Ap biology chapter 8 Metabolism The Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed and transferred by never created or destroyed



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AP BIOLOGY Chapter 8 Metabolism

The _____ Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed and transferred by NEVER created or destroyed

  • FIRST
  • entropy

The _______ Law of Thermodynamics states that every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

  • The _______ Law of Thermodynamics states that every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
  • Chemical reactions with a NEGATIVE free energy (- Δ G) are ____________
  • endergonic exergonic
  • SECOND
  • exergonic

Chemical reactions with a POSITIVE free energy (+ Δ G) are ____________

  • Chemical reactions with a POSITIVE free energy (+ Δ G) are ____________
  • endergonic exergonic
  • Most enzymes belong to which group of macromolecules?
  • Molecules that speed up chemical reactions are called ____________
  • endergonic
  • proteins
  • catalysts

Energy associated with moving objects is called _______ energy

  • Energy associated with moving objects is called _______ energy
  • Catabolic pathways
  • consume energy to build molecules
  • release energy by breaking down molecules
  • Chemical energy is a form of ___________ energy kinetic potential
  • kinetic
  • potential

Reactions that release free energy are called ______________

  • Reactions that release free energy are called ______________
  • exergonic endergonic
  • The hydrolysis of ATP is a ________ ΔG reaction.
  • Catalytic proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things are called
  • ____________
  • exergonic
  • negative
  • enzymes

Reactions that absorb free energy are called ______________

  • Reactions that absorb free energy are called ______________
  • exergonic endergonic
  • Chemical reactions with a NEGATIVE free energy (- Δ G) are ____________
  • spontaneous nonspontaneous
  • Region on an enzyme where regulatory molecules can bind = ______________
  • endergonic
  • spontaneous
  • Allosteric site

Chemical reactions with a POSITIVE free energy (+ Δ G) are ____________

  • Chemical reactions with a POSITIVE free energy (+ Δ G) are ____________
  • spontaneous nonspontaneous
  • The initial investment of energy for starting a chemical reaction is called
  • the _______________
  • The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches = _____________
  • nonspontaneous
  • active site

Chemical reactions with a NEGATIVE free energy (- Δ G) are ____________

  • Chemical reactions with a NEGATIVE free energy (- Δ G) are ____________
  • spontaneous nonspontaneous
  • Which kinds of bonds hold the substrate to the active site of an enzyme?
  • Nonprotein “helpers” for catalytic activty are called ______________
  • spontaneous
  • cofactors

If a cofactor is an organic molecule it is called a ____________

  • If a cofactor is an organic molecule it is called a ____________
  • Which kind of food molecules often act as coenzymes?
  • A molecule that mimics a substrate, binds to the active site, and reduces the activity of an enzyme is called a(n) _______________ inhibitor.
  • coenzyme
  • vitamins
  • COMPETITIVE

______________ inhibitors slow down enzymatic reactions by binding to a site other than the active site and causing a change in the enzyme’s shape

  • ______________ inhibitors slow down enzymatic reactions by binding to a site other than the active site and causing a change in the enzyme’s shape
  • In ___________ inhibition, a metabolic pathway is switched off by the binding of its end product.
  • The change in the shape of the active site of an enzyme after the substrate attaches so that it binds more snugly
  • is called _____________
  • NONCOMPETITIVE
  • FEEDBACK
  • INDUCED FIT

When the binding of one substrate molecule primes an enzyme to accept additional substrate molecules more readily it is called ______________

  • When the binding of one substrate molecule primes an enzyme to accept additional substrate molecules more readily it is called ______________
  • COOPERATIVITY

The arrow in the diagram is showing the _________________ of this reaction.

  • The arrow in the diagram is showing the _________________ of this reaction.
  • ACTIVATION ENERGY

The arrow in the diagram is showing the ______________________ of this reaction.

  • The arrow in the diagram is showing the ______________________ of this reaction.
  • CHANGE IN FREE ENERGY (ΔG)

This reaction has a ___ Δ G because the energy of the products is greater then the reactants

  • This reaction has a ___ Δ G because the energy of the products is greater then the reactants
  • +

This reaction has a ___ Δ G because the energy of the products is less then the reactants

  • This reaction has a ___ Δ G because the energy of the products is less then the reactants
  • -

How would adding an enzyme change the graph of this reaction?

  • How would adding an enzyme change the graph of this reaction?
  • Enzymes lower the activation energy of chemical reactions but don’t change the
  • energy of the products

Cells manage their energy resources by using the energy from exergonic (-ΔG) reactions to drive endergonic (+ΔG) reactions in a process called

  • Cells manage their energy resources by using the energy from exergonic (-ΔG) reactions to drive endergonic (+ΔG) reactions in a process called
  • ____________________
  • ADP + Pi → ATP
  • This is a __ ΔG reaction.
  • +

Cellular respiration uses glucose, which has a high level of free energy and releases CO2 and H2O which have low levels of free energy.

  • Cellular respiration uses glucose, which has a high level of free energy and releases CO2 and H2O which have low levels of free energy.
  • Is respiration spontaneous or not?
  • Is it exergonic or endergonic?
  • spontaneous
  • exergonic

How does the 2nd LAW of thermodynamics help explain the diffusion of a substance across a membrane?

  • How does the 2nd LAW of thermodynamics help explain the diffusion of a substance across a membrane?
  • The 2nd Law is the tendency toward randomness. Having equal concentrations on both sides of a membrane is more random than unequal concentrations. Diffusion from high concentration to low INCREASES THE ENTROPY as mandated by the 2nd law

If living things take simpler substances and build them into complicated systems (increase entropy), why does this NOT VIOLATE the 2nd LAW of thermodynamics ?

  • If living things take simpler substances and build them into complicated systems (increase entropy), why does this NOT VIOLATE the 2nd LAW of thermodynamics ?
  • Living things are OPEN systems and must
  • constantly take in energy and materials from outside to maintain the increase in entropy


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