Archaeology



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Arun, Lana (2012): Opium Pipe Bowls from the Lawrence Chinese Camps (H44/1012).
This dissertation focuses on one aspect of Chinese material culture, opium from the Lawrence Chinese Camp. Opium was used for a number of reasons and was embedded within the social, physical, and psychological aspects of Chinese culture. Opium smoking was a complex process, which required specialised smoking paraphernalia, importation of opium, and was sold by Chinese merchants in Chinese communities and work camps (Wylie and Higgins 1987:317). This dissertation had three main aims including examining the role of opium in the LCC, classification of the pipe bowls, The LCC assemblage was compared to other overseas sites in New Zealand, Australia, and America. Similar patterns were found in Chinese sites in Australia and America. For example, New Zealand and Australia had similar pipe bowls types, suggesting similar trade and exchange movements. America slightly differed in pipe bowl types, but basically opium was important in Chinese sites, regardless of country. The opium pipe bowls in the Lawrence Chinese Camps played in important role within the social community of the Chinese sojourners.
Bone, Kimberley (2012): The Archaeology of Early Post-Colonial Settlements: A Re-evaluation fo the Willam Cook Shipbuilding Site.
Investigations on early post-contact sites have, until recently, been a largely neglected area of research in New Zealand archaeology. The William Cook Shipbuilding site, occupied between 1826 and 1833, provides one of the most unique opportunities for understanding this period. Despite its importance, investigations of the site are almost absent from the archaeological literature. This study reanalysed the William Cook assemblage and discovered that it represented a distinct cultural tradition which reflected the integrated nature of the community. Interpretation of the assemblage recorded a hybrid identity adopted by the settlers with the incorporation of European and Maori architecture and traditional Maori subsistence strategies. The artefacts demonstrated that a failing economy of the site eventually led to its abandonment in 1833. The investigations of two comparative case studies revealed several distinct cultural patterns during this period, identifying a marked contrast between European mission settlements in the north and the integrated communities of the south. These contrasts were identified in architecture, fauna and material culture.
Cook, Letitia (2012): The Study of a Regional Collection of Archaeological Kō and Teka.
The pre-contact Maori people of New Zealand were well practiced in the art of agriculture cultivating several tropical crops brought by their Polynesian ancestors. They cultivated the crops with well established production systems and a small collection of wooden agricultural implements. A primary agricultural implement, the kō or digging stick, and its corresponding teka or footrest has, until now, had little attention paid to it. This dissertation focuses on the kō and teka that were utilised in a number of ways to work the soil for cultivation or other purposes. Little is known about the quantitative and qualitative properties of kō and teka. This research aims to contribute to a greater knowledge of kō and teka, as these artefacts have not previously been critically analysed. To achieve these aims this study gathers and analyses quantitative and qualitative data for the kō and teka collection at Puke Ariki museum in New Plymouth. The results of this study reveal patterns and anomalies that have not been previously seen in the literature pertaining to the kō and teka.
Davis, Laura (2012): Ceramic form Lawrence Chinese Camp. Prelinimary study of ceramic remains excavated from the house lot of Sam Chew Lain.
This dissertation focuses on the ceramic remains from the house of Sam Chew Lain, and his European wife, once located at The Lawrence Chinese Camp. The site dates from the late 1860s to the early twentieth century and provides a unique study for the overseas Chinese. A comprehensive descriptive study was undertaken of the 2,346 sherds of ceramics to understand the dynamics within the house lot and to produce a set of testable hypotheses to create investigative directions for the study of Chinese in New Zealand. The hypotheses proposed involve the potential presence of a distinctive New Zealand Chinese assemblage, the reiteration of Chinese New Zealand trade networks and the difficulties around identifying gender and ethnicity at Chinese sites.
Hickey, Megan (2012): Kahukura: The archaeology of a Late Archaic fish hook assemblage.
The excavation of Kahukura in 2009 uncovered a significant Māori fish hook assemblage. This study has used standardised methods to produce an analysis of the assemblage which characterises the quantitative, technological and taphonomic aspects of fish hook use at the site. The classification and comparison of the assemblage with other fish hook collections from sites around New Zealand, has highlighted the unique position of Kahukura as a Late Archaic site with a fish hook assemblage dominated by two-piece fish hook points. Radiocarbon methods have placed the occupation of Kahukura in the Late Archaic phase (1450 AD- 1550). This demonstrates that the change in dominance from a one-piece hooks to two-piece hooks occurred earlier than the Classic phase. The reasons for this change are ambiguous. The Kahukura assemblage holds evidence for explanation of this change as the result of chronological continuity of two-piece forms from Eastern Polynesia, the regional development of two-piece dominated assemblages in the Catlin's sites, and technological adaptation in response to the depletion of moa resources.
Kurmann, Samantha L. (2012): The Regulation of South Island Archaeological Practice under the Historic Places Act 1993.
New Zealand's interesting and diverse cultural history covers the last 800 years. The Historic Places Act 1993 is the primary piece of legislation used in New Zealand to not only protects our past, but to regulate archaeological practice. The framework of this legislation provides archaeological provisions. These contain guidelines about how to approach applying for an archaeological authority and regulations about altering an archaeological site. Concerns outlined in the literature reveal issues with the legislative framework, such as the lack of real protection for all archaeological sites compared with that of rescuing knowledge (preservation by record). Seven practicing South Island archaeologists were interviewed in order to assess opinions about the effects of the current legislation on archaeological practice. All participants expressed satisfaction with the archaeological provisions of the HPA 1993. The opinions of the participants about the regulation of the HPA 1993 by the NZHPT were also outlined, with a resultant combination of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Major concerns included the default setting of site destruction, as opposed to preservation, the 1900 cut-off date for the definition of an archaeological site, and the lack of proper excavation of archaeological sites. The difficulty that the Trust faces due to lack of resources was also widely recognised by the archaeologists. The participants offered insights into possible ways that legislation could change in order to improve archaeological practice. The opinions of the participants on the proposed Heritage New Zealand Bill suggest that the planned changes will produce an even more meaningless archaeology; however it does introduce some important changes, such as the streamlining of the HPA 1993 with the Resource Management Act 1991. This research demonstrates that South Island archaeologists consider that current legislation is adequate for regulating archaeology in New Zealand, but that changes are needed at bureaucratic level.
Lawrence, Megan (2012): The Dynamics of stone Procurement and Exchange in New Zealand's Archaic Period: A pXRF analysus of obsidian artefacts from the Purakaunui site (I44/21), South Island, New Zealand.
Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is used here to geochemical characterise 198 obsidian artefacts from the Purakaunui site (144/21) on the South Island of New Zealand. During the site's two main phases of occupation, between A.D. 1300 and A.D.1500, we would expect the assemblage to reflect a decline of a 'Coloniser Mode' marked by a shift away from long-distance interactions crucial for the first generations to settle New Zealand. Geochemical sourcing clearly shows that Mayor Island obsidian, directly accessed in early Archaic Period sites, has been replaced by Taupo obsidian as the primary source at Purakaunui. Technological analysis of the Purakaunui artefacts displays little evidence for direct access, instead down-the-line exchange is likely occurring. A comparison with obsidian from other South Island Archaic Period sites displays a sharp decline in the presence of Mayor Island obsidian relative to other obsidian sources. This illustrates a rapid decline from a 'Coloniser Mode' around A.D. 1350, which occurs long before an emergence of a 'Trader Mode' after A.D. 1500. This distinct and protracted period of regionalisation is defined here as an 'Established Settlement Mode.'
Moyle, Jeremy (2012): An Exploration of the EAMC Database: The Assessment of a Potential Tool for Developing the Practice of Historical Archaeology within New Zealand.
As it stands, the practice of historical archaeology in New Zealand is less than desirable. Much legislatively mandated investigation in historic sites has the potential to produce only a description of a site and its artefacts. A widely used historical archaeology database has the potential to help remedy this situation through the ability to make historical archaeological information widely accessible and facilitate large scale artefact comparisons between multiple sites. The EAMC Database exemplifies a program designed to achieve such a goal, and is explored and assessed though a case study artefact comparison in order to gain practical insight into the actual potential of a database. From this study five key aspects were identified as influencing the functionality of the database, and these were able to inform suggestions for the design of a similar type of program for New Zealand.
Russell, Keir (2012): Transition: rim form and modification from three localities at Reber-Rakival Watom Island, Papua New Guinea.
The research presented here involved the characterisation study of ceramics from three late transitional Lapita sites: Kainapirina [SAC], Vunaburigai [SAB] and Vunavaung[SDI], on Watom Island, the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. This research had two major goals. The first was to undertake a characterisation study on rim sherds derived from the three late-transitional Lapita localities discussed above, in order to add to the current research that is being done to understand the nature of late-transitional ceramic assemblages. The assemblage was analysed using a range of attributes of rim form as well as decorative technique and rim modification, and applied multivariate statistics to classify the data sets into recognizable groups. The second goal was to report on any temporal changes that were observed in the characterisation results of rim sherds in order to provide insights into what was occurring at Watom Island at the end of the Lapita sequence. The results of the characterisation study have identified ten groups in the ceramic assemblage. Some of the rim groups were present throughout the archaeological sequence, starting in low numbers, when in the same horizons as Lapita pottery, but becoming dominant as Lapita-ware dropped out of the sequence. It is argued, therefore, that the results support arguments for the Lapita cultural complex going through a period of transition during the first millennium AD.
Russell, Tristan (2012): Long Distance Interaction in the Hawaiian Islands. A Case Study From Kaua'i.
The KAL-4 rockshelter site is located on the Na Pali coast of Kaua'i, in the Hawaiian Islands. During the 1982 excavation of this site, 735 volcanic glass artefacts were recovered. But, as there are no geological examples of volcanic glass from Kaua'i, or geological evidence to suggest that there is a volcanic glass source on Kaua'i, the source of these artefacts has remained a matter of speculation. There could be an as yet undiscovered source on Kaua'i, or sources on the smaller islands of Necker, Nihoa or Ni'ihau to the west. Alternatively, there may have been interaction with the islands to the east with known sources of volcanic glass. The present study aims to investigate volcanic glass on Kaua'i as a measure of long distance interaction. Non-destructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (pXRF) was used to geochemically examine the elemental composition of artefacts in an attempt to identify the source of the volcanic glass found at KAL-4. Lithic technological analysis was carried out to identify the key features of artefacts and general patterns through time. Geochemical analysis highlighted the presence of three distinct groups; 1) Hawaiian Basaltic Glass (HBG), 2) Oahu Basaltic Glass (OA-BG) and 3) a number of natural stones and other material mistaken for volcanic glass. The presence of OA-BG indicates interaction between Kaua'i and other islands, but the limited quantity (n=3) suggests this was restricted. Technological analysis highlighted three distinct stages of lithic development; a period when raw material use appears typical of other sites with volcanic glass, a more 'wasteful' period when people are discarding more and larger pieces and a conservative period where little volcanic glass is wasted or unused. These stages, in combination with the three volcanic glass groups, suggest that inter-island travel and communication occurred, and changed, through time.
Sutherland, Virginia (2012): Archaeological Approaches to Māori Identity.
This dissertation explores how concepts of Māori identity have been drawn from and influenced methods and terms of archaeological interpretation. It illustrates some of the colonial concepts framing what is interpreted from the archaeological record, including traditional Western ideas of progress, 'civilisation' and racial superiority, and attempts to identify their effects on narratives of the past in Aotearoa New Zealand. A special focus is terminology and definition, including how we approach the relationship between tangible material evidence and intangible ideas of cultural or ethnic identity. Topics explored include material culture, with emphasis on the adze as a foundational symbol of Māori identity in archaeology, and land use, specifically the concept and treatment of pā as they interlock with dominant narratives.
Waterworth, Jessica (2012): Lawrence Chinese Camp: A Taphonomic Anaylsis of the Phase One Sample Assemblage.
This is a study of a sample of the faunal assemblage from the Lawrence Chinese Camp, the only solely-Chinese community within the pioneer era of New Zealand settler society. By looking at the proportions of butchery practices and range of taxa present in the Lawrence Chinese Camp Phase One sample assemblage, in comparison to three other sites -Baird's Hotel (a rural, New Zealand-European site located in Central Otago), Carlaw Park (a suburban, overseas Chinese site located in the North Island of New Zealand), and Pierce (a mining camp occupied by both Euroamerican and overseas Chinese settlers in North-Western America) -we can see that there are differences in culture between the overseas Chinese and the European settlers in both North America and New Zealand, which are evident through the diet and the butchery practices used.
Till, Charlotte Emma (2012): Heritage Implication Resulting from the Canterbury Earthquakes: An Introduction to Natural Disaster Impacts Upon Tangible and Intangible Hertiage.
Heritage. It is something that each of us is bound to inseparably whether we actively appreciate it or not. In its tangible form heritage easy to see, it is the buildings sites and structures that dot the landscape that we as active members of society interact with on a daily basis. This interaction leads to the development of intangible heritage, our very own cultural heritage, our very own identity. When human action gets in the way of the planted doing what the planet does the result is defined as a Natural Disaster. Tangible heritage structures can bear the brunt of these disasters but it is how we react after such events that define our identity; do we repair and rebuild or do we demolish and start a new? The Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 - 2011 provide an unprecedented current case study for examining the affects of a natural disaster of heritage in a modern New Zealand setting. Something that on the scale seen has never happened before in this country's history. The initial jolt of September 4th 2010 damaged Canterbury heritage, the devastating aftershock of February 22 2011 decimated heritage and the continued aftershocks are rattling communities to their knees. The resulting demolition works have seen drastic impacts on personal, local, regional and national identity. People all relate to heritage in a different way but it is not until heritage is ripped from us that people realise just what they have lost. It was the research aim of my investigation to identify just how much heritage (both tangible and intangible) has been lost in the Canterbury region as a result of the earthquakes and aftershocks as well as the following demolition works. I also aimed to investigate how the New Zealand recovery response stacked up from a heritage perspective and how this compared to other recovery operations after disasters using case studies from around the world. Lastly I sought to grasp the identity of the community and explore how the earthquakes and demolitions have impacted upon individual's, their sense of place and belonging and how the moving and shaking of the earth has been mirrored in the moving and shaking of peoples ideologies around heritage as well as their own identity. The incredibly complex and thorny nature of my research has resulted in some key findings and also presents a road map for future research once the required resources become available in the coming years as the Canterbury region and Christchurch city region their footing and stand once more. At the time of publication 272 tangible heritage structures have either been demolished or soon with be with untold others still on the chopping block as aftershocks continue to ravage the region. This staggering loss of heritage over such a short period of time has resulted in immense outpourings from individuals and communities as their intangible heritage, their cultural heritage, their very own identity is loaded onto the back of a dump truck before their eyes. It is clear from my research that heritage has not been a major part of recovery planning despite New Zealand having heritage protection legislation but rather political, economic and outsider influences have been at the forefront and as a result heritage has been pushed aside into the 'too expensive', 'too time consuming' basket. Communities have been left to pick up the pieces of their once proud landscape and have been forced to accept that the heritage they once knew is gone forever and is not coming back. As a national we were tested, Canterbury paid and is still paying the price, but it is how we choose to move forward that will be the most rewarding case study of all.
2011
Alderson, Helen (2011): The Distribution of Lithic Materials through time and space in Prehistoric New Zealand.
This dissertation investigates the distribution of lithic materials throughout prehistoric New Zealand. The lithics discussed in the disseration are obsidian, Tahanga basalt, Nelson metasomatised argillite, greenstone and Southland argillite. The research was conducted in two phases. The first phase ascertained the distribution of the lithics through time and space, through research of published and unpublished archaeological literature. The research was collated into archaeological regions, and through this broader patterns of distribution through time and space throughout prehistoric New Zealand were observed. All lithics experienced a change in distribution after AD 1500. The distribution of obsidian, Tahanga basalt and Nelson metasomatised argillite decreased, contracting towards their source areas. Southland argillite’s distribution halted completely after the Sixteenth Century. Conversely, greenstone’s dispersal proliferated after AD 1500, although it was present in the early period of settlement. The second phase of the research explored a range of possible models that could explain the change, looking to announce a model or models as explanatory of lithic distribution changes. Models of change were gathered from prominent national and international literature. The models were grouped under larger model categories. These models were “socio-political development”, “resource depletion”, “environmental catastrophism” and “changes in lithic production systems”. The four models were tested against each of the five lithics using a “checklist” of criteria. The over-lapping of some of these criteria with those of other models lead to the development of a “graded model system” that could be used to isolate the best models of lithic distribution change. Through this, “socio-political development” was ranked as the primary model of change. “Socio-political development” could be used to explain distributional change over all five lithics discussed in the dissertation. Despite this, the “graded model system” also acknowledged “resource depletion” and “changes in lithic production systems” as secondary and tertiary models.
Codlin, Maria (2011): The First Hawaiians: the date and distribution of early settlement in the Hawaiian Islands.
Cunliffe, Emily (2011): South Coast Papua Lapita - A late Lapita Province? Characterisation analysis of Obsidian from Bogi 1, Caution Bay.
Hughes, Julia (2011): Pyle's Cottage, St Bathans and Vernacular Architecture in the Gold Fields.
Knox, Ben (2011): Obsidian Exchange in the South: PXRF analysis of two sites form the north of the South Island.
Rees, Bethan (2011): Prehistoric Subsistence Practices at Tokanui River Mouth.
Shirley, Brenden (2011): Improving Historic Archaeological Site Management in New Zealand using GIS Technology: analysis of the Preservation Inlet Gold Mining Settlements.
Tremlett, Luke (2011): Reconstructing Russell: evaluating the archaeological record of one of New Zealand's earliest towns.
Woods, Naomi (2011): Pakeha Ceramics as Dating Tools: creating a chronology for the Te Hoe whaling station.
2010
Maxwell, Justin (2010): Conservation of Rakau Momori. An archaeological investigation of historical and current management practices.
Mitchell, Peter (2010): Why Were the Kuri at Purakaunui? An examination of the bird and mammal components of the 2001-2003 midden sample from Purakaunui (I44/21).
Tonkin, Sarah (2010): The Chatham Islands: Three Peoples, One Land. A discussion of the landscape beliefs of the English, the Maori and the Moriori..
2009
Davies, Talfan (2009): Built on Gold and Industry: A Review of Urban Archaeology in Dunedin.
This dissertation looks into what can be inferred about the history of Dunedin City through the study of the urban archaeological investigations that have been undertaken to date. There have been a significant number of urban investigations conducted within Dunedin City; the majority of which have uncovered large quantities of material that can be linked to specific events that are recorded as occurring in Dunedin’s history. This dissertation compiles the information gathered from the separate investigations to see what can be inferred about Dunedin when looking at the complete archaeological record.

The individual contexts within the investigated urban sites are studied and used to infer what activities had occurred and the time periods covered within the separate sites. These contexts are then used to discuss specific events and activities that are shown within the archaeological record and how it relates to the larger picture of the growth and development of Dunedin City through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.




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