Archaeology



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2001
Crowther, Alison (2001): Pots, Plants and Pacific Prehistory: Residue Analysis of Plain Lapita Pottery from Anir, New Ireland, c. 3300 B.P.
Identification of plant-processing in Pacific prehistory is problematic because direct evidence in the form of macrobotanical remains is rare, particularly for roots and tubers. Hypotheses for the exploitation of roots and tubers by Lapita peoples have been formulated on the basis of comparative ethnography and historical linguistics. Indirect evidence has come from putative plant-processing artefacts, domestic animal remains (arguably associated with a horticultural production system), land-use patterns and other evidence in the archaeological record.

An exploratory analysis of residues on undecorated potsherds from the Early Lapita site, Kamgot, New Ireland, dating to c. 3300 BP, was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Lapita people used root and tuber crops. The result of the analysis indicates that abundant levels of starch grains and raphides were present on these artefacts, and a large quantity of raphides was also present in the sediment. These residues were identified as taro (Colocasia esculenta).

This represents the first direct evidence obtained from anywhere that Coloclasia esculenta was processed by Lapita peoples, and has thus made an important contribution to archaeological understanding of early plant processing in the Pacific. It is also the first study of surface residues on Lapita pottery to ascertain their actual use. This research demonstrates that the analysis of cooking residues on pottery is an alternative to traditional archaeobotanical recovery methods in the Pacific.
Spark, Jennifer (2001): Otago Archaeology: Purakaunui (2001) A Socially Engaged Video Documentary.
A video documentary was produced as a visual account of the February-March (2001) field school excavation at Purakaunui, conducted by the Anthropology Department of Otago University as paper ANTH 405. Drs Richard Walter and Ian Barber conducted the work and field technician Rex Thorley filmed most of the footage. This was then converted to digital format and edited and produced into a complete documentary. The video focuses on the process of the archaeological excavation from a post-processual theoretical perspective investigating the role of subjectivity in archaeology, the hypothetical and evolving nature of archaeological knowledge and the relation between past and the present, and was created with a view to addressing certain issues surrounding the public representation of archaeology. The video also provides an opportunity to highlight the issue of archaeological resource management in a publicly accessible manner.
Stuart, Colleen (2001): What in the World do Fish Scales Contribute to Archaeological Interpretation? A literature review of methods and applications.
Fish scales offer another avenue of archaeological investigation that can contribute to individual site interpretation, intersite comparisons, regional patterns and environmental reconstruction. The application of information gleaned from fish scale analysis is not limited only to hypotheses on fishing, dietary contributions and marine environments, but may also be used in conjunction with other information to pursue research relating to human impacts on pristine environments, regional climate changes, seasonal site occupation, preservation and storage of fish and variation in human food preference.

In the South Pacific (particularly in New Zealand) very little work has been done using scales. However, information drawn from around the world suggests that scale analysis could play a useful role in Pacific faunal research. Fisheries scientists in New Zealand and the Pacific have been making use of scale information for over fifty years and such data can be applied in archaeology. This dissertation discusses the human use of fish and zooarchaeological studies of scales to date, before examining ichthyology (especially the classification of fish scales) and lepidoarchaeology as a subsection of zooarchaeology and providing an assessment of analytical value.


Wylie, Joanna (2001).: Cross-cultural Use and Significance of Tutu (Coriaria spp.) in Aotearoa New Zealand.
In this dissertation, ethnographic and historic resources were used in conjunction with limited archaeological data to determine the cross-cultural use and significance of tutu (Coriaria spp.) in prehistoric, protohistoric and historic New Zealand. It was revealed that tutu was predominately used both by Maori and Europeans to make a popular beverage known as waitutu or tutu juice, which was extracted from the ripe berries in summer and early autumn. Maori were also found to have used the juice as a flavouring for other wild plant foods such as fern root and bull kelp, and it was additionally utilised for medicinal purposes, as were the young shoots and leaves of the plant. Ethnographic and historic sources further revealed however that tutu was renowned for its potentially lethal toxicity to both humans and animals, which consequently raised the paradox of why both Maori and Europeans bothered to prepare tutu juice given the severe toxicity of the species. This dissertation argues that Maori went to the effort of processing the juice because it supplied much needed energy in the form of fructose and glucose (natural sugars), whilst Europeans most probably processed the juice because of its highly favourable taste, although their decision may also be tied to a colonial ‘risk-taker mentality’ of the protohistoric and early historic periods.

Drawing upon the findings from archaeological excavations at the Bronze Age site of Ban Lum Khao, the Iron Age sites of Non Muang Kao, Noen U-Loke and Phum Snay, and the early historic site of Oc Eo, together with information offered by ancient Chinese Annals and an analysis of pre-Angkor inscriptions, it is contended that insight will be gained into the nature of society of pre-Angkor Cambodia, from the 1st to the early 9th centuries AD. Archaeological and historical data are synthesized for better comprehension of the Khmer cultural, religious, social and political life as the first states developed.


2000
James-Lee, Tiffany (2000): Gender and its Role in Melanesian Exchange Systems.

This dissertation argues that archaeology can make a substantial contribution to the study of exchange in Melanesia. It is proposed that the most effective way archaeology can do this is through an holistic approach which combines both social anthropology and archaeology. The social anthropology of exchange is discussed: first exchange is defined; second, the development of the study of exchange is discussed, with emphasis on such important scholars as Malinowski and Mauss; third, the work and themes apparent in the study of exchange in Melanesian social anthropology are discussed. Then the archaeology of exchange is dealt with: the changing approaches to the archaeology of exchange are discussed; basic contributions to the archaeology of exchange in Melanesia are examined; and the strengths of the archaeological approach are looked at. The conclusion ties together the disciplines of anthropology and archaeology in a holistic approach. The holistic approach eliminates the weaknesses inherent in both the archaeology and anthropology of exchange in Melanesia. A methodology for the holistic approach to the study of exchange in Melanesia is outlined. Thus this dissertation shows that the archaeology of exchange can make a substantial contribution to the study of exchange in Melanesia.


Knowles, Jodie (2000): Analysis of Shag Point Debitage.
This dissertation examines a lithic debitage assemblage from Shag Point (J43/1 1), North Otago New Zealand. The site was excavated during (1998), (1999) and (2000) and the lithic assemblage collected from 96msq excavated during these three field seasons.

Previous studies of lithic material from New Zealand sites are discussed to indicated the range of information that can be gained from lithic analysis. The North Otago region is also examined to place Shag Point into its regional context.

This dissertation had three main areas of investigation. The first involved a descriptive and technological analysis of the debitage. Secondly, spatial analysis was used to determine if the debitage could be used to infer intra-site activity areas. The third area of investigation was to determine if trade and exchange was present at the site, through the analysis of lithic material.
Koirala, Nicholas (2000): Analysis of the Canterbury Museum Archaeological Seal and Moa Assemblages from Anapai.
The archaeological site at Anapai is the only reported western Tasman Bay site to contain moa and seal remains. While the site has long since been eroded away, much of the analysis of the material from the site is still to be carried out. This dissertation examines the seal remains excavated from the site in 1962 and stored, largely unprocessed, in the Canterbury Museum.

The analysis of these seal remains is reported. This work identifies elements of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctus hookeri), and a single femur from a leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx). The age and sex composition of the seal populations represented in the site is determined where possible, showing the presence of females and juveniles. These results are consistent with exploitation of a breeding colony, although there is no such colony near Anapai today. The representation of elements was identified and graphed, showing that fur seals were brought to the site relatively complete. This suggests that hunting most likely occurred in close proximity to the site.

Records of other Tasman Bay sites containing seal remains are compared with the Anapai results in order to investigate regional patterns of seal exploitation. Though these other Tasman Bay sites are all located in eastern Tasman Bay, an argument can be made that seal meat was an important means of subsistence for the earliest Polynesian settlers at specialist stone working or extraction sites around the northern South Island.
Purdue, Carla (2000): Adaptations to the Cold at Murihiki
Upon arrival in the southern South Island (Murihiku), the initial Polynesian settlers were faced with many challenges. These included unfamiliar subsistence resources, landscapes and rather significantly, a climate that was considerably cooler than what they were accustomed to. Adaptations would have had to have been made in order to survive in this environment where rain and cold temperatures occurred frequently. This study focuses not only on the climatic conditions facing the southern Maori, but also considers the necessary internal and external adaptations involved. These include an analysis of food and energy requirements, subsistence resources available to the Maori, clothing style and housing form. Through an investigation of each of these areas and considering the possible detrimental effects that living in a cold climate may have upon quality of life, it is clear that the southern Maori people needed to develop effective ways of negating the effects of the cold. They achieved this through the careful utilization of seasonally available and high energy resources, the development of preservation techniques and utilitarian housing forms.
Walsh, Rebeca (2000): Moa Hunting at Anapai.
Anapai is the only moa-bearing midden in northwest Tasman Bay. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether the moa remains at Anapai are likely to have derived from localised hunting, and whether the palaeoenvironment of the site is likely to have supported moa populations.

The Anapai moa remains (Canterbury Museum assemblage) with the exception of six unidentifiable fragments, are all from the leg region of the moa. This suggests the possible importation of the haunches only. The species Anomalopteryx didiformis was positively identified by Worthy at the site, while two other individuals were indistinguishable between Anomalopteryx didiformis, Megalaptetyx didinus, and Emeus crassus respectively.



Reconstruction of the surrounding environment suggests that Anamalopteryx didiformis could have been supported by the vegetation of the area. It is proposed that this region was not “teeming” with moa, but in fact had very little. This is evidenced by Anapai (MNI 3) and numbers of individuals identified in other Tasman Bay contexts (eastern Tasinan Bay sites). Research by Anderson on the windward and leeward provinces in New Zealand provides some background to an understanding of moa species distribution. Tasman Bay is located in the windward province where big game populations were small. This suggests that the moa remains from Anapai were most likely to have derived from opportunistic hunting. The remains suggest that only the lower leg body parts were brought to the site, with the kill probably occurring in a localised context.
1999
Bignall, Alex (1999): The Archaeology of Ethnicity.
This dissertation explores current archaeological thought pertaining to the study of ethnicity, considering this within the context of North American plantation sites. Past approaches taken within Plantation Archaeology are reviewed and critiqued in order to illustrate the absence of an adequate consideration of the formulation of cultural identity among slave populations. Past archaeological research has created a dichotomy between primordialist and instrumentalist views of ethnicity, or else not considered ethnicity at all. The concept of the habitus is introduced as a working theoretical framework within which to consider ethnic identity formation and maintenance, incorporating the essential social, political and economic forces inherent within the dynamics of the plantation superstructure.
Brooks, Emma (1999): A Time of Change – Totaranui 1770-1820.
A number of journals from the seven visits by the Cook expeditions to Queen Charlotte Sound in the South Island of New Zealand between 1770 and 1777 are examined in order to infer local settlement patterns and subsistence practices. These practices are then placed beside the information from the journals of the Russian visit to the Sound in 1820. Change is noted in settlement patterns and for the first time cultivation is observed. The archaeological evidence is then examined for those sites that can be confidently associated with the European visits. They suggest that there is scope for archaeological investigation of early culture contact and aspects of late prehistoric life. This scope is enhanced by the dearth of previous archaeological research in this area. Areas for potential future research include possible evidence of gardening and midden analysis.
Dickenson, Brooke (1999): The Past in the Pages of the National Geographic: An Examination of the Popular Representation of Archaeology.
The scientific content of archaeological articles published in the National Geographic was examined for the period between 1950-(1998). Factors affecting article content were also discussed for their influence upon the popular representation of archaeology in the magazine. The modernisation of the National Geographic was considered in reference to articles published within the sample period, which was also a critical phase in the development of the discipline of archaeology. Specifically, archaeological articles were analysed for their relationship to research and practice within professional archaeology. In total, 226 articles about archaeology were published during this period. An examination of each of these articles has shown that the magazine both creates and reflects popular perceptions of archaeology. While the National Geographic does depict archaeology in a popular manner that appeals to members of the public, it reflects academic developments to a greater extent than originally predicted by this study, and makes a valuable contribution to public perceptions of archaeology.
Dickson, Hamish (1999): A Functional Analysis of Coral Tools from Late Prehistoric Moloka’l Island, Hawaii.
During the course of archaeological fieldwork conducted late in 1978, 425 artifacts relating to fishhook manufacture were recovered from site 38 on Moloka’i Island in the Hawaiian chain. Fishhook manufacturing artifacts include Porities sp coral and echinoid urchin spine abraders, basalt flakes, bone fishhook blanks and bone fishhook debitage.

Artifacts deemed coral abraders were studied from this site and will be the focus of this dissertation. It is generally believed that coral abraders were used to manufacture fishhooks.

This dissertation as two main aims: 1) To form a classification system (non-classificatory arrangement; after Dunnel, 1971) for the purpose of ascertaining a functional to coral tools in relation to fishhook manufacture and 2) To devise a standardised system for the measurement of attributes on coral abraders that may aid future functional studies.

A definition and basic description of coral tools will be provided along with a review of the literature regarding coral artifacts, classification systems and typologies. A justification will be given as to why the chosen classification system was used. Methods used in measuring attributes are described and discussed, followed with a detailed description of each artifact class. Each class description is accompanied with possible functions. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented.


Hughes, Anita (1999): Looking Back: A Study of Female Figures on Angkor Wat.
This study concentrates on how the images of females changed as they moved from India to Southeast Asia, focusing on the temple of Angkor Wat (1113-50). To begin to understand the images of females carved upon the walls of Angkor Wat, it is first necessary to go back and be aware of the cultural origins from which these images developed. Angkor Wat was obviously heavily influenced by neighbouring India both in the religion, style, and architecture, therefore it is important to know from where Indian culture, religion and art developed . Indian portrayals of femininity and beauty are discussed and compared with the images of women at Angkor Wat to help in the interpretation of the images that later evolved in conjunction with local cultural beliefs and practices. The images at Angkor Wat are also interpreted as an indication of how women were seen and related to in the contemporary Khmer society
Lawson, Kathleen (1999): Sourcing Prehistoric Pacific Pottery.
A great deal remains unanswered and uncertain in Pacific prehistory, despite the amount of research that has been conducted in this region. Of particular interest to archaeologists working in the Pacific has been the understanding of the colonisation of the Pacific, the origins of settling populations, and subsequent interaction between island societies. Pottery provides a way of eliminating ambiguities often presented in other forms of study. A piece of pottery can be matched to the area where it was most likely manufactured, by identifying the mineral and/or chemical composition of the raw materials used in the piece, along with the composition found in the suspected sources. The aim of this work is to show how and why pottery characterization techniques work, and then to review past sourcing studies conduced in the Pacific, to demonstrate how this form of research can aid in unveiling aspects of Pacific prehistory. I explain why characterization studies provide more precise evidence of migration and contact than stylistic analyses do, and describe how the various sourcing techniques used in characterizing Pacific pottery work. Ceramic sourcing studies from the Pacific are reviewed and the future outlook of sourcing studies are discussed. I provide suggestions for the advancement of this kind of research in the Pacific.
Lubcke, Eva (1999): By Their Buildings Ye Shall Know Them: Class and Domestic Space, Dunedin, 1902-1910.
The deduction of the status/class of a household from their domestic dwelling is a practice in archaeology which is strongly grounded within a set of assumptions pertaining to this link between the material and immaterial realm of society. The common assumption is that the elite reside in larger, more architecturally complex houses than their poorer counterparts, irrespective of the space and time components of the culture under investigation.

The aim of this research project was to test this assumption through the study of the degree of ‘fit’ between class and the spatial components of eighty dwellings from the ethno-historical context of Dunedin, New Zealand, during the late Victorian/Edwardian era, dating between 1902 and 1910.

The methodology involved correlating a number of social and economic class indicators, deduced from the historical literature, and correlating these with a set of spatial indicators pertaining to the size and architectural form of the houses.

The overall findings indicate that whilst the archaeologist may be able to grasp the basic features of the social organisation of a prehistoric society from the spatial composition of the households, the more intricate elements of a culture and its class structure are likely to be hidden from view, embedded within the particulars of the architectural design.


Payne, Barbara (1999): Ten Hotels You Say! The Number and Location of Hotels in 19th Century Kingston.
The township of Kingston on the southern shore of Lake Wakatipu was the main transfer point for the transportation of goods from Invercargill and Dunedin to Queenstown from late in 1862. Gold had been found in the area and settlements were quickly created. This essay researches the number of hotels, their locations, and any physical evidence that remains in Kingston of these nineteenth century hotels. Oral history mentions ten or twelve hotels.

The sources used were the primary records of Lake County, Deed Registers, maps and plans, and secondary sources of newspapers and books, as well as photographs. I spoke to past and present residents who provided additional information to the written sources.

I found that prior to the railway opening in 1878 at least 5 and up to 8 hotels were known to be trading at Kingston from 1863, although some were very short-­lived. Two later hotels opened in 1878 by the railway station at the west-end of Kingston. Excavation reports of hotels operating in the 1860s near Kingston provided information without the expense of excavation.

Only one building, the ‘Ship Inn’, which was a hotel from about 1869 to 1876, remains today as visible evidence of any hotel structure of this period. The sections along the waterfront on Cornwall Street, where the hotels were located, have been completely cleared and/or built on. An empty section with patches of concrete and asphalt remains as evidence of the later hotels built from 1878, which burnt down. Bottles and ceramics have been collected from these sections. In (1999) the remaining tavern is situated beside the railway station.

Except for the period in 1863 and 1864 Kingston has remained a settlement of few people and buildings. This research has shown that the demise of the hotels from 1864 is reflected in the settlement’s prosperity. Kingston was an important transport hub and the hotels catered for the associated people. The railway and the lack of a road until 1936 to Queenstown ensured that Kingston survived into the twentieth century.
Van Wijk, Rachael (1999): Feasts and Fasts.
A (1997) article by Cooper and McLaren demonstrated that the dietary patterns of the nineteenth century explorers’ diets underwent three stages of development. Initially they relied heavily on bought provisions, but as bush skills improved more native food was exploited. As mounted expeditions became a viable option, the explorers once again returned to a diet relying on European provisions.

This dissertation demonstrates that explorers in New Zealand did not undergo the same stages of development, despite developing similar culinary traditions that drew on their common British heritage. The discrepancy is due to differences between the two colonies in terms of environment and landscape, and the degree of cross-cultural interaction between the colonists and the indigenous people. The diets differed most in their exploitation of native foods. Differences in diets seen throughout New Zealand may be attributable to a number of causes. Environmental differences, the density of the Maori population and the state of relations between them and the local Pakeha, the reason for the journey and its financial backing, the length of the trip, and finally their mode of travel, are all contributing factors.




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