Ap test review english Language and Composition What I want you to Do…



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AP TEST REVIEW

  • AP TEST REVIEW
  • English Language and Composition

What I Want YOU to Do…

  • TONIGHT
  • Study your AP vocab
  • Take home a review book and use it—go through a MC review section and a MC prac. test tonight—ALSO go over the analysis essay review section tonight and “virtually write” the analysis essays in the book.
  • TOMORROW night
  • Study your AP vocab
  • Do the same as above for synthesis and argument essay sections
  • Sleep and relax
  • In one of those ideal situation type things

What you should bring…

  • Several pencils #2
  • Several black pens—no white out allowed
  • H20
  • Wear something comfortable—and school appropriate 
  • Breakfast in your belly

Organization of AP Language and Composition Exam 3 hours 15 minutes total 1. MC section I hour 2. Essay 2 hours 15 minutes three types of essay -analysis -argument -synthesis

  • *You are responsible for dividing your time appropriately!
  • MULTIPLE CHOICE

Multiple Choice Scoring

  • Number right
  • The MC section is 45% of your overall score
  • Skipped items do not count for or against you--GUESS

Types of Multiple Choice Questions

  • The straightforward question
  • The question that refers you to specific lines and asks you to draw a conclusion or to interpret
  • The ALL… EXCEPT question
  • The question that asks you to make an inference or to abstract a concept not directly stated in the passage
  • The “killer” Roman numeral question
  • The footnote question

Specific Techniques

  • Process of Elimination
  • Substitution/ Fill-in the blank
  • Using Context
  • Anticipation
  • Intuition/ The Educated Guess

Question Categories

  • Questions about rhetoric
  • Questions about the author’s meaning and purpose
  • Questions about the main idea
  • Questions about organization and structure
  • Questions about rhetorical modes

Approach to MC Section

  • Answer easy questions immediately
  • On more difficult questions, write in your book—mark eliminated choices
  • On questions that you find very difficult—return after you have answered the following questions—they may help shed some light on previous questions that you had trouble with.
  • Hint: if you can narrow the choices down to two– go ahead and guess

For the “uber-difficult” passages…

  • Personally, I like to read the passage quickly to get the main idea and then read it again annotating important points. Pay special attention to tone as you read.
  • ANALYSIS ESSAY

The AP English Language Exam Requires the analysis of another author’s…

  • structure
  • purpose
  • style

SAMPLE Analysis Questions

  • Analyze an author’s view on a specific subject
  • Analyze rhetorical devices used by an author to achieve his or her purpose
  • Analyze stylistic elements in a passage and their effects
  • Analyze the author’s tone and how the author conveys this tone

SAMPLE Analysis Questions Cont.

  • Compare and/or contrast two passages with regard to style, purpose, or tone
  • Analyze the author’s purpose and how he or she achieves it
  • Analyze some of the ways an author recreates a real or imagined experience
  • Analyze how an author presents him or herself in the passage
  • Discuss the intended and/or probable effect of a passage

RHETORICAL STRATEGIES YOU MAY NEED TO ANALYZE (Structure)

  • 1. Example
  • 2. Comparison and contrast
  • 3. Definition
  • 4. Cause and effect
  • 5. Process
  • 6. Analysis
  • 7. Classification

ELEMENTS OF STYLE YOU MAY NEED TO ANALYZE (AKA STYLISTIC DEVICES)

  • 1. subject matter
  • 2. selection of detail
  • 3. organization
  • 4. point of view
  • 5. diction
  • 6. syntax
  • 7. language
  • 8. attitude
  • 9. tone

“CONNECTIVE TISSUE”—THIS IS FOR YOU—USE IT…

  • 1. transition
  • 2. subject consistency
  • 3. tense consistency
  • 4. voice consistency
  • 5. voice
  • 6. pacing/ sentence variety

Reading the Prompt…

  • Plan to spend 1-3 minutes carefully reading and deconstructing the question
  • Circle or underline the essential terms and elements in the prompt
  • If the prompt requires more than one element, you must use more than one!

Reading the Passage…

  • Read the passage absorbing the main idea
  • Go back and read the passage annotating prompt relative material

Composition

  • Review the prompt
  • List the elements that need to be included in your introduction: author, title, question elements, the elements that you plan to mention in your essay
  • Draw a graphic organizer and fill it out for the body
  • After you complete this—composition will be a breeze
  • Don’t worry about a “catchy” opening thingy—get to the point and get out if nothing earth shattering immediately pops into your head
  • After composition, mark the grid and intro. list and make sure that you haven’t left anything out of the response

WARNINGS…

  • Avoid paraphrasing the material
  • Use TEXTUAL evidence
  • Actually analyze the textual evidence—make sure you use quotation marks and put the periods and commas inside!!! ARGHHH!!!!!!!
  • Use connective tissue and transitions
  • Vary your syntax!
  • USE AP TERMS thoughtfully indicating that you really know what they mean—Remember the ughhhhhh example, “The author used diction…”
  • ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

DO THESE THREE THINGS…

  • Understand the nature of the position taken in the prompt
  • Take a specific stand
  • Clearly and logically support your claim

After CAREFULLY Reading the Prompt– ask yourself…

  • Do I think about this subject in the same way as the writer/ speaker?– AGREE
  • Do I think the writer/ speaker is totally wrong?– DISAGREE
  • Do I think some of what is said is correct and some incorrect?– QUALIFY
  • Remember—there are other words for “agree,” “refute,” “qualify”

EXAMPLES OF GOOD EVIDENCE FOR YOU TO USE IN YOUR RESPONSE…

  • Facts/ statistics
  • Details
  • Quotations
  • Dialog
  • Needed definitions
  • Recognition of the opposition
  • Examples
  • Anecdotes
  • Contrasts and comparisons
  • Cause and effect
  • Appeal to authority

Reading the Prompt…

  • Read, think, read, think
  • Take some time to decide your position—you may not choose the side that first appeals to you
  • Take some time to plan your support and weigh in the potential fallacies of your points
  • Draw a grid for claim, data, warrant
  • Create a strong claim for your thesis
  • Don’t forget to consider the thoughts and position of the opposing side

Classical Argumentative Scheme

  • Part 1: Introductory Paragraph
  • -catch interest
  • -present the issue or topic with concrete image or anecdote
  • -provide any relevant background information
  • -define pertinent terms
  • -state claim

Classical Argumentative Scheme Con’t.

  • Part 2: Concession and Refutation
  • -ignoring the other side is dangerous
  • -perhaps find weaknesses within the opposing reasons, facts, testimonies, etc.
  • -“yes,” is the concession; “but” is the refutation
  • -you still must demonstrate that your claims are more valid
  • -you may concede or refute in the introductory paragraph or through the body paragraphs as you bring up additional points

Classical Argumentative Scheme Con’t.

  • Part 3: Confirmation Paragraphs
  • -the most important and longest section of the argument
  • -provides the reasons and the evidence of a writer’s claim
  • -shows the logical development of the argument
  • -should include both logical reasons and evidence but also emotional appeals to human needs or values
  • -incorporate other modes of discourse to further develop your writing

Classical Argumentative Scheme Con’t.

  • Part 4: Concluding Paragraph
  • -wrap up the argument
  • -restate the claim
  • -provide a new appeal to needs or values
  • -enrich with additional commentary
  • -voice a final plea for readers to take action or to change thinking
  • -refrain from repeating any information

I am a little worried about…

  • The examples that some of you have used lately…
  • SYNTHESIS ESSAY

What is the Purpose?

  • The College Board wants to determine that you can…
    • -Read critically
    • -Understand texts
    • -Analyze texts
    • -Develop a position on a given topic
    • -Support a position on a given topic
    • -Support a position with appropriate evidence from outside sources
    • -Incorporate outside sources into the text of the essay
    • -Cite sources used

Elements of the DR/CQ

  • Defense
  • Qualified defense/ refutation
  • Refutation
  • Qualified refutation/ reservations
  • Rogerian approach/ argue for compromise

Source Possibilities

  • Six or seven documents
  • Short works
  • At least one visual, non textual (charts, cartoons, tables, etc.)
  • Black and white print
  • Opposing views—dialectic
  • You are invited to join the conversation

Remember!

  • Create your own thesis—thus showing a sense of independence
  • YOU are choosing your view and using the sources to support that view
  • Weaker writers have a tendency to paraphrase and list—so, don’t do that
  • Use at least three sources
  • Cite/ attribute sources
  • Remember that the best writers create a dialectic– thus offering complexity– they do not simplify
  • Thanks to Peterson’s Five Steps to a Five and Cliff’s AP for the tips!


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