|Animal Testing Should animals be used in testing new drugs and procedures?
Every year, millions of animals undergo painful suffering or death as a result of scientific research into the effects of drugs, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. While most people think animal testing is necessary, others are upset by what they see as needless suffering. This essay looks at some of the positive and negative aspects of animal testing.
Many medical treatments and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals. Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients. Medical teams practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.
However, many people are concerned that animals are suffering unnecessarily and cruelly. They do not believe that every new drug needs to be tested on animals, especially with the huge database of knowledge and modern computer models. They also are worried that many animal tests are ineffective, pointing out that many drugs have had to be withdrawn from the market despite extensive testing. They particularly feel that animal testing should not be used for non-essential products such as cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, and cleaning products. Furthermore, some campaigners would like to see certain tests replaced and more humane methods used.
We need to make sure that the millions of animals who are used for testing new products are treated with the minimum of suffering. Although some animal testing may be unavoidable at present, treating our fellow creatures as mercifully as possible will demonstrate our humanity.
Every day, thousands of people are saved from painful diseases and death by powerful medical drugs and treatments. This incredible gift of medicine would not be possible without animal testing. Despite these overwhelming benefits, however, some people are calling for animal testing to be banned because of alleged cruelty. This essay will examine arguments for and against animal testing.
Those against the use of animal testing claim that it is inhumane to use animals in experiments. I disagree completely. It would be much more inhumane to test new drugs on children or adults. Even if it were possible, it would also take much longer to see potential effects, because of the length of time we live compared to laboratory animals such as rats or rabbits.
Opponents of animal testing also claim that the results are not applicable to humans. This may be partly true. Some drugs have had to be withdrawn, despite testing. However, we simply do not have alternative methods of testing. Computer models are not advanced enough, and testing on plants is much less applicable to humans than tests on animals such as monkeys. Until we have a better system, we must use animal testing.
A further point often raised against animal testing is that it is cruel. Some of the tests certainly seem painful, but the great majority of people on this planet eat meat or wear leather without any guilt. Where is their sympathy for animals? Furthermore, animals clearly do not feel the same way as humans, and scientists are careful to minimize stress in the animals, since this would damage their research.
I agree that we need to make sure that animals who are used for testing new products have the minimum of suffering. However, I am convinced that animal testing is necessary, and that it will continue to benefit humans in new and wonderful ways.
The Concept of an Argumentative Essay (source: http://www.msu.org/writing_guides/index.htm)
What is an argument? Where agreement or disagreement with a text is possible, it is possible to offer evidence or reasons in support of that agreement or disagreement. The presentation of such evidence or reasons constitutes an argument.
An analytical essay does not seek to articulate grounds for agreement or disagreement with the claims contained in a text. When an analytical essay deals with a text containing an argument, the goal is to make explicit the argument that the text's author offers in support of his or her claim. An argumentative essay, however, does seek to articulate grounds for agreement or disagreement with a text. The aim in this case is not merely to make explicit an argument offered by the author of the text, but rather to discover a new argument either for or against the author's claim. In order to discover a new argument, you must have a clear sense of the nature of the controversy surrounding the claim. This means that (1) you must be able to imagine the claim as controversial -- i.e., you must be able at least to imagine someone rationally disagreeing with it, and (2) you must understand clearly the question to which the claim is addressed and the issue that is at stake in any answer to that question.
Accordingly, this clarification of the controversial nature of the claim constitutes the first step in the ideal structure and organization of an argumentative essay. This first step requires the definition of the question and issue at stake in the author's claim. The second step is the statement of the claim that is to be supported with evidence or reasons. If you are offering a new argument in support of the author's claim, then only a statement of that claim is required. If you are offering an argument that is contrary or contradictory to the author's claim, then you must state both the author's claim and the counter-claim that you are going to support.
The third step of an argumentative essay is the presentation of the case in support of the claim or counter-claim asserted. This case consists of a reference to at least one (but preferably more than one) factual or logical consideration whose truth makes the claim more worthy of belief or acceptance. Note that the case you offer in support of any claim has as its goal the persuasion of an audience. This means that the statements you offer in support of the claim should not be themselves a matter of controversy for your intended audience -- i.e., they should be at least more likely to be accepted by your audience than the claim you are supporting.
The fourth and final step in the ideal organization of an argumentative essay is the summary. The summary of an argumentative essay should (1) state clearly the claim that has been established, (2) offer an estimate of the strength of the case that you have made for the claim (identifying any reservations or possible counter-examples that weaken that case), and (3) make explicit the consequences of the claim for the issue which is at stake in the question.
Divide your argumentative essay into four parts: (1) the introduction, (2) the claim and counter-claim to be supported, (3) the case supporting the claim or counter-claim and (4) the summary. Obviously, the third part should be the longest section of your essay. Be sure to identify each part clearly and to include in each part the content specified below.
Part I (Introduction): Identify the question to which the claim is addressed and state the issue at stake in any answer to that question.
Part II (Claim and Counter-Claim): State the claim that you intend to support. If you are arguing against a claim made by the author, then state both the author's claim and the counter-claim that you intend to defend.
Part III (The Case): Present your grounds -- i.e., the factual or logical considerations you have discovered that support the claim you are advancing.
Part IV (Summary): Restate the claim you have defended, indicating any reservations that might weaken your case and make explicit the consequences of your claim for the issue at stake in the question.
Task: Write an essay following the models and theory above about 1 or 2:
1 Should smoking be banned completely?
2 Should famous people have more privacy?
Checklist for Argumentative Essays: Language and Style
The following checklist is targeted at undergraduate students who find that they are able to construct in their minds strong and sophisticated arguments that bring together compelling and original ideas, but are unable in their writing to express these arguments and ideas clearly, accurately and effectively. The force of their arguments is thus severely diminished and they end up with poor grades that do not reflect the quality of their thinking. Here are some of the areas to look out for when writing and editing typical argumentative essays:
* No grammatical errors (e.g. incomplete or awkwardly structured sentences, dangling modifiers, problems with
subject-verb agreement, punctuation mistakes)
* No misused words -> Always check the dictionary
* No jargon or slang (meaningful only to a very specialised or local audience), unless:
o You explain what they mean
o You have good analytical or dramatic reasons for using them
* No typographical errors, e.g.: - Cut-and-Paste’ mistakes
o Spelling mistakes -> Use the spelling checker on your word-processor
* Effective choice of words -> Avoid ambiguity: Be specific and exact
* Effective placement of words in sentences to eliminate ambiguity
* Sentences are not cluttered with repetitive words, redundancies and inflated phrases
o Avoid clumsy sentences that confuse and irritate readers
* Systematic paragraphs convey ideas clearly, logically and purposefully
* Consistent use of verb tenses
* Consistent use of first-person, second-person and third-person pronouns to maintain the point of view
appropriate to the contexts
* Consistent use of spelling, grammar and style conventions (e.g. British/American/Australian English,
single/double quotations marks)
* Sufficiently formal as appropriate to an academic essay
* No clichés and colloquialisms, unless you have good analytical or dramatic reasons for using them
* No mimicking of lofty and pretentious styles or use of ‘big’ and excessive words in the vain attempt to impress
* A consistent style that you are comfortable with, because it reflects your own individual voice
* A variety of sentence structures used to avoid monotony
* The writing is not dull and lifeless, but elegant, clever, witty, energetic, etc.
* No sexist, stereotypical, or offensive language
Sense of Audience
* Your interest in the topic is conveyed to your readers
o You must convince readers that they should also be interested in what you have to say
o It always helps to imagine yourself as the reader
* Actively engages the reader, e.g.:
o Well-paced writing: Short sentences to emphasise a point, long and complex sentences to slow down
o Suitably dramatic moments: Delaying information to make conclusions more satisfying, etc.
* Falls within the prescribed word limit
* Complies with the prescribed format (e.g. fonts, margins, line spacing, justification, section headings)
* Consistent adherence to the prescribed style of documentation (e.g. APA, Harvard, MLA)