Apa formatting and Style Guide
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The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences. APA regulates: Stylistics In-text citations References Personal pronouns where appropriate : “ We conducted an experiment…” : “ The conducted an experiment….” authors Active voice rather than passive voice : “We asked participants questions.” : “The participants have been asked questions by the researchers.” Language in an APA paper should be: Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations Concise: condense information when you can Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language The Literature Review: Summarizes scientific literature on a particular research topic Includes: The Experimental Report: Describes your experimental research Includes: a title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections, a list of references, appendices, tables, and figures If your paper fits neither category: Follow the general format Consult the instructor Consult the APA Publication Manual Your essay should: be typed, double-spaced, have 1” margins, use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New Roman), and be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x 11”) [Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA manual).] Every page of your essay should: Your essay should include four major sections: Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.) Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right. Page header: do NOT include “Running head:” Abstract: centered, at the top of the page Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner. Number the first text page as page number 3 Type and center the title of the paper at the top of the page Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical, in-text citations Format tables and figures Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it. Double-space reference entries Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials) Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay. Capitalize all major words in journal titles Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful: Identify the type of source: Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage? Find a sample citation for this type of source Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ “Mirror” the sample Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics) In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper. Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: the author’s name and the date of publication for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number When quoting: Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase Include the author’s name, year of publication, and page number Keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information In-Text Citation: Quotations Provide the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase. Include the author’s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation: In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.: According to Xavier (2008), “….” (p. 3). Xavier (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3). Use such signal verbs such as: acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc. Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events. In-Text Citation: Signal Words When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list—the author’s name, the year of publication—separated by a semi-colon. In-Text Citation: Two or More Works When citing a work with two authors, use In the signal phrase, use “and” in between the authors’ names In parenthesis, use “&” between names When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. (Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. (Harklau et al., 1993) In-Text Citation: Works with 3-5 Authors When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.” Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…. (Smith et al., 2006) In-Text Citation: Works with 6+ Authors When citing a work of unknown author: use the source’s full title in the signal phrase cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008) OR (“Indiana,” 2008) Titles: Articles and Chapters = “ ” Books and Reports = italicize In-Text Citation: Unknown Author When citing an organization: mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. In-Text Citation: Organization When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names. (B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008) When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the references. Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants… In-Text Citation: Same Last Name/Author When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. In-Text Citation: Personal Communication When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading. In-Text Citation: Electronic Sources
Centered, Boldfaced, Upper & Lowercase Headings Left-aligned, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase Headings Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period. Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Here is an example of the five-level heading system: Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced. Cite a source in a note below the table. Table 1 Internet users in Europe
Note: The data are adapted from “The European Union and Russia” (2007). Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left . You might provide an additional title centered above the figure. Cite the source below the label and the title. Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical Books, 2007, Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu The Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu The Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226 Composition textbooks Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. APA’s website: http://www.apastyle.org APA Formatting and Style Guide Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab
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