Animal Farm George Orwell Mrs. Caruso Day 1 Notes Context



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Animal Farm George Orwell

  • Mrs. Caruso
  • Day 1 Notes

Context

  • 1. An allegory is a story of symbols.
  • 2. Some of the most famous uses of allegory were the parables used by Jesus in order to teach using secret code.
  • 3. An allegory can be used to teach something very important to someone very young.
  • 4. Some of the most famous, Animal Farm, The Wizard of Oz and The Chronicles of Narnia.

Allegory is like an Iceberg…. A story with 2 levels

Roots of Orwell’s Animal Farm

Exposition

  • Time: early 1800’s
  • Place: Europe
  • Major Characters:
  • Those who own the factories
  • Those who work in the factories

Exposition

  • It all started with the Industrial Revolution……

Exposition (you don’t have to write these down)

  • Four major advances of the Industrial Revolution
  • 1. Power: coal and water used to move large objects
  • 2. Agriculture: cotton replaces wool for cloth material
  • 3. Transportation: better roads; new railroads
  • 4. Factories: machines now do the strong work

Initiating Event

  • The first point of conflict was the birth of factories.
  • 1. People needed to work in factories to make money.
  • 2. Big business beat out small business.
  • 3. Cities become crowded, dirty, unsafe.
  • 4. People are ANGRY and POOR

Exposition

  • These advances lead to three primary results
  • 1. Women and children become factory workers
  • 2. A weaker workforce less able to take care of itself
  • 3. Urbanization
  • *Workers leave county and move to cities
  • *Cities become larger, filled with filth and crime
  • *Wealthy people move to the country

Initiating Event The Birth of Capitalism

Initiating Event

  • Capitalism: the idea that a nation’s economy must run without interference from the government. Trade and industry are controlled exclusively by private owners.

Initiating Event

  • Capitalism is the first point of conflict because:
  • Without interference from the government, there were no rules regarding minimum wage or the number of hours people worked each week.
  • Factory owners set long hours and low wages. They could do this because of the large workforce that was available.
  • Factory owners become very rich very fast. They paid their governments (taxes and soft money) to stay out of their way.
  • No social mobility existed. Wealth controlled by a small percentage of the population.
  • Poverty skyrocketed. Hopelessness lead to resentment.

Rising Action

  • Given the situation so far, what do you think happened?
  • Factory conditions became dangerous
  • Lawsuits- Government reaction: If you don’t like the conditions, don’t work there.
  • Sabotage
  • Riots against factory owners
  • Violent, often deadly reaction from the factory owners who argue that they were only protecting their property. The government agrees. Triangle Shirt waist Factory Fire (owners locked the doors to be sure no one was taking extra breaks).
  • Resentment against the factory owners turned to resentment against the government.

Climax An essay that changes everything…..

  • Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  • Born in Germany
  • Studies literature and philosophy
  • Travels throughout Europe and observes the situation of the working class.
  • Settles in London
  • Writes political and economic philosophy.
  • An IDEALIST- one who sees a way to make a better world (in theory)
  • Work is funded by a wealthy friend, Friedrich Engles.

Climax

  • The Communist Manifesto (1848)
  • The title refers to two words:
  • 1. Commune- a group of people who SHARE all property and goods. No private property exists; therefore (ideally), everyone is equal.
  • 2. Manifesto- a public declaration of principles and philosophy.

Bourgeoisie and Proletariats

Climax

  • Marx interpreted history as a struggle between two classes:
  • The Bourgeoisie –those who own the means of production, AKA: the employers, the “haves”, the upper class, the Capitalists.
  • The Proletariat – those who won nothing, but whose work produces wealth for the bourgeoisie. AKA: the employed, the “have-nots”, the working class.

Climax

  • The Communist Manifesto con’d
  • Marx accuses the bourgeoisie of:
  • Reducing the family to a relationship based on money.
  • Replacing local business with large corporations.
  • Destroying the worker’s sense of individual identity and turning him/her into a machine.
  • Forcing nations to become dependent upon one another through trade.
  • Forcing the world to accept their way or else collapse into poverty.
  • Being responsible for the sabotage, riots, and violence taking place in factories around the globe.

Climax

  • Marx calls for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie capitalists. They will be replaced by the communists.

Climax

  • Communism- a government in which property is owned by the nation instead of individuals. Each citizen works for the common benefit.

Climax

  • Communist Manifesto Cont’d
  • Two disturbing aspects of communism:
  • 1. No religion. Marx saw religion as a bourgeoisie tool of propaganda to keep the proletariat weak and without power.
  • No liberal arts (literature, music, drama) unless they express the ideals of communism.

Climax

  • The Communist Manifesto
  • “The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by FORCIBLE OVERTHROW of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win.
  • Workers of the world, unite!”

Falling Action

  • If you were a “bourgeoisie,” how would you respond?
  • Business people and politicians realized that Marx was right about one thing-they were outnumbered by an angry and potentially powerful working class. They suddenly started listening to the problems of workers in the lower classes.
  • New reforms rose up in a few nations:
  • 1. Laws passed regulating wages.
  • 2. Laws passed regulating hours in a work week.
  • 3. Workers gained the right to form unions and negotiate contracts.
  • 4. Public schools were formed to teach children about life, liberty, and the pursuit of a free market economy.

Resolution

  • Communists: those who fight for the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie and any government that supports them.
  • Socialists: those who fight for workers’ rights through peaceful legislative reform. They call for a gradual decline of the bourgeoisie and a redistribution of wealth and property.
  • The Socialist government is known as SOCIALISM.

Resolution

  • In nations that do not ignore Marx:
  • Workers –gain rights and power
  • Owners-remain alive and in power
  • In nations that do ignore Marx:
  • Workers-remain hateful and resentful
  • Owners-remain wealthy and in power
  • (Animal Farm is based on Russia- where no workers’ reforms were created.)

Picture Walk

Picture Walk

Picture Walk




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