelitian ini juga bermaksud untuk melihat tes mana yang lebih efektif dalam mendapatkan nilai anak terhadap pemahaman bacaan tersebut.

Sampel dari penelitian ini adalah murid kelas delapan dari salah satu sekolah menengah pertama (SMP) negeri di Pangkalpinang Bangka Belitung. Jumlah murid kelas delapan keseluruhan adalah 235 sebagai populasi dan 38 murid sebagai sampel dari penelitian ini. Mereka terdiri dari 12 orang anak laki laki, dan 26 orang perempuan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian quantitative, yang menggunakan ujian reading comprehension sebagai teknik pengumpulan datanya. Data yang didapat dari hasil mean skor kedua tes tersebut dianalisa untuk melihat bentuk tes mana yang lebih efektif yang digunakan dalam mendapatkan nilai pemahaman bacaan siswa, khususnya di kelas yang diteliti ini.

Kesimpulan dari penelian ini menghasilkan ( 1) rata-rata hasil test yang menggunakan format pilihan ganda lebih tinggi dibanding rata rata tes yang menggunakan format betul atau salah. Jadi format tes pilihan ganda adalah cara yang lebih baik dalam penelitian ini. (2) korrelasi antara pilihan ganda dan betul salah pada penelitian ini adalah 0.832, ini berarti bahwa ada positif korelasi yang cukup tinggi antara kedua format tes tersebut, dan (3) berdasarkan hasil perbandingan T-test and T-table, ditemukan bahwa T-test lebih tinggi dibanding T-table (4.257 > 2.0262). ini berarti bahwa H0 ditolak dan H1 diterima. Ini mencerminkan bahwa ada perbedaan hasil dari tes dengan format pilihan ganda dengan format betul salah dalam melihat nilai kemampuan siswa terhadap pemahaman mereka dalam membaca.


Keywords: assessment, reading comprehension, test, multiple choice, true false

Introduction

Assessment is a part of language teaching. Based on Miller (2009: 26) assessment is a systematic process that plays a significant role in effective teaching which begins with the identification of learning goals, monitors the progress students made toward those goals and ends with the judgment concerning the extent to which those goals have been attained

There are many ways in assessing student’s ability in language teaching. Testing is one of the part of it. tests are simply instruments or procedures for gathering particular kinds of information, typically information having to do with students’ language abili­ties. Tests may have a variety of formats, lengths, item types, scoring criteria, and media. Miller et al. (2009:139) state that the main goal of classroom testing and assessment is to obtain valid, reliable, and useful information concerning student achievement.

Aside of measuring the student’s ability, The language tests also use to influence or wash back on what and how the teachers teach; make selection decisions for entrance into universities; and certify that students have achieved a particular standard of language ability. Some objectives are stated as broad, general, long-range goals, e.g., ability to exercise the mental functions of reasoning, imagination, critical appreciation. These educational objectives are too general to be measured by classroom tests and need to be operationally defined by the class teacher.

There are some differentiate among language test types according to such characteristics and the information provided by each. Within the language classroom that is used tests to diag­nose areas of learner need or sources of learning difficulties, reflect on the effectiveness of materials and activities, en­courage student involvement in the learning process, track learner development in the L2, and provide students with feedback about their language learning progress for fur­ther classroom-based applications of language tests (Brown 1998; Cohen 1994).

The basic objective of an educational achievement test is to assess the desired changes

brought about by the teaching-learning process. Obviously, each subject demands a different set of instructional objectives are: knowledge, understanding, application and skill. On the other hand the major objectives of a language course are: knowledge, comprehension and expression. Knowledge objective is considered to be the lowest level of learning whereas understanding, application of knowledge in sciences / behavior sciences is considered higher levels of learning

Moreover in writing objectives test the teachers follow the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies instructional objectives into three major domains-cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The largest proportion of educational objectives falls into the cognitive domain.Bloom’s taxonomy classifies behaviors included in cognitive domain into the following categories: knowledge,comprehension, application, analysis, synthesi, evaluation.


Multiple Choice

Multiple-choice (MC) item is one of the most popular item formats used in educational assessment. A multiple choice item consists of a problem and a list of suggestion solutions. The problem may be stated. The advantage of multiple choice are easy to administer and score (Brown 2010: 295). Based on Wikipedia Multiple choice is a form of assessment in which respondents are asked to select the best possible answer (or answers) out of the choices from a list.


The multiple choice item is the most versatile type of test item available. It can measure a variety of learning outcomes from simple to complex, and it is adaptable to most types subject- matter content. It has such wide applicability and so many uses that many standardized tests use multiple choice items exclusively.
A typical multiple choice item has three parts: a stem that presents a problem; the correct or best answer; and several distractors (i.e., the wrong or less appropriate options). Multiple choice items can be constructed to assess a variety of learning outcomes, from simple recall of facts to Bloom’s highest taxonomic level of cognitive skills – evaluation (Osterlind, 1998). It is common knowledge that the correct answers should be distributed evenly among the alternative positions of multiple choice items, but there are many other important guidelines for writing good items. For example, Haladyna (1999) describes 30 guidelines for writing multiple choice items.
Related to the multiple choice test item and reading comprehension, Heaton (1995: 117) states that multiple choice test offers a useful way of testing reading comprehension. Certain general aspects of many reading tests may be suspect, for instance, does the usual brief extract for reading comprehension. The extract should also be related to its level of difficulty.

True false

Another language test format used in education assessment is true false format.

Most common use of the true-false item is in measuring the examinee’s ability to identify the

correctness of statements of fact, definitions of terms, statements of principles and distinguish fact from opinion. True-false tests include numerous opinion statements to which the examinee is asked to respond true or false. There is no objective basis for determining whether a statement of opinion is true or false. In most situations, when a student is the respondent, s/he guesses what opinion the teacher holds and marks the answers accordingly. This, of course, is not desirable from all standpoints, testing, teaching, and learning.

An alternative procedure is to attribute the opinion to some source, making it possible to mark the statements true or false with some objectivity. This would allow measuring knowledge concerning the beliefs that may be held by an individual or the values supported by an organization or institution. Another aspect of understanding that can be measured by the true-false item is the ability to recognize cause-and-effect relationships. This type of item usually contains two true propositions in one statement, and the examinee is to judge whether the relationship between them is true or false.

A major advantage of true false items is that are efficient. Students can typically respond to roughly three true false items in the time. It takes to respond to two multiple choice items (Ebel & frisbie, 1991). Proponents of true false items such as Ebel and Frisbie (1991) argue that verbal knowledge is central to educational achievement and that “all verbal knowledge can be expressed I propositions” which can be judged to be true or false (p135). They make a strong case that true false items have utility for measuring a broad range of verbal knowledge.

In constructing the true false item test, Miller (2009: 184) suggested some consideration in arranging true false items test. First, avoid broad general statement, avoid trivial statement, avoid the negative statement, avoid long complete sentence, avoid including two idea s in one statement, if opinion is used attribute it in some sources, true statement and false statement should be approximately equal in length. The number of true statements and false statements should be approximately equal.

Reading comprehension

Some experts have been introduced some concepts of reading. They have looked at reading from different perspectives, approaches, and purposes. Most of the concepts reflect the ideas to search meaning. Reading is defined as reacting to a written text as a piece of communication. By reading people can assume some communicative intent on the writer’s part which the reader has some purpose in attempting to understand (Wallace, 1992:4 Gebhard 1999: 197)). This means that the way of people perceive reading behavior is linked to different reader purposes that are linked to situation context and also their social expectation. According to Alexander (1989: 12), reading is interactive process in which a reader’s prior knowledge of the subject and purpose for reading operate to influence what is learning from the text.

Reading comprehension is defined as a process in which the reader constructs meaning and interacts with text trough combination of prior knowledge and previous experience, information in the text, the stance she or he takes in relationship to the text, and immediate, remembered, or anticipated social interaction and communication (Rudell, et, Al 1994).In reading the reader need to comprehend the text. This is in line with Smith 1994, 53 in Gebhard 1999, 197 states that comprehension may be regarded as relating what we attend to in the world around us – the visual information of print in the case of reading to what we already have in our heads as a consequence of attending to the world around us. In addition, reading comprehension involves taking meaning to text in order to obtain meaning from the text (Turner cited in Alexander 1988). As a conclusion, reading comprehension is an active process between the reader and the text. In this case the readers have to connect the ideas of the text they have already read and the process of constructing meaning from the text.

Connecting with the comprehension, Sadeghi (2007) states there are two factors which may influence reading comprehension, namely internal and external factors. The internal factors relates to reader variable. This refer to everything related the reader. For example his/her background knowledge, cognitive abilities and strategies, and affective characteristics. While the external factors refers to text variable, context variable and writer variable.

Reading comprehension involves taking meaning, Davis (1968 in Alderson 2000:9) identifies eight skills in comprehend the text. There are (1) recalling word meaning; (2) drawing inferences about the meaning of a word in context; (3) finding answers to questions answered explicitly or in paraphrase;(4) weaving together ideas in the content;(5) drawing inferences from the content; (6) recognizing a writer’s purpose, attitude, tone and mood; (7) identifying a writer’s technique;(8) following the structure of a passage.

Methodology

This study employed the quantitative research. Regarding the quantitative research, this study collects data and analyzes the data obtained from test. Dornyei (2007: 102) and Cresswell (2008 :54) argue that the quantitative are gathered to measure and find out what participants think about the variable. The statement is relevant to this study in the research. The tests are employed to measure the student’s comprehension to the reading text.

This study was conducted in one of the junior high school in Pangkalpinang Bangka Belitung the population of the research area the eight grade students in that school. The sample of this study is class 8A which consists of 12 boys and 26 girls.

In line with the research design employed and the topic of the study, the data collection technique used is in form of reading comprehension ability test. Emilia (2011:12) reported that test is usually administered at the beginning of the research before the implementation of a teaching program and at the end of the program to test the effectiveness of the program or a technique used.

There are many kinds of test items format, particularly those which can be used in assessing students’ reading comprehension ability. Brown (2010:224-258) listed and explained some of them; multiple choice, cloze task, impromptu reading plus comprehension, short answer tasks, and so on. In addition, Heaton (1988:113-133) also mentioned and elaborated some of the test item format that can be applied in assessing reading comprehension ability. Some of them are True/False reading test, multiple choice items, completion items, rearrangement items, cloze procedure, and open ended and miscellaneous items. In this study, the writer conducted two kinds of test item formats. They were multiple choice and true false.

The data got from students’ reading comprehension mean scores in both test item formats such as multiple choice test items and true false test items. They are analyzed and compared in order to find out which one of the two formats is more effective to be used in assessing students’ reading comprehension, particularly in the research site.


The hypothesis is as follow:

H0 = There is no difference result of multiple choice and True False test item in gaining students’ reading comprehension achievement

H1 = There is difference result of multiple choice and True False test item in gaining students’ reading comprehension achievement
Finding and Discussion

As it was mentioned before there were two kinds of data which were used in this study. First data collected through multiple choice tests and the second data collected through true false test. The test materials are in the form of reading material which consists of thirty items each of them. After conducting the test, the result of the data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics Ver. 22.the data analyzed in order to find out whether assessing students reading comprehension by using the multiple choice is more effective than using true false test.

Table 1


Paired Samples Statistics




Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

MC

81,8684

38

9,29159

1,50729

T/F

77,7632

38

10,70851

1,73715

Table 1 shows that the mean score of multiple choice is 81.86, standard deviation 9.2915, and the standard error mean is 1.50729 meanwhile, the mean score of true false is 77.7632, standard deviation 10.70851 and the standard error mean is 1.73715. This data indicates that the multiple choice mean score is higher than the true false; therefore the multiple choice is the effective way in gaining students’ reading comprehension in this research site.


Table 2

Paired Samples Correlations




N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

MC & T/F

38

,832

,000

In table 2 describe that the correlation between multiple choice and true false test is 0,832. Lazaraton (1991) says that the correlation lies in range between 1 and -1, in this research the correlation between multiple choice and true false is 0.832 which means that they have positive high correlation.

Table 3


Paired Samples Test




Paired Differences

T

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

VAR00001 - VAR00002

4,10526

5,94474

,96436

2,15127

6,05925

4,257

37

,000

The result of computation described on table 3 indicates that the T test is 4,257, while the T-table at significance level of 0.05, with the degree of freedom 37 is 2.0262. It indicates that the T-test is higher than T-table (T-test >T-table). Moreover the mean of paired difference is 4.10526. Overall, the results reported here clearly reveal that there are significant differences between mean achieved by the multiple choice test items rather than true false test items.

The results show that in case of this particular group of learners using multiple choice in gaining student’s reading comprehension test was able to help the EFL students a better comprehend and higher score in their test.

Based on the comparison t test and t table it is found that t test is higher that t table (4.257 > 2.0262). It means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. It indicates that there is difference result of multiple choice and True False test item in gaining students’ reading comprehension achievement


Conclusion

The present study is aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using multiple choices in reading comprehension assessment. The data got by using reading comprehension test in two format item tests. There are multiple choice and true false items test. Some parts becomes the conclusion of the research: (1) the multiple choice mean score is higher than the true false; therefore the multiple choice is the effective way in gaining students’ reading comprehension in this research site, (2) the correlation between multiple choice and true false is 0.832 which means that they have positive high correlation, and (3) Based on the comparison t test and t table it is found that t test is higher that t table (4.257 > 2.0262). It means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. It indicates that there is difference result of multiple choice and True False test item in gaining students’ reading comprehension achievement.

In conclusion, it is found that by using multiple choice test items is more effective than using true false test items that had been tested to the student. The results show that in case of this particular group of learners using multiple choice in doing testing at reading comprehension was able to help better comprehend the students’ comprehension in reading text. Although this study is small-scale and its results cannot be easily generalized, the writer believes that the present study can be of significance for a number of reasons
Recommendation
Based on the finding and conclusion, it was proved that the multiple choice item test is significantly help the students in answering the reading comprehension test. So that writer recommend to the teacher or the test maker arranging the test in the multiple choice form in assessing reading comprehension.

REFERENCES
Alderson, Charles, J. 2000. Assesing Reading. Combrigde University press

Alexander, J. Estil. (1989). Teaching Reading. Boston : Scott, foresman and Company

Brown, H. Douglas and Abeywickrama, Priyanvada. 2010. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practices Second Edition.NY: Pearson Education, Inc

Cresswel.J.W (2008) Education Research : Planning, Conducting and Evaluating quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey Pearson Education inc

Emilia, E. 2000. Research methods in education: hasil pemikiran. Bandung: jurusan pendidikan bahasa inggris FPBS universitas pendidikan Indonesia, mei 2000

Gebhard, Jerry G.1999. Teaching English as a foreign or Second language. The University of Michigan

Haladyna, T.M., & Downing, S.M. (1989b). The Validity of a Taxonomy of Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Rules. Applied Measurement in Education,
Hatch, E and Lazaraton, A. 1991. The Research Manual Design and Statistics for Applied Linguistics. USA: Newbury House Publishers, inc

Heaton, J. B. 1988. Writing English Language Tests.UK: Longman Group

Miller, M. David, Linn, Robert L., and Gronlund, Norman E. 2009.Measurement and Assessment in Teaching Tenth Edition.New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc

Osterlind, S. J. (1998). Constructing test items: Multiple-choice, constructed-response, performance and other formats (2nd ed.). New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers



Sadeghi, K. (2007). “ The Key for Successful Reader-Writer interaction ; Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension in L2 RevisitedAsian EFL journal,9 (3), article 10. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/sept_2007_ks.php.. retrieved October 12th 2013

Wallace, C. 1992. Reading. New York: Oxford University Press.


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page