Apa formatting and Style Guide



Download 16,46 Kb.
Date conversion23.10.2016
Size16,46 Kb.
  • The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.
  • APA regulates:
    • Stylistics
    • In-text citations
    • References
  • What is APA Style?
    • Personal pronouns where appropriate
      • : “We conducted an experiment…”
      • : “The authors conducted an experiment….”
    • Active voice rather than passive voice
      • : “We asked participants questions.”
      • : “The participants have been asked questions by the researchers.”
  • Point of View &Voice
  • Language in an APA paper should be:
  • Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations
  • Concise: condense information when you can
  • Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language
  • Language
  • The Literature Review:
    • Summarizes scientific literature on a particular research topic
    • Includes:
  • The Experimental Report:
    • Describes your experimental research
    • Includes:
      • a title page,
      • abstract,
      • introduction,
      • methods, results, and discussion sections,
      • a list of references,
      • appendices,
      • tables, and
      • figures
  • Types of APA Papers
  • If your paper fits neither category:
    • Follow the general format
    • Consult the instructor
    • Consult the APA Publication Manual
  • Types of APA Papers
  • Your essay should:
    • be typed,
    • double-spaced,
    • have 1” margins,
    • use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New Roman), and
    • be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x 11”)
  • [Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA manual).]
  • General APA Format
  • General APA Format
  • Your essay should
  • include four major
  • sections:
  • References
  • Main Body
  • Abstract
  • Title page
  • General APA Format
  • Title:
  • (in the upper half of the page, centered)
  • name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
  • Page header:
  • (use Insert Page Header)
  • title flush left + page number flush right.
  • Title Page
  • Page header: do NOT include “Running head:”
  • Abstract: centered, at the top of the page
  • Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner.
  • Abstract Page
  • Number the first text page as page number 3
  • Type and center the title of the paper at the top of the page
  • Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break
  • Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical, in-text citations
  • Format tables and figures
  • Main Body (Text)
  • Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.
  • Double-space reference entries
  • Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines
  • Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work
  • Reference Page
  • Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials)
    • EX:“Smith, J.Q.”
  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
    • EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay.
  • References: Basics
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
  • References: Basics
  • APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
  • Identify the type of source:
    • Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage?
  • Find a sample citation for this type of source
    • Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • “Mirror” the sample
  • Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics)
  • In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
  • Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:
    • the author’s name and the date of publication
    • for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number
  • In-text Citation: Basics
  • When quoting:
  • Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
  • Include the author’s name, year of publication, and page number
  • Keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Quotations
  • Provide the author’s last name and the year of
  • publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
  • Include the author’s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Summary or Paraphrase
  • When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Summary or Paraphrase
  • Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:
  • According to Xavier (2008), “….” (p. 3).
  • Xavier (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3).
  • Use such signal verbs such as:
  • acknowledged, contended, maintained,
  • responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.
  • Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Signal Words
  • When the parenthetical citation includes two or
  • more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list—the author’s name, the year of publication—separated by a semi-colon.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Two or More Works
  • When citing a work with two authors, use
  • In the signal phrase, use “and” in between the authors’ names
  • In parenthesis, use “&” between names
  • When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.
  • (Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)
  • In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
  • (Harklau et al., 1993)
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Works with 3-5 Authors
  • When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”
  • Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….
  • (Smith et al., 2006)
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Works with 6+ Authors
  • When citing a work of unknown author:
  • use the source’s full title in the signal phrase
  • cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
  • According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008)
  • OR
  • (“Indiana,” 2008)
  • Titles:
  • Articles and Chapters = “ ”
  • Books and Reports = italicize
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Unknown Author
  • When citing an organization:
  • mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.
  • If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Organization
  • When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names.
  • (B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
  • When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the references.
  • Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants…
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Same Last Name/Author
  • When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
  • Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Personal Communication
  • When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading.
  • In-Text Citation:
  • Electronic Sources
  • APA Headings
  • Level
  • Format
  • 1
  • Centered, Boldfaced, Upper & Lowercase Headings
  • 2
  • Left-aligned, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase Headings
  • 3
  • Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.
  • 4
  • Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.
  • 5
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
  • Headings
  • Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
  • Headings
  • Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced.
  • Cite a source in a note below the table.
  • Table 1
  • Internet users in Europe
  • Country
  • Regular Users
  • France
  • 9 ml
  • Note: The data are adapted from “The European Union and Russia” (2007). Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
  • Tables
  • Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left .
  • You might provide an additional title centered above the figure.
  • Cite the source below the label and the title.
  • Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical Books, 2007, Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
  • Figures
  • The Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu
  • The Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226
  • Composition textbooks
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
  • APA’s website: http://www.apastyle.org
  • Additional Resources
  • The End
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide
  • Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page