Garland, Jessie (2009): The Spaces in Between: A Comparative Analysis of Archaeological Approaches to Contact in Classical and Modern Colonisation .
Through a comparative analysis of archaeological approaches towards colonial contact during the so-called classical and modern eras of colonization, this study seeks to explore the theoretical background behind recent scholarly publications on the subject. The sub-disciplines of Classical and Historical archaeology share a reliance on documentary and material records as well as encompassing two of the more prominent instances of colonial expansion in regard to the development of the modern world. They remain separated however, studied as separate disciplines in certain institutions and it is the purpose of this work to see how far below the surface the distinction goes. In light of the dissolution of the Western colonial empire of the last few centuries and the development of post-colonial and post-modern philosophies it is of interest to see how well those theories have been applied to the ancient world and whether their permutation of Classical Archaeology coincided with their application in a modern context. These aims have been addressed through the analysis of a selection of case studies illustrating the various ways in which colonial contact has been approached in each context, comparing the two fields on a variety of levels. It is evident from this analysis that there are trends in theoretical and practical approaches to contact that exist within each sub-discipline as well as those which transcend the boundary between them, suggesting that there could be further benefit to archaeological investigations in looking beyond the superficial divisions of the various fields within the discipline as a whole.
Gosling, Anna (2009): Larnach's Farmsteading: an archaeological and historical study.
This dissertation describes the history and archaeology of the site of Larnach’s Farmstead (I44/412). This site consists of a group of farm buildings located on Otago Peninsula constructed for the late William James Mudie Larnach in the 1870s to 1880s. This study contributes to the small amount of literature available on the topic of historic farmstead archaeology in New Zealand. Historical research in conjunction with mapping and site description was undertaken to help determine why the buildings were constructed in the manner they were. Comparison with other historic farm buildings found that Larnach’s farm steadings were not unlike other New Zealand examples in the architectural sense, but their spatial orientation, in relation to each other and in relation to the landscape, makes them unique.
Hauman, Cathleen (2009): The Social Organisation of Bronze Age Thailand: A Comparative Study of Mortuary Ceramics from Ban Non Wat and Ban Lum Khao.
Southeast Asia is anomalous in that a hierarchical type of social order does not appear to have developed with the onset of the Bronze Age, as was the case in the rest of the world. Two sites in Northeastern Thailand, Ban Non Wat and Ban Lum Khao, were chosen to test whether hierarchical structures were present in the early Bronze Age through a comparative analysis of one of the most common mortuary ceramic vessels, form 5E according to the classification system developed by O’Reilly (1999; 2004) and Barribeau (2007) for Ban Lum Khao and Ban Non Wat, respectively. The lip, neck and body diameters of this broad trumpet-rimmed and slender-necked form were recorded and converted into lip to neck and body to neck ratios for further analysis. Scatter plots indicated that the vessels from two early and very wealth Bronze Age phases at Ban Non Wat (Ban Non Wat BA2 and Ban Non Wat Ba3) were very similar to those from the relatively poor mortuary phase of Ban Lum Khao. This similarity was confirmed using ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe tests. It is proposed that the similarity in these vessels indicates that they were manufactured roughly contemporaneously. This indicates that a very rich group of people were living at or around the same time as a very poor group of people. The evidence at Ban Non Wat for wealth and status differentiation would undoubtedly have affected the social organisation of Ban Lum Khao, which, due to its much smaller excavation area, may still yield evidence of hierarchical structures.
Lilley, Kate (2009): Prehistoric Fishing in Central New Zealand and the investigation into Impacts on Environmentally Sensitive Snapper.
This dissertation sets out to examine the nature of prehistoric central New Zealand fishing, with a particular focus on the size and abundance of snapper. The investigation is undertaken by examining previously studied central New Zealand archaeological sites, as well as an unstudied midden assemblage from Port Taranaki. These archaeological assemblages provide case studies for the marine zones exploited by prehistoric Maori. This study also examines the relative importance of specific fish species, both spatially and temporally.
Firstly, this study examines the environments exploited and fish species targeted in central New Zealand during prehistory, with a particular focus on the Port Taranaki fish assemblage. Snapper are the dominant species represented at Port Taranaki, followed by labrids. The midden mainly comprises of inshore demersal species which are commonly caught with baited hook. Pelagic fish commonly caught with lures are of secondary importance. When examining central New Zealand sites as a whole, some commonalities can be seen. In all sites examined, the prehistoric people focussed almost exclusively on inshore fisheries, targeting available habitats, for specific species. These people appear to have used demersal baited hooks as their primary fishing strategy. However, at some sites pelagic lure fishing was dominant. The main trend seen over time in central New Zealand is a decrease in snapper catch. This generally coincides with an increase in barracouta and red cod in the northern South Island and an increase in labrids in the southern North Island. The variation in relative abundance of species between the northern South Island and the Southern North Island is likely to be associated with environmental factors.
This dissertation also analyses snapper remains to determine whether regional patterns can be inferred. It also examines whether environmental or cultural impacts can be identified from this environmentally sensitive species. Live fork lengths of individuals are estimated from archaeological snapper bones from Port Taranaki, Kaupokonui, Rotokura, Mana Island and Foxton. Snapper from all multi-layer sites show an increase in mean size over time and this coincides with a decline in snapper abundance. Variation in snapper size can be seen throughout central New Zealand with individuals from Rotokura, Port Taranaki and Kaupokonui having larger fork lengths than Mana Island and Foxton. Although similarities and differences can be clearly seen when examining these assemblages, it is difficult to determine the reason for these results. This is due to the myriad of variables which influence the nature of individual snapper populations.
Webb, Kirsa (2009): The Farmsteads of Harbour Cone: An Archaeological Analysis.
This archaeological analysis explores the nature of the physical remains of a number of farmsteads within a small agricultural settlement at Harbour Cone on the Otago Peninsula. An intensive field survey was carried out at some of the farmsteads which described and mapped the surface features of the sites with the aim of developing an interpretation of the economic activities and social interactions within the Harbour Cone community, as well as increasing understanding of the nineteenth century development of agriculture in New Zealand. The subsequent abandonment of dairy farming at Harbour Cone has left behind a pristine archaeological landscape of outstanding archaeological and historical significance.
Bell, Alex (2008): Field Systems at Pouerua: An archaeological survey and interpretation.
This dissertation research project examines the extensive prehistoric and early historic horticultural remains that surround Pouerua pa in the inland Bay of Islands, Northland. While the central Pouerua pa and surrounding settlements have been the focus of much study in the past, the horticultural remains which dominate the Pouerua archaeological landscape have received little attention. This dissertation project aims to help address this imbalance by examining the horticultural remains at Pouerua. Field survey data gathered in 2008, and a detailed topographic map of the Pouerua landscape produced in the 1980s as part of the Pouerua Project, provided a starting point for understanding the nature, distribution and, relationship of the horticultural evidence at Pouerua. This project examines the different forms of horticultural evidence at Pouerua and variation within features. It also looks at the distribution of feature across the wider Pouerua area and the relationship between archaeological features, and archaeological features and the Pouerua landscape. The second half of the project then applies this information to the concept of temporal change, and investigates whether temporal change is evident in the Pouerua field systems and how it presents itself.
Bull, Simon (2008): Investigating the shellfish assemblage from Purakaunui (I44/21).
Shellfish evidence from the site of Purakaunui I44/21 has previously been seen to change over time. This research examines a different sample from the same site for evidence of continuation of this pattern. The results of this research indicate that the assemblage is dominated by a single species over time. This evidence is compared to the shellfish data from a set of North Otago sites that are positioned near a range of shellfish habitats. These comparisons show that Purakaunui fits into a regional pattern of shellfishing. This pattern is focussed on prominent shellfish species in close proximity to the site. This focus changes little over time. An issue of site stratigraphy for the site this assemblage is from is also addressed. It is found that there is little evidence in the shellfish midden to support previous assertions made about stratigraphic relations.
Clifford, Emma Jean (2008): A Meaningless beauty contest between nations?' Geographical representivity on UNESCO's World Heritage List with a focus on the under-representation of Pacific Cultural Heritage.
The cultural heritage in the Pacific region is a major problem area in UNESCO’s endeavours for a representative and credible World Heritage List. The region has a total of 9 cultural and mixed (cultural and natural) sites on the WHL. This represents 1% of the total cultural and mixed sites listed on the WHL. Through an investigation of both UNESCO and ICOMOS documents and the scholarly literature on the topic of representivity, a number of reasons for these disparities become evident. These reasons are highlighted as either arising from the ineffective function and structure of world heritage or stemming from the ambiguity of concepts of heritage at an international level. Once these general reasons are applied to the Pacific cultural heritage and the current Pacific social and political situation, the reasons for the lack of the Pacific cultural heritage on the WHL becomes clear. The major issues lie in the lack of effective management strategies and the conflict between the Pacific definition of cultural heritage and the definitions of UNESCO. Finally an assessment of the strategies for increasing representivity by both UNESCO and ICOMOS was undertaken. It was concluded that the strategies were relatively limited in their effect.
Harris, Nathaniel John (2008): An Archaeological Education: A Study of Anthropology 103.
This investigation assesses the way that New Zealand safeguards its movable cultural heritage. The focus is on archaeological material, both its protection in situ and after excavation. An appraisal of the New Zealand system was conducted through the examination of international conventions, past and present national legislation, domestic case studies, the New Zealand market, and two global case studies (Italy and Australia). The most imperative findings were that New Zealand needs to increase public awareness of the issue, enhance the protection afforded to non-Maori archaeological objects to the same level bestowed upon taonga tuturu, and revise the protection of its underwater cultural heritage.
Culley, James Paul Alexander (2008): The Protection of New Zealand's Movable Cultural Heritage: An Overview and Critique.
A qualitative investigation of why students in the undergraduate Anthropology 103 class choose to study archaeology and how their perception and understanding of archaeology changes after taking part in this class. This research is then examined under the broader idea of understanding archaeology’s role in contemporary society in conjunction with a review of the relevant published literature. This research aims to increase knowledge around archaeology as a socially constituted discipline and the role that higher education has in changing people’s understanding of archaeology.
Potts, Kirsty N (2008): Symbols of Power in the New Zealand Archaeological Record.
This dissertation is an examination of symbols of power in the New Zealand archaeological record. There has been little research done in New Zealand specifically on social power. The aim was to examine power in a relevant way to allow identification of symbols of power of the prehistoric Maori.
A review of the international literature, and reconsideration of the New Zealand published literature, allowed a select number of sources of power, and three examples of symbols of power, to be identified. The whale tooth pendent and Maori comb are identified and justified as symbols of power. These first two symbols of power were primarily associated with ideological sources of power and were personal adornments. The Pā is reviewed in terms of power as a theoretical case study. It is concluded that there is a potential for theories of social power to be applied to the New Zealand archaeological record, but further research is required.
Slater, James N (2008): A Cutting Analysis: A sudy of obsidian resource maximisation from a Lapita assemblage on Watom Island.
This dissertation presents the results of a sourcing and technological analysis of obsidian artefacts from a Late-Post Lapita site, Kainapirina (SAC), located on Watom Island, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. This dissertation involved two major goals. The first was to undertake a technological study of obsidian to determine whether or not a model of resource maximisation was applicable to explain the behaviour behind the reduction. The second goal involved a sourcing study of obsidian which was compared with other Lapita sites from a regional perspective in order to identify connections through time. Comparing the study of obsidian technology and sourcing analysis provides a powerful tool to assess models of interaction between Late-Post Lapita communities. Through the use of a technological analysis and obsidian sourcing study using PIXE-PIGME, this research argues that resource maximisation was not taking place at Kainapirina (SAC) and that there was no significant change over time in the proportion of obsidian from the different source regions.
Teele, Ben (2008): Symmetry Analysis on New Zealand Stone Adzes.
Symmetry is an important trait in New Zealand stone adzes. However, it is only sporadically mentioned in the New Zealand literature. It is important to determine what level of influence symmetry has on final adze form and function. This study examines a range of adze types sampled from a museum collection. Asymmetry values were produced using an automated software program, which were compared against other recorded adze variables. The results show variable symmetry levels across a range of different adze characteristics, notably the state of an adze, its blank type, and its form. Symmetry was actively sought by the tool worker, having an important effect on determining the functional use of an adze, and was constrained to some degree by material form and manufacturing technology. Measuring symmetry provides a quantitative value to a qualitative description, which can be used to reinforce existing lithic research, highlighting an important variable in New Zealand adze form.
Tyrell, Elizabeth (2008): Modern Contexts: how reconstructions of archaeological sites across the world are influenced by contemporary issues.
Reconstruction as a method of preservation for archaeological sites and features is often disputed within the archaeological community and several guidelines have been issued advising its use only under exceptional circumstances. Despite this, it has continued to be funded in many countries across the world and its use has increased over the last three decades, with millions of people choosing to visit reconstructed sites every year. The reasons as to why these sites have been chosen for reconstruction are discussed through the use of six case studied from England, Japan, Egypt, the United States, Easter Island and Crete. These include Stonehenge, Yoshinogari Historical Park, the North Palace at Amarna, the Alamo, Ahu Tongariki and the Palace of Minos respectively. Several political and social motives are shown to drive these reconstructions, with each example exhibiting several, interconnected underlying factors. These include nationalist, capitalist, cultural, social and educational influences. The need for archaeologists to actively take more control over this type of preservation method to prevent the unethical use of archaeology is also discussed. This research demonstrates that reconstructed interpretations of the past are usually created for the benefit of the general public and that as the contemporary politics behind them change, so do the pasts they represent.
van Halderen, Karen (2008): The Absence of Ceremonial Monumental Architecture in New Zealand.
The absence of ceremonial monumental architecture in New Zealand is of interest to archaeologists as it contrasts with the rest of the island societies of Polynesia in that it is the only island archipelago in the region that lacks this form of architecture. This study identified possible reasons for the lack of ceremonial monumental architecture in New Zealand by reviewing three models in light of case studies from Polynesia, and then applied them to the situation in New Zealand. The key concepts of resource availability, productivity, environmental conditions and surplus energy were found to be the most influential factors. Surplus energy in particular, was a common theme in all three models and is considered to be the major reason for the absence of ceremonial monumental architecture in New Zealand.
Van Sant, Lillian Sheridan (2008): The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Prehistoric Burial Practices in Oceania.
Secondary burial practices are associated with ritual beliefs that impact on a communities life far more than what is revealed in the archaeological record. The widespread presence of this burial ritual in Oceania signifies a continuity of spiritual belief and indicates interaction among communities. This study investigates the spatial and temporal distribution of burial practices in Oceania, considering Robert Hertz’s study, The Collective Representation of Death. This study focuses on the ritual meaning behind secondary burial, particularly concerning the soul. The transition made from death to the land of the ancestors can be observed in the archaeological record, given knowledge about death rituals is known. Therefore, Hertz’s theories on secondary burial can be directly applied to the interpretation of archaeological data of burial practices. This study examines the distributional patterns of burials practices and what they reveal about past societies. These patterns are furthered examined as an investigation into the origins of the Lapita Cultural Complex. The Lapita site, Teouma in Vanuatu has yielded a burial ground which exhibits specific burial ritual. All the burials were found without articulated skulls, several were in flexed positions, while one burial was found with three skulls placed on its chest. This site present a basis of comparison of burial practices elsewhere in Oceania. By examining the spatial and temporal distribution of various burial practices, interpretation is provided on the origins of the Lapita Cultural Complex.
Vanstone, Jessica (2008): Nephrite Working at Buller River Mouth (K29/8).
An assemblage of nephrite fragments and tools from Buller River Mouth (K29/8) were analysed to contribute to an understanding of how nephrite was worked in the early period of Maori prehistory. Nephrite is generally understood to be associated with the Classic period of Maori culture, however its presence at Buller River Mouth means that it was utilised from not long after the colonisation of New Zealand. Nephrite working in the Classic period of Maori culture was done by sawing and grinding, and nephrite flaking has generally been considered to be associated with poor quality stone and due to a lack of understanding of the sawing process. The evidence from Buller River Mouth indicates that flaking was the prominent method of working nephrite and evidence of flaking occurred on many different grades of stone. The method of sawing was also occurred at Buller River Mouth indicating that the flaking method was used for reasons other than lack of understanding of the sawing process. This research contributes to our understanding of nephrite use at the early colonisation period of Maori culture.
Wadsworth, Tristan J (2008): Warfare, symbolism, and settlement: A critical review of pā literature.
Pā are complex aspects of prehistoric Māori culture that have been the subject of many significant archaeological studies. Pā are fortifications, and though a concern for defence is evident in their construction, the exact level of their association with warfare is not evident. A substantial survey of individual pā is necessary to investigate this association among pā. The defensive function of pā does not necessarily preclude alternate functions, and a symbolic function, compatible with the defensive function, is highly plausible. In addition to acting as fortifications, pā are examples of monumental architecture that act as symbolic and ideological portrayers of community identity and influence. Interpretations of pā vary, and it is likely that their role in settlement patterns does as well. Occupation of pā likely varies regionally and individually, with varying seasonal and fluctuating occupation. The distribution and use of space within pā has not been a major focus of pā studies, and further comparative work is required in this field. It is obvious that pā are highly important actors in settlement patterns, and both political and economic factors are evident in their situation and spatial distribution. Pā remain an important focus of archaeological studies in New Zealand, but many research questions remain available for scrutiny, and the variable nature of pā should be considered before generalizations are made regarding their use.
Brown, Andrew A (2007): Lithic Technology and Raw Material Use at the Buller River Mouth (K29/8) .
A selected artefact assemblage of the predominant lithic materials (obsidian, argillite and Pahutane flint) from the Buller River Mouth site (K29/8) was analysed to investigate lithic technology and raw material use in the site. Formal tool types were not found within the flake tool assemblage however, some similarities were found to exist in retouch of Pahutane flint flake tools. This took the form of unifacial retouch which formed serrations along the margins of flake tools.
Analysis of artefact size and utilised edge sections for each material revealed differences in the exploitation of materials within the site. Argillite was used predominantly in adze manufacture whilst obsidian, the other exotic, high quality material was used in informal flake tools. These were smaller in size and were probably used more delicate tasks within the site. The local material, Pahutane flint was the most abundant material within the assemblage and appears to have been exploited for flake tools used in larger tasks than obsidian. This research contributes to the understanding of lithic technology, raw material use and raw material value within the Archaic phase of New Zealand.