Architecture, Construction, Communications and Transportation
COURSE: Carpentry II
UNIT 1: Roof Framing
A roof is a crowning feature of a building. It must be functional in preserving the building and its occupants and contents while adding to the structure’s overall aesthetic quality. Roof construction requires math skills beyond addition and subtraction it can be intimidation to the uninitiated but with a patient methodical approach these skills can be acquired by an earnest student. The construction industry, like all others, must be responsive to newer or better approaches to customer demands. This causes old materials to be abandoned in favor of new ones along with new methods for dealing with them.
--Content presented through – Reading - Slide Presentation – Classroom Discussion – Identification Worksheets – Debate Exercise – Lab Experience.
Time: 96) 50 minute periods
Author: Daniel Bohmer
Students with Disabilities:
For students with disabilities, the instructor should refer to the student's IEP to be sure that the accommodations specified are being provided. Instructors should also familiarize themselves with the provisions of Behavior Intervention Plans that may be part of a student's IEP. Frequent consultation with a student's special education instructor will be beneficial in providing appropriate differentiation.
GPS Focus Standards:
ACT-C2-1. Students will know and understand proper and necessary carpentry
tasks that enable a team to construct ceiling and roof systems.
Measure, lay out, and cut all types of ceiling framing members.
Measure, layout out, and cut all types of roof framing members.
Demonstrate a basic knowledge of truss systems.
GPS Academic Standards:
MC4P1. Students will solve problems (using appropriate technology).
SSCG18. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the powers of Georgia’s state and local governments.
ELA9LSV1. The student participates in student-to-teacher, student-to-student, and group verbal interactions.
SEV4. Students will understand and describe availability, allocation and conservation of energy and other resources.
SEV5. Students will recognize that human beings are part of the global ecosystem and will evaluate the effects of human activities and technology on ecosystems.
National / Local Standards / Industry / ISTE:
R801.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the roof-ceiling system for all buildings.
R8O1.2 Requirements. Roof and ceiling construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
R8O1.3 Roof drainage. In areas where expansive or collapsible soils are known to exist, all dwellings shall have a controlled method of water disposal from roofs that will collect and discharge roof drainage to the ground surface at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from foundation walls or to an approved drainage system.
WOOD ROOF FRAMING
R802.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for rafters, trusses and ceiling joists shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
R(802.1.1 Blocking. Blocking shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber.
R(802.1.2 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 1(802.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.
R(802.1.3 Fire-retardant-treated wood. Fire-retardant-treated wood (FRTW) is any wood product which, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in accordance with ASTM F 84, a listed flame spread index of 25 or less and shows no evidence of significant progressive combustion when the test is continued for an additional 20-minute period. In addition, the flame front shall not progress more than 10.5 feet (3200 mm) beyond the center line of the burners at any time during the test.
R(802.1.3.1 Labeling. Fire-retardant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall contain:
1. The identification mark of an approved agency in accordance with Section 1703.5 of the International Building Code.
2. Identification of the treating manufacturer.
3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment.
4. The species of wood treated.
5. Flame spread and smoke-developed rating.
6. Method of drying after treatment.
7. Conformance to appropriate standards in accordance with Sections R802.1.3.2 through R802.l.3,5.
8. For FRTW exposed to weather, or a damp or wet location, the words “No increase in the listed classification when subjected to the Standard Rain Test” (ASTM D 2898).
R802.1.3.2 Strength adjustments. Design values for untreated lumber and wood structural panels as specified in Section R802.1 shall be adjusted for fire-retardant-treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be based upon an approved method of investigation which takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying procedures.
R802.1.3.2.1 Wood structural panels. The effect of treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retardant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5516. The test data developed by ASTM D 5516 shall be used to develop adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or both for untreated plywood design values in accordance with ASTM D 6305. Each manufacturer shall publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for service as floor and roof sheathing for their treatment.
R802.1.3.2.2 Lumber. For each species of wood treated, the effect of the treatment and the method of redrying after treatment and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the allowable design properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5664. The test data developed by ASTM 0 5664 shall be used to develop modification factors for use at or near room temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity in accordance with ASTM D 6841. Each manufacturer shall publish the modification factors for service at temperatures of not less than 800F (270C) and for roof framing. The roof framing modification factors shall take into consideration the climatological location.
R802.1.3.3 Exposure to weather. Where fire-retardant-treated wood is exposed to weather or damp or wet -locations, it shall be identified as “Exterior’ to indicate there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as defined in Section R802. 1.3 when subjected to ASTM D 2898.
R802.1.3.4 Interior applications. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall have a moisture content of not over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3201 procedures at 92 percent relative humidity. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with Section R802.1.3.2.l or R802.1.3.2.2. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of this section.
R802.1.3.5 Moisture content. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural panels before use. For wood kiln dried after treatment (KDAT) the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted for the tests described in Section R802.l.3.2.1 for plywood and R802. 22.214.171.124 for lumber.
R802.1.4 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
R802.1.5 Structural log members. Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted to be accepted.
R802.2 Design and construction. The framing details required in Section R802 apply to roofs having a minimum slope of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) or greater. Roof-ceilings shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R606.ll(l), R606.ll(2) and R606.ll(3) or in accordance with AFPA/NDS. Components of roof-ceilings shall be fastened in accordance with Table R602.3( I).
R802.3 Framing details. Rafters shall be framed to ridge board or to each other with a gusset plate as a tie. Ridge board shall be at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness and not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter. At all valleys and hips there shall be a valley or hip rafter not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness and not less in dept than the cut end of the rafter. Hip and valley rafters shall be supported at the ridge by a brace to a bearing partition or be designed to carry and distribute the specific load at that point. Where the roof pitch is less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope), structural members that support rafters and ceiling joists, such as ridge beams, hips and valleys, shall be designed as beams.
R802.3.1 Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other in accordance with Table R802.5.l(9), and the rafter shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance with Table R602.3(l). Ceiling joists shall be continuous or securely joined in accordance with Table R802.5. 1(9) where they meet over interior partitions and are nailed to adjacent rafters to provide a continuous tie across the building when such joists are parallel to the rafters.
Where ceiling joists are not connected to the rafters at the top wall plate, joists connected higher in the attic shall be installed as rafter ties, or rafter ties shall be installed to provide a continuous tie. Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters rafter ties shall be installed. Rafter ties shall be a minimum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) (nominal), installed in accordance with the connection requirements in Table R802.5.1(9), or connections of equivalent capacities shall be provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter ties are not provided, the ridge formed by these rafters shall be supported by a wall or girder designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Collar ties or ridge straps to resist wind uplift shall be connected in the upper third of the attic space in accordance with Table R602.3(l).
Collar ties shall be a minimum of 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) (nominal), spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center
R802.3.2 Ceiling joists lapped. Ends of ceiling joists shall be lapped a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) or butted over bearing partitions or beams and toenailed to the bearing member. When ceiling joists are used to provide resistance to rafter thrust, lapped joists shall be nailed together in accordance with Table R602.3(l) and butted joists shall be tied together in a manner to resist such thrust.
R802.4 Allowable ceiling joist spans. Spans for ceiling joists shall be in accordance with Tables R802.4(1) and R802.4(2). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
R802.5 Allowable rafter spans. Spans for rafters shall be in accordance with Tables R802.5. 1(1) through R802.5. 1(8). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. The span of each rafter shall be measured along the horizontal projection of the rafter.
R802.5.1 Purlins. Installation of purlins to reduce the span of rafters is permitted as shown in Figure R802.5.l. Purlins shall be sized no less than the required size of the rafters that they support. Purlins shall be continuous and shall be supported by 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) braces installed to bearing walls at a slope not less than 45 degrees from the horizontal. The braces shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center and the unbraced length of braces shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
R802.6 Bearing. The ends of each rafter or ceiling joist shall have not less than 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or concrete.
R802.6.1 Finished ceiling material. If the finished ceiling material is installed on the ceiling prior to the attachment of the ceiling to the walls, such as in construction at a factory a compression strip of the same thickness as the finish ceiling material shall be installed directly above the top plate of bearing walls if the compressive strength of the finish ceiling material is less than the loads it will be required to withstand. The compression strip shall cover the entire length of such top plate and shall be at least one-half the width of the top plate. It shall be of material capable of transmitting the loads transferred through it.
R802.7 Cutting and notching. Structural roof members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section.
R802.7.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists. rafters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. The diameter of the holes bored or cut into members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the member. ‘Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch.
Exception: Notches on cantilevered portions of rafters are permitted provided the dimension of the remaining portion of the rafter is not less than 4-inch nominal (102 mm) and the length of the cantilever does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm).
R802.7.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.
R802.S Lateral support. Rafters and ceiling joists having a depth-to-thickness ratio exceeding 5 to 1 based on nominal dimensions shall be provided with lateral support at points of bearing to prevent rotation.
R802.8.1 Bridging. Rafters and ceiling joists having a depth-to-thickness ratio exceeding 6 to 1 based on nominal dimensions shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal) or a continuous 1-inch by 3-inch (25 mm by 76 mm) wood strip nailed across the rafters or ceiling joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm).
R802.9 Framing of openings. Openings in roof and ceiling framing shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. When the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header joist may be a single member the same size as the ceiling joist or rafter. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the ceiling joists or rafter framing into the header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when the header joist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
R802.1O Wood trusses.
R802.1O.1 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, prepared in conformance to Section R802.10.1, shall be provided to the building official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below. Truss design drawing shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the jobsite.
1. Slope or depth, span and spacing.
2. Location of all joints.
3. Required bearing widths.
4. Design loads as applicable.
4.1. Top chord live load (as determined from Section R30l.6).
4.2. Top chord dead load.
4.3. Bottom chord live load.
4.4. Bottom chord dead load.
4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of application.
4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads.
5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design values for conditions of use.
6. Each reaction force and direction.
7. Joint connector type and description (e.g., size, thickness or gage) and the dimensioned location of each joint connector except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface.
8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member.
9. Connection requirements for:
9.1. Truss to girder-truss.
9.2. Truss ply to ply.
9.3. Field splices.
10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum description for live and total load.
11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to enable the building designer to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemental documents.
12. Required permanent truss member bracing location.
R802.1O.2 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The design and manufacture of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TM 1. The truss design drawings shall be prepared by a registered professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed in accordance with Section R 106.1.
Understandings & Goals
Students will understand proper and necessary carpentry tasks that enable a team to construct ceiling and roof systems.