Ap world History



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AP World History

Course Overview

Advanced Placement World History is a rigorous full year course covering the history of human experience on the planet. As an equivalent to a college survey course, AP World History’s curriculum is designed not only to enhance command of specific content but also to develop critical thinking skills necessary to analyze historical evidence and themes. Five themes will be used as a frame of reference in the chronological study of our world’s history. These themes are: Interaction between humans and the environment; development and interaction of cultures; state-building, expansion and conflict; creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems; and development and transformation of social structures.

The course relies heavily on college-level resources. This includes tests, a wide variety of primary sources, and interpretations presented in historical scholarship. These resources are designed to develop the skills required to analyze point of view and to interpret evidence to use in creating plausible historical arguments. These tools will also be used to assess issues of change and continuity over time, identifying global processes, comparing within and among societies, and understanding diverse interpretations.

Assignments

Some of the more typical assignments are:



Chapter Tests: Each chapter will have its own 50 question multiple choice test. Chapter tests may also contain essay prompts, of which a specified number must be answered.

Writing: Each unit includes writing assignments designed to develop the skills necessary for creating well-evidenced essays on historical topics highlighting clarity and precision. Rubrics from the College Board for each style of essay will be handed out on the first day of class.

  • Document Based Question (DBQ): Students analyze evidence from a variety of sources in order to develop a coherent written argument that has a thesis supported by relevant historical evidence. Students will apply multiple historical thinking skills as they examine a particular historical problem or question. Sources will also be examined for point of view, intent and tone.



  • Change and Continuity Over Time: Students identify and analyze patterns of continuity and change over time and across geographic regions. They will also connect these historical developments to specific circumstances of time and place, and to broader regional, national, or global processes.



  • Comparative Essay: Students compare historical developments across or within societies in various chronological and/or geographical contexts. Students will also synthesize information by connecting insights from one historical context to another, including the present.

Content Checks: Each chapter in the text has an excellent variety of visual and primary sources. There are also additional materials that are utilized to supplement chapter reading. Content checks occur at the beginning of the class. Questions will be posted on the screen which must be answered within the allotted time. These assessments aid not only in the practice of analyzing primary and visual sources, but force the student to commit to memory something other than basic facts of the chapter. Content checks also serve as an introduction and framework for discussion and/or DBQ’s.

Discussion: Students will be required to participate in class discussions using a college seminar format. In addition, each student will be required to lead a discussion on a topic of his or her own choosing at some point throughout the year. Please take some time to review the text at bit more in depth in order to determine a preferred topic as it is a far greater learning experience to lead a discussion on material that has not yet been covered by the class. The discussion topics mentioned below serve as a guide not only for conversation but for the general foci of lectures and presentations as our time is often at a minimum.

Projects: Collaboratively or individually, these assessments rely on independent (meaning not teacher-led) and research-based learning that may culminate in such items as papers of personal interest, physical reproductions and analysis of art and architecture, one act plays, creative visual representations of major content and themes, documentary films, etc. Ideas for projects must be cleared with your teachers. You will partake in one project per Unit. There is also a culminating project at year’s end.

Materials

Text: William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History, 5th ed., Thomson Wadsworth, 2006.

Online Companion Site for Text: http://history.wadsworth.com - Contains critical thinking exercises, flashcards, glossary, tutorial quizzes, etc.

Readers: Elsa A. Nystrom, Primary Source Reader, vols. 1 & 2, Thomson Wadsworth, 2006.

Maps: The George F. Cram Co., Inc., World History Atlas, 3rd printing, maps.com, 2003.

Additional Materials: Excerpts will be copied and distributed. Released AP exams may also be used.

  • Booth, John A. and Thomas W. Walker. Understanding Central America. Boulder: Westview Press, 1989.

  • Cantor, Norman F. Antiquity. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

  • Goldstone, Jack A., ed. Revolutions: Theoretical, Comparative, and Historical Studies. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2003.

  • Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

  • Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 2006.

  • Moore Jr., Barrington. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1966.

  • Ostler, Nicholas. Empires of the World: A Language History of the World. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005.

  • Sherman, Dennis, et al. World Civilizations: Sources, Images, and Interpretations. Vols 1 & 2, Third ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002.

  • Social Studies School Service. AP DBQ Practice. Culver City, CA: Social Studies School Service, 2004.

  • Snyder, Louis L. Varieties of Nationalism: A Comparative Study. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press, 1976.

  • Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N., ed. Twentieth-Century China: New Approaches. London: Routledge, 2003.

  • Waley-Cohen, Joanna. The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

Course Schedule

Please be aware that each chapter contains multiple primary and visual sources. It is your responsibility to not only read and become acquainted with them, but to also take notes in the manner you have been taught. Specific sources listed for each chapter are understood to be in addition to those you may find during your reading.

Also notice that the structure of our text makes identifying a corresponding periodization slightly problematic. The six chronological periods as determined by the College Board are as listed:

Period 1: Technological & Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E.

Period 2: Organization & Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to C. 600 C.E.

Period 3: Regional & Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to 1450

Period 4: Global Interactions, c. 1450 to c. 1750

Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900

Period 6: Accelerating Global Change & Realignments, c. 1900 to Present

A question that we will be dealing with the entire year is Why did the authors of our text utilize such a structure? We will also be examining additional sources dealing with periodization issues. It is critical to keep in mind (and in your notebooks!) while reading the text that many of our discussions and essays will utilize the periodization set forth by the College Board.



Unit 1: The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires: Prehistory to 500 C.E.

Periodization: prehistory to c. 600 B.C.E. & c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.

Key Concepts:

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth

Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies

Key Concept 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies

Key Concept 2.1 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions

Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires



Key Concept 2.3 Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange

Text Chapters: 1-5

Reader:

Chapter 1: The Beginning of Life (Aborigine), Egyptian Book of Surgery

Chapter 2: Chandogya Upanishad, The Rock and Pillar Edicts of Asoka, Savatri and the God of Death from the Mahabharata

Chapter 3: Mencius, A Legalist View of Life, Yin & Yang in Medical Theory, The Chinese Agricultural Calendar, Lessons for Women

Chapter 4: Hesiod’s Theogeny, Aristotle on Economics

Chapter 5: The Twelve Tables, Pliny’s Natural History, Seneca on Gladiatorial Contests

Atlas: Early Civilizations, The Spread of Agriculture, Mesopotamia and Egypt, Indo-European Migration, Early Greece, The Spread of World Religions, Classical Greece, Alexander’s Empire, The Roman Empire, Major States and Cultures of the World c. 100 C.E., The Roman Empire and Germanic Migrations.

Secondary Sources:

  • Norman Cantor, The Decline of the Ancient World

  • William H. McNeill, The Process of Civilization

  • Barbara S. Lesko, Women of Egypt and the Ancient Near East

  • W. Norman Brown, Cultural Continuity in India

  • Evelyn S. Rawski, Kinship in Chinese Culture

  • Anthony Andrews, The Greeks: Slavery

  • A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire

  • David Frawley, The Myth of the Aryan Invasion

Visual Sources: Egyptian Wall Paintings from the Tomb of Menna, Gateway at Sanchi (India), Salt Mining (China), a Chinese House, Chart of Chinese Bureaucracy, The Women’s Quarters (Greece), Tomb Decoration: Death and Roman Culture.

Discussion:

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of “civilization”? Does McNeill’s definition conform to yours? What is his thesis?

  • Discuss the impact of geography and other environmental factors on the emergence of “civilization.”

  • Outline the changes and continuities in Mesopotamian development, including the challenge of serial invasions.

  • Are there any common threads running through Lesko’s, Brown’s and Rawski’s pieces? Any distinct contrasts?

  • Consider the political structure developed during the reigns of Chandragupta Maurya and Asoka, and compare and contrast them with the functioning of government in Egypt under Akhenhaten, and in Mesopotamia under Hammurabi. 

  • How would a person of your gender and economic group have lived in ancient India? What are the limitations?

  • Why does Frawley criticize the typical periodization attributed to India?

  • Trace the evolution of the concept of the Mandate of Heaven from the Zhou through the Han dynasties.

  • Discuss the values of arete and agon in ancient Greek society and how they manifested themselves in both peace and war.

  • Survey the cultural accomplishments of the late Roman Republic and early Empire, and compare and contrast Roman cultural achievements with those of classical Greece.

Project Ideas:

  • Study the perceptions of the natures and the roles of the god(s) and their relationship with humans in ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Hebrew societies. Present your findings.

  • Choose a Minoan archeological site from http://www.ancient-greece.org/archaeology/minoan-archa.html. Conduct further research to create a composite sketch on the complexity of Minoan culture and the limitations of our knowledge gained through such evidence. How does your evaluation compare with the information in your text?

  • Study the topography of Northeast Africa and Southwest Asia to see if and/or how their location and/or other geographic factors influenced, or even determined, the nature and timing of their development.

  • Explore the origins of the Aryans and their possible relationships to other Indo-European societies.

  • Examine the several geographic and non-geographic explanations for the lack of the development of a politically unified India in the ancient world.

  • Compare the geographical setting of ancient China with the geography of the Middle East and India. What if any factors unique to China that could assist in explaining China’s singular history?

  • Compare and contrast the Qin and Han dynasties as to their relative importance to later Chinese society. Prepare a debate to discuss which was more “modern” and why.

  • Create advocacy presentations set against the events of the late Zhou era for Confucianism, Legalism and Daoism.

  • Examine the values and related actions of citizens of Athens and Sparta. Speculate and role‑play how specific types of inhabitants would feel and act during wars and celebrations and in “everyday” situations.

  • Study the military values and actions of Greek city‑states to assess the similarities and differences in tactics and strategies, and their underlying rationales. In what ways were Alexander’s actions linked to, or separate from, those of earlier city‑state warriors?

  • Study the ongoing rivalry of patricians and plebeians as they attempted to influence governmental and societal developments during the Struggle of the Orders. Are there similar patterns in civilizations we have studied? Why or why not?

Potential Essay Prompts: These represent typical prompts but may change.

  • What major economic changes resulted from the Neolithic Revolution? What social and lifestyle changes did it bring, and for which individuals and which groups in these societies?

  • Why does the text say that the social structure and ideas of ancient Egypt were a reflection of the influence of the Nile? Was this people‑river relationship different from that which evolved in the societies of the Tigris‑Euphrates region? Why or why not?

  • What were the central ideas of Zoroaster, and how might they have impacted upon or influenced later religious beliefs and practices?

  • To what degree were the ideas contained in the Arthasastra in agreement with earlier Indian ideas about the proper basis and practical challenges of political administration? Was Chandragupta Maurya’s rule based on new or traditional ideas about political life? Why?

  • How did the Middle Path of Buddhism distinguish it from the beliefs and practices of Jainist and Hindu believers?

  • What was the nature and symbolic significance of the three main types of religious architecture in ancient India?

  • Comparing China with India, what were the factors that led to Chinese political unification for much of its history in contrast to India, where fragmentation was more often the norm.

  • Why was the Han Dynasty seen as “Glorious”? Is this perception accurate? Why or why not? 

  • Did music play a different role in ancient Chinese culture than in other societies? Why or why not, and how or how not? 

  • What ideas and cultural forms were discussed and developed by Greek dramatists and philosophers? How, and in what ways, did they constitute, or reflect, the major contributions of Greek civilization to world history? 

  • What role did Christianity play in the Late Roman Empire? Was it, in any real way, the cause of its fall? Might it have even prolonged the life of the Empire? Why or why not? 

  • DBQ: Confucianism vs. Neo-Confuciansim (AP World History DBQ Practice, Social Studies School Service)

  • DBQ: Han & Roman Attitudes toward technology. (Released AP DBQ)

Unit 2: New Patterns of Civilization

Periodization: prehistory to c. 600 B.C.E., c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E., 600 to 1450

Key Concepts:

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth

Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies

Key Concept 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies

Key Concept 2.1 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions

Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires

Key Concept 2.3 Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange

Key Concept 3.1 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks

Key Concept 3.2 Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions

Key Concept 3.3 Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences



Text Chapters: 6-12

Reader:

Chapter 6: Foundation Myth of Tenochtitlan (handout), Cortes’ Second Letter to Charles V (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1520cortes.asp), de Leon on Incan Road System (http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/deLeon.html)

Chapter 7: The Hadith, Deliverance from Eror by al Ghazzali, Impressions of the Franks by Usama bin Munquidh, Justinian’s Code

Chapter 8: A View of Creation from the Boshongo (Bantu), Al-Bakir on Ghana (handout)

Chapter 9: Stories from The Panchatantra, Guru Nank Sikhism (handout), Nguyen Khac Vien Traditional Vietnam (handout), Zhou Daguan An Account of Cambodia (handout)

Chapter 10: Yuan Ts’ai Precepts for a Social Life, Ban Zhao Lessons for Women (handout)

Chapter 11: Sei Shonagon The Pillow Book, Tales of Uji: Dishonest Priests (handout)

Chapter 12: Thomas Aquinas Christianity Meets Aristotle, Ekkehardof Aurach Crusader’s Motives, Sorbonne’s Regulations for his College

Atlas: Mesoamerican Societies, Europe and the Byzantine Empire, Trade Routes in the Indian Ocean, The Spread of Islam, Asia c. 750 C.E., Mongol Empires, Medieval Europe, Africa c. 1200-1600, Map of Maya acropolis (http://mayaruins.com/tikal/Tikal_InnerMap.html), Alonso map of Tenochtitlan (http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/graphics/tenuxtlitan.jpg)

Secondary Sources:

  • Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel

  • Thomas F. Madden, The Call

  • Booth & Walker, Conquest to 1838

  • W. Montgomery Watt, The Muslim Pattern of Conquest

  • Than Tun, The Traditional Burmese Legal System

  • Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China in the 13th Century

  • Thomas T. Allsen, Mongol Imperialism

  • Jacques Le Goff, Medieval Values

Visual Sources: Images of Machu Picchu, Scenes from the Life of Muhammad, Women and the Sultan, The Glory of the Samurai, Cruelties of Conquest, Silk Road Interactive Maps http://www.silkroadproject.org/tabid/177/default.aspx and http://alongthesilkroad.org/map.html,

Population of the Basin of Mexico Across Millenia chart http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/mxpoprev/img001.gif,



Discussion:

  • Discuss the possible handicaps civilizations in the Western Hemisphere faced in comparison to the civilizations in Eurasia.

  • Discuss the various explanations, scholarly and otherwise, of the “decline and fall” of Mayan civilization.

  • Why does the Basin of Mexico Population chart look as it does?

  • What values are reflected in “Scenes from the Life of Muhammad” and “Women and the Sultan”?

  • According to Booth & Walker, what elements and characteristics of the Spanish conquest will affect Latin America in the future?

  • What does Madden believe about the motivations regarding the creation of the Crusades? Does his thesis reflect the ideas we have encountered in our own sources? Why or why not?

  • Compare the process of empire building through Watt and Allsen with what we know about previous patterns.

  • Consider the impact of internal divisions and the external pressures exerted by the Turks and Mongols on the status and development of an Islamic world.

  • Trace the nature and timing of the spread of Islam in the various regions of northern and eastern Africa, and the patterns of acceptance and rejection which accompanied it.

  • Assess the changes which led to the split within Buddhism and the revival of Hinduism.

  • Rather than emphasizing China as a centralized and unitary state, explore instead the history of China as a construct of vastly different regional societies.

  • Compare and contrast the degree of impact exerted on the social development of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam by their physical locations and environments. This impact could be compared to that resulting from their propinquity to China.

  • Describe the social and economic underpinnings of feudalism.

Project Ideas:

  • Evaluate whether the different writing systems of the Maya and Aztec made them more advanced, and/or significant, than the Incan quipu in organizing and communicating ideas and data about the economic and governmental systems.

  • Explore both the strengths and the weaknesses of the Aztec and Incan civilizations on the eve of their encounter with European civilization.

  • Examine how the lives and status of women, slaves, soldiers and other groups in the Islamic world compared and contrasted with those of their peers in other societies previously studied.

  • Research the major areas of life in African societies and consider how they compared and contrasted with those of China and/or India.

  • Compare the origins, nature and fates of the Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta regimes with those of the Ghazni, Delhi Sultanate, and other later Islamic regimes in India.

  • Explore the meaning of the text’s statement that the Chinese historians’ view that there was an underlying continuity in Chinese history was wrong and that, by the 500s, “Chinese society…bore scant resemblance to the kingdom that had been founded by the house of Zhou more than twenty centuries earlier.”

  • Probe the nature, and the cultural and economic ramifications, of the Japanese class structure.

  • Examine the question of clerical investiture and the broader question of the role of the clergy in an age when church and state needed their literate expertise to run their bureaucracies. Role playing as Henry and Gregory might enhance the impact.

Potential Essay Prompts: These represent typical prompts but may change.

  • DBQ: Aztec and Inca Culture (AP World History DBQ Practice, Social Studies School Service)

  • DBQ: Feudal Japan and Medieval Europe (AP World History DBQ Practice, Social Studies School Service)

  • Using Watt, Gernet and Le Goff, are there any commonalities or stark differences associated with everyday life in their respective geographic areas? What may account for it?

  • What are the possible reasons for the collapse of Mayan civilization? Which do you feel is most important, and why? Why not the others?

  • What, if anything, did all the societies of the Western Hemisphere have in common?

  • How did the spread of Islam, and the challenges faced by the need to choose successors to Muhammad, affect the political structure of the Muslim world? 

  • What were the most significant causes and results of the Crusades? Consider religious, economic, and social factors in your analysis. What were the positive and the negative consequences of the Christian Crusades, both in the Islamic Middle East and in the Christian West?

  • How have new discoveries about developments in Nubia, Kush and the Sahara challenged historians’ thinking about the origins of civilization in Africa, and the world?  

  • Describe African societies in terms of urban life, family relationships, and the parts played by women and the institution slavery in their social fabrics.

  • Compare and contrast the elements of civilization in sub-Sahara Africa with the civilizations of Mesoamerica. What are the similarities and differences and why?

  • Did the Gupta Dynasty have greater influence than the Kushan Kingdom on the development of Indian civilization? Why or why not? How, and why, did each compare to the Mauryan Dynasty in relative influence?  

  • What factors might explain the success of Hinduism, first in the challenge of Buddhism and second, in the later challenge of Islam?

  • What conditions made the rise of the Sui and Tang dynasties possible? Why didn’t such a change happen a century earlier?  

  • Discuss the possible reasons why China abandoned its seemingly successful naval accomplishments after the death of the emperor Yongle in 1424. Which do you believe to be most convincing, and why?

  • What is the relationship between the major agricultural regions in Japan and its political development and historical evolution?

  • Why did the revival of trade during the High Middle Ages occur as, and when, it did?

  • What were the causes, effects, and most significant events of the Hundred Years’ War? Did the Hundred Years’ War differ in any manner from earlier medieval warfare? If so, how and why?

Unit 3: The Emergence of New World Patterns (1500-1800)”

Periodization: c. 1450 to c. 1750

Key Concepts:

Key Concept 4.1 Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange

Key Concept 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production

Key Concept 4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion



Text Chapters: 13-17

Reader:

Chapter 13: Garcilaso de la Vega Royal Commentaries of the Inca, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes A General History of the Indies, Leo Africanus History and Description of Africa

Chapter 14: John Calvin Institutes of the Christian Religion, Martin Luther On Marriage, The House of Commons The Powers of Parliament (handout)

Chapter 15: Abul Fazl Akbarnama A Muslim Explains the Hindu Religion, Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq Turkish Letters, The Ideal Muslim Prince, Aurangzeb

Chapter 16: Tokugawa Hidetada Laws Governing the Military Households, K’ang His Self-Portrait of a Chinese Emperor

Chapter 17: Sir Isaac Newton Opticks, Jean Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract, Simon Bolivar Jamaican Letter, Voltaire Treatise on Toleration

Atlas: South American States c. 500- 1532 C.E., Asia c. 1500, Europe 1494-1560, Europe 1648, The Ottoman Empire to 1672, African Slave Trade, Asia 1800, Europe 1815

Secondary Sources:

  • Morris Rossabi, Muslims in Ming China

  • Jean-Pierre Lehmann, Europeans Arrive in Japan

  • Euan Cameron, What Was the Reformation?

  • Norman Itzkowitz, Ottoman Knowledge of Europe

  • Barrington Moore Jr., The Aristocratic Offensive and the Collapse of Absolutism

  • Barrington Moore Jr., The Failure to Adopt Commercial Agriculture

Visual Sources: A Buddhist Temple: European Views of Asia, Sebald Beham Luther and the Catholic Clergy Debate, Jean-Honore Fragonard Happy Accidents of the Swing, Akbar Inspecting the Construction of Fatehpur-Sikri.

Discussion:

  • Regarding Akbarnama’s, Busbecq’s and Aurangzeb’s documents, what definitive role does author’s perspective play in each? Does one seem more objective than the others?

  • What made Parliament a unique institution?

  • Fragonard’s painting can be seen as either very humorous or gravely irritating. What elements contribute to both arguments?

  • Survey the scientific and other developments which gave the European West the technological advantage over many non-Western societies by 1500.

  • Assess the progressive development of the slave trade and its influence on Africa, the Americas, and Europe, as they became parts of an increasingly cohesive web of global trade and imperialism.

  • Survey the intellectual and artistic impacts of the Italian and Northern Renaissances, using selected examples to illustrate and support major points and lines of development. 

  • Compare the regime of Louis XIV with that created by England’s Glorious Revolution, working with the theme of societal and political evolution and, possibly, including a “preview” of trends and tendencies linked to the French Revolution to create an informed perspective.

  • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the Mughal Empire as a precursor for the later successes of the British East India Company specifically and Great Britain generally.

  • Compare the origins and development of the Safavid and Ottoman regimes and systems.

  • According to Cameron, what helped the development of the Reformation? Is this plausible?

  • Does Moore’s piece alert us to any trends in the future? What continuity does he describe?

  • Compare and contrast the nature of Japanese and Chinese responses to European contacts, noting the perceptions and experiences of each about European intentions and capacities. An examination of the Korean response to pressures from Japan and China might provide a different perspective in this regard.

  • Examine the growing economic, gender, and cultural gaps among and within the major social groups in Europe from the mid-1600s through the mid-1700s.

  • Survey the impact—ideological, social, political, and economic—of the French Revolution on both the Western and the non-Western world.

  • Examine the context, style and purpose of the various Romantic Period paintings. Are they a reflection of then current philosophies regarding humanity? (http://iris.nyit.edu/arthistory/pptshows.html)

Project Ideas:

  • Examine and compare the causes and results of the explorations of Ming China’s Zhenghe with Días, da Gama, and Columbus.

  • In a panel discussion, explore and examine the possible reasons why the first era of globalization was largely the result of European initiative rather than Chinese or Arabic or some other non-Western state or society.

  • Examine the religious, socioeconomic and other elements involved in the rise of the witchcraft craze of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

  • Organize a discussion or panel between the absolutism of the France of Louis XIV and that of Kangxi or Qianlong in China.

  • Research the geographic origins of the three groups founding the “Gunpowder Empires” and the means each used to attain and retain power. How do they compare with earlier trans‑area expansions like those of the Franks, Romans, and Arabs?

  • Consider why and how the British East India Company was so successful in exerting influence and power throughout much of India by 1800. Both internal and external factors might be examined.

  • Recreate the trial of Galileo, with students representing the various characters. Possibly more modern characters, speaking for religion and for science, could be brought in as witnesses for both the defense and the prosecution.

  • Compare the causes and results of the rebellions of Zhu Yuanzhang and Li Zicheng with the power seizures of Japan’s “Three Great Unifiers” in terms of their roles as channels of change.

  • Probe the makeup and relative sizes of the social orders or estates in Europe during the 1700s and how and why the position and living standard of each changed during the century.

Potential Essay Prompts: These represent typical prompts but may change.

  • Using Iztkowitz as one of your sources, could the Ottoman Empire have developed policies which would have aided it in responding to trends at the time? What policies would have been advantageous?

  • DBQ: Japan and the West (AP World History DBQ Practice, Social Studies School Service)

  • DBQ: French Revolution, (http://www.myteacherpages.com/webpages/MDoyle/files/dbqfrenchrevolution.pdf)

  • How did technological advancements, the rise of stronger governments, and economic growth cause European societies to become involved in maritime expansion in the 1400s and 1500s? Why then?

  • Compare and contrast the impact of the European colonial nations in the Americas with the impact of the West in Southeast Asia. What are the similarities and what are the differences?

  • Was European Christianity in serious decline in the early 1500s? How did the ideas and actions of the Protestant Reformation change its nature and status?

  • “Baroque art was a product of its own time.” Discuss, with examples.

  • What factors can explain the success of the Mughals in unifying much of the Indian subcontinent, something that had not been done since the Mauryas and the Guptas?

  • Discuss the European impact on the Indian subcontinent during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. How did this impact alter conditions in ways that significantly changed the power balance there?

  • How, and why, was the Ming Dynasty followed by a non‑Chinese dynasty so soon after the Yuan? Was it again a situation in which Chinese disunity proved fatal? Why?

  • Why was capitalism seemingly more successful in Japan than in China in the early modern era?

Unit 4: Modern Patterns of World History (1800-1945)”

Periodization: c. 1750 to c. 1900, 1900 to the Present

Key Concepts:

Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism

Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

Key Concept 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform

Key Concept 5.4 Global Migration

Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment

Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences

Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture



Text Chapters: 18-24

Reader:

Chapter 18: Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations, W.R. Greg Life at High Pressure, Andrew Jackson The Removal of Native Americans in the United States (handout)

Chapter 19: United States House of Representatives Banning Chinese Immigration to the United States (handout), Nathum Goldman Early Zionist Thought, Jose Marti A Vindication of Cuba (handout)

Chapter 20: Moshweshew Letter to Sir George Grey: Conflict and Diplomacy in South Africa (handout), Robert Moffat The Ndebele Nation in Central Africa, Raden Ajeng Kartini Letters of a Javanese Princess (handout)

Chapter 21: Shibusawa Eiichi Modernizing Japan’s Economy, Sun Yat-sen Manifesto of the United League (handout), Tokugawa Nariaki Japan, Reject the Westerners (handout)

Chapter 22: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin On the Russian Revolution, R.B. Bennett Canada and the Great Depression (handout), Reports from the Front: The Battle for Verdun, 1916 (handout)

Chapter 23: Mohandas Gandhi The Doctrine of the Sword, Marcus Garvey On African Nationalism, Hasan Al-Bana The Resurgence of Islam

Chapter 24: The Bombing of Hiroshima, I Lived to Tell the Horrors of Treblinka, Ho Chi Minh Revolutionary Nationalism in Vietnam (handout)

Atlas: Industrialization and Urbanization in Europe c. 1850, Imperialism in the Modern World c. 1900, Asian Imperialism to 1910, Europe 1914, Africa 1914, World War I, Europe Between the Wars, Japanese Expansion in Asia 1895-1941, Word War II Europe, World War II Pacific

Secondary Sources:

  • Thomas W. Walker, The Nicaraguan Revolution

  • Richard J. Kessler, The Philippines “People-Power” Revolution

  • Joanna Waley-Cohen, The Guomindang, The Chinese Communists, and the Soviet Union

  • Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Historical Sources of the 1949 Divide

  • Nicholas Ostler, The World Taken By Storm

  • Louis L. Snyder, Negative: National Character Does Not Exist

Visual Sources: Diego Rivera The Mexican Revolution, The Oba of Benin, Gountei Sadahide Foreignors at Yokohama, Imperialism and the Looting of Cultures, George Harcourt Imperialism Glorified, World War I: The Home Front and Women (photo and tables)

Discussion:

  • Does Rivera consider this painting a hopeful view of Mexican history or a warning of the dangers that lie ahead?

  • What values are represented in the sculptural piece The Oba of Benin? What possible meanings could this image have to contemporary viewers?

  • What were the general trends of female employment in Great Britain from 1914-1918? How could these patterns affect the future social, economic and political policies of the nation?

  • Does ‘national character’ exist? Is Snyder’s argument compelling?

  • Is Wasserstrom arguing for a new periodization? What is his thesis? At what point does recent history necessitate a revision in historical patterns?

  • Briefly review the central elements of Enlightenment ideas as a backdrop for the development of Romanticism in literature, music, and visual art. 

  • Briefly compare and contrast the First and Second Industrial Revolutions in terms of their timing, their productive areas of focus, and their geographic locations as a prelude to examining their socioeconomic consequences. 

  • Explore at length some of the manifestations of “progress” and “anxiety” which engulfed Western civilization in the several decades prior to 1914.

  • Consider the relationships between the development of a world market system and the rise of imperialistic activity, perhaps citing the views of Hobson, Marx, and Livingstone to provide a challenging interpretive/explanatory mix.

  • Discuss the various and varied colonial responses to Western imperialism, possibly comparing India with the several African states.

  • Examine the foreign policy challenges which ultimately overwhelmed the Qing Dynasty and weakened China’s reputation as a major nation, making its sovereignty theoretical. 

  • Compare the experiences of China and Japan with the fates of other non‑Western areas overwhelmed by Western imperialism, particularly in terms of the status of traditional views and structures before and after confrontation with outside aggression.

  • Trace the revolutionary ideologies, movements, and events in Imperial Russia from the early nineteenth century to the beginning of 1917.

  • Examine the obstacles the Western democracies faced in preserving their World War I victory during the interwar years.

  • Examine the challenges overcome by and the relative achievements of Middle Eastern nationalists and modernizers such as Mustafa Kemal and Reza Khan.

  • Explore the similarities and the differences between communism, fascism, and liberalism in theory and practice.

  • Examine the aftermath of the war and the ways that it created, or revealed, a new, bipolar world and its implications for Europe and the world. 

Project Ideas:

  • Map out the geographic spread of the Industrial Revolution from the English Midlands and Wales to other European and American areas by the 1870s, noting the approximate times when different developmental stages were achieved. 

  • Produce a documentary in which you discuss and define the concept of “modernization” and explore what was “modern” in the nineteenth century, as well as what was not “modern” in that era.

  • Examine the nature of the “new” foci of the Second Industrial Revolution and their impact on those who organized, owned and were employed by the participating firms.

  • Read Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot and T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land. What ideas and sentiments are explored by each author? How did society attempt to deal with the “new reality” of the 20th century? How did these works contribute to that mentality?

  • Explore and define what is meant by a “mass society,” and in a debate or discussion compare and contrast the mass society of the late nineteenth century with today’s mass society.

  • Debate the following: “British rule in India was on balance overwhelmingly beneficial to the vast majority of Indians.”

  • Investigate both the ideas and actions of the Chinese and British leaders and societies before and after the Opium War. Explain whether there is anything comparable taking place today in this era of globalization.

  • Discuss and debate, pro and con, the proposition that ultimately the Meiji Restoration was a rejection of Westernization.

  • Study the strategies employed by the combatant forces in the Great War, and their results. Personal reminiscences of participants can be extremely informative.

  • Consider why Dadaism, Surrealism, and “the unconscious” were seemed to be apt depictions of reality to so many in the Western world in the early twentieth century.

  • Examine the role of authoritarianism in Turkey, Japan, and India between 1920 and the mid‑1930s to see whether, in your view, its incidence was the product of specific local/national conditions or part of a wider, perhaps global, trend. 

  • Assess the degree to which economic factors underlie the internal political and economic structures of Latin America, Japan and China. Specific studies of the roles of Lazaro Cardenas, Chiang Kai‑Shek, and the Shidehara/Zaibatsu relationship of the 1920s might prove especially informative.

  • Compare the new features, and overall effectiveness, of modern totalitarian regimes’ efforts to organize and motivate and control their populations, with those of earlier authoritarian systems. Is there anything similar in the early twenty-first century?

  • Examine the role women of different societies played in World War II as preparation for a discussion or debate.

Potential Essay Prompts: These represent typical prompts but may change.

  • Using Walker and Kessler, compare and contrast their respective revolutions.

  • According to Ostler, how did English affect the native languages of Australia and New Zealand? Are there past examples of this type of process?

  • How did industrialization influence social structures and the nature of urban life in Europe? 

  • Were developments in technology and science as influential as the ideologies of liberalism and nationalism in Europe and the Americas? Show why or why not.  

  • How did the impact of the new mass society affect the lives of women, in terms of work experience, family life, and the rise of feminism?

  • . How did competition among the major European powers, including the Balkan troubles, set the stage for world war in the early twentieth century? 

  • Would the British role in India have changed as it did during the mid‑1800s if the Sepoy Rebellion had not occurred? Why or why not?

  • What does the text mean when it says, “modern nationalism, then, was a product of colonialism and, in a sense, a reaction to it”? 

  • Why did divisions and disagreements follow the fall of the Manchus? Were they inevitable? Why did they last so long?  

  • What were the causes and consequences of the Russo-Japanese War? For Japan? For Russia? For China?

  • Why was Russia the only major belligerent power to experience a revolution and a successful coup d’etat during the war? Was the collapse of the imperial government in Germany at all similar? Why or why not?  

  • Discuss the causes and major results of the Great Depression in the United States and Europe. Was it also a part of the Great War’s aftermath? Was it effectively over by 1938? 

  • How did traditional beliefs and practices aid and/or hinder the development of “modern” nationalist movements in Africa and Asia? Were these beliefs and practices as influential in this development process as colonial policies and military power? Explain.

  • Did Turkey and Iran or the Latin American countries accomplish more in the interwar decades? Why, and how? With what results?  

  • Why were militarists able to gain and exert so much power in Japan in the 1930s? Did their control of government make the Pacific phase of World War II inevitable? Explain.

  • How was civilian life in wartime Europe affected by mobilizations and aerial bombings? Was the impact equivalent to that visited upon Stalin’s victims during the “peaceful” 1930s? Explain. 

  • DBQ: Imperialism, (AP World History DBQ Practice, Social Studies School Service)

  • DBQ: Fascism vs. Democracy, (http://www.historyteacher.net/EuroProjects/DBQs2002/DBQ2002_Fascism.htm)

Unit 5: “Toward a Global Civilization? The World Since 1945”

Periodization: 1900 to the Present

Key Concepts:

Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment

Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences

Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society and Culture



Text Chapters: 25-29

Reader:

Chapter 25: B.N. Ponomaryov The Cold War: A Soviet Perspective (handout), Mao Zedong Communism in China (handout), Assia Djebar Growing Up in Algeria (handout)

Chapter 26: Alexander Solzhenitsyn One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Wang Xin A Chinese Peasant Maps His Road to Wealth

Chapter 27: Leopold Sedar Senghor Poems, Charles de Gaulle Europe and Its Role in World Affairs (handout), Dean Acheson U.S. Position on China (handout), Juan Domingo Peron Justicialism (handout)

Chapter 28: Jomo Kenyatta The Kenya Africa Union Is Not The Mau Mau, Desmond Tutu My vision for South Africa, Ayatollah Murtada Mutahhari The Resurgence of Islam

Chapter 29: Sami Shawkat Strength means to excel in the profession of death, Traditional Versus Nuclear Families in Modern India, Communiqué of the Central Committee Communist China: The Four Modernizations (handout)

Atlas: Independent States to 1991, Cold War Europe 1946-1990, The Vietnam War 1964-1975, States of the World 2002.

Secondary Sources:

  • Anwar-ul-haq Ahady, The Afghanistan Revolutionary Wars

  • Louis L. Snyder, Farewell to the Nation-State?

  • Raymond L. Garthoff, The End of the Cold War

  • Robert J. Donia, War in Bosnia and Ethnic Cleansing

  • Ali A. Mazrui and Michael Tidy, Reviving African Culture

  • Thomas B. Gold, Economic Revitalization of East Asia

  • Edward O. Wilson, Ecological Threats

Visual Sources: Decolonization in Asia and Africa, Rent Collection Courtyard: Art and Politics in China, The Growth of Cities, Global Environmental Problems

Discussion:

  • Has the nation-state met its end? What evidence conflicts with Snyder’s argument? How can recent history support him?

  • Are the Afghani wars comparable to any others we have encountered?

  • Could Mazrui and Tidy’s piece be seen as a prerequisite for the development in Gold’s?

  • Discuss the implications of the rise of the new, bipolar world on the other, non‑Russian European states, particularly those with former Great Power and colonialist pasts. 

  • Survey the several interpretations of the origins and the results of the Cold War from the vantage point of the early twenty-first century.

  • Analyze the rapid collapse of the Soviet state and economy and the “gerontocratic”—personal and systemic—factors contributing to it, especially assessing the nature and impact of the rehabilitative efforts of Gorbachev during its final stages.

  • Examine the major events, and the ideological and procedural matters underlying them, during the “Era of Mao,” from its relatively well‑orchestrated initial years to its troubled conclusion in the mid‑1970s.

  • Examine and assess the development of several Latin American nations since the 1940s as their vastly different geographic and demographic dimensions begin to distinguish different regions, even while a common lack of capital limited the potential viability and social “modernization” of such societies as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil.

  • Survey the factors, from “pop culture” to social class changes, and from the “rise” of multinational corporate power centers to the ongoing “world‑based” trading arrangements, that transformed the world in the 1990s. A specific examination of global agreements from GATT to the WTO and more limited regional entities such as the EC and NAFTA could prove informative.

  • Briefly assess the perceptions and rationales of the “colonial” intellectuals devising projected independence scenarios and how their expectations related to practical circumstances.

  • Assess the periodically readjusting society of Iran, which went from “militant secularism” under the Shah to an Islamicist regime under Khomeini. Compare and contrast it with Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

  • Briefly depict the range of opinion in the Indian nationalist movement, particularly the differences between Gandhi and Nehru, and the communally based rivalry between Jinnah’s Muslim League and the Congress Party.

  • Trace the major political and socioeconomic developments in Australia and New Zealand since the 1940s in order better to be able to compare the differences and continuities in the ideas, attitudes, and rhetoric of both societies toward Asia, and vice versa.

  • Review the manner in which Japanese political and cultural trends have defined and/or redefined the way Japanese society perceives and explains them.

Project Ideas:

  • Study the motives and actions of President Truman as the Cold War moved from the economic aid of the immediate postwar period, through the Berlin Crisis and other crises, to limited warfare in Korea. Then assess the validity of his major foreign policy moves when seen from the viewpoint of that year and of today.

  • Examine and discuss the reasons and the timing for Nikita Khrushchev’s call for peaceful coexistence, and also explore its consequences or results in the subsequence policies and actions of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and the United States.

  • Examine the careers of Vaclav Havel, Mikail Gorbachev, and Boris Yeltsin to get a feel for the challenges and opportunities presented in periods of massive societal stress. This topic could provide the nucleus for an engaging discussion.

  • Critically compare and contrast the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the 1989 student movement at Tiananmen Square in terms of their ideologies, motivations and results. You might wish to specifically examine the roles of the students involved and what impelled them to act as they did. A comparison with the ideas and actions of Western students in the 1960s and afterward could be illuminating. 

  • Research the physical, psychological, and attitudinal status of London or Coventry and Berlin or Hamburg in the immediate post-war period, to get an insight into the degrees of devastation visited upon “winners” and “losers” by World War II operations.

  • Study the impact of the Common Market, the “euro,” and other factors on the development of an international/supranational European society and/or state. Then, have them assess the desirability and feasibility of a “United States of Europe” from the viewpoints of Europeans, “Americans” of various types, and the rest of the world.

  • Compare the decade 1945–1955 to the decade 1990–2000, looking for similarities and differences, continuities and discontinuities in political, social, and economic spheres.

  • Explore some of the current problems and challenges of Africa, including desertification and famine, ethnic and religious genocide, AIDS, corrupt governments, and provide possible solutions. Also, create scenarios for Africa 10, 25, and 50 years into the future, predicated on the best-case and the worst-case possibilities.

  • Examine the lives of women of different classes in a Muslim country—perhaps Iran or Saudi Arabia—to see how much their obligations and opportunities have changed since 1970. A comparison with women’s status in Israel or Turkey could be valuable.

  • Research the careers of Sukarno and Ho Chi Minh to get a grip on the challenges of establishing new regimes in the heterogeneous Republic of Indonesia and the more homogeneous society of Vietnam. You could also “compare charismas” and the impact of the systems on “everyday people.”

  • Research causes, effects and possible solutions to current environmental threats.

Potential Essay Prompts: These represent typical prompts but may change.

  • To what degree was the “Iron Curtain” both a cause and a reflection of differing evaluations of the present, opposing views of the future, and powerful, contrasting memories and “lessons” from the past?

  • Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a turning point in the Cold War? Why or why not?

  • Compare and contrast the policies of Stalin and Khrushchev in the postwar Soviet Union. How did their policies both shape and respond to conditions there? 

  • What was Mao Zedong’s New Democracy? Was it successful? How and why, or how not and why not?

  • What internal and external forces shaped the story of self‑government in the two Germanies, and then the reunification of Germany? Did German leaders shape events or just “read and ride them well”? How and why?

  • How have the growth of permissiveness, changes in the status of women, and the emergence of

modern terrorism influenced Western society during the last thirty years? Which has had the deepest impact, and why? 

  • What has been the significance of the concepts of Pan‑Africanism and nationalism in the development of the independent nations of Africa? 

  • Do the factors underlying fundamentalism in Islam, Judaism and Christianity have any common

causes or consequences? Why or why not?

  • Which country—India, Indonesia or Pakistan—faced the greatest challenges to its survival and

modernization during the last generation? Which has responded most effectively? Why and how? 

  • DBQ: Cold War

  • DBQ: Japan vs. China

Final Project: “Chapter 30”

You will have noticed that the last chapter of our text, chapter 29, is entitled “Toward the Pacific Century?” You and your colleagues will respond to this question by creating the next chapter of the book. Since this book was published in 2006, there have been a few years between Duiker and Spielvogel’s assessments.



Each group of students will choose a country mentioned in Chapter 29. Your mission is to explain not only the recent history of that nation, but to place it within the larger framework of global power and influence. It is also critical to examine whether a new periodization has occurred or its potentiality to occur.

As you may have guessed, the chapter your collaborative creates will have to mimic the others in the text. You will need such components as primary, secondary and visual sources, tables and/or charts, evaluation of recent literature, maps, etc. A rubric will be distributed to you well in advance.


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