Ancient Egypt Why is there winter?

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Ancient Egypt

Why is there winter?

Today’s overview

  • “Hymn to the Nile” and Assignment 3 due tomorrow
  • Quiz 3 on November 1:
    • Short Essay on the Nile (11 points)
    • Facts about the 3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt (notes on October 31) (12 points)

Why does the Nile River flow from South to North?

3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt

  • 3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
  • 2 intermediary periods

Old Kingdom

  • 2600-2100 BCE
  • “Pyramid Age”
  • Pharaohs were like gods
  • Pharaohs used a vizier (pronounced “vih-zeer”), a chief minister, to supervise the government.
  • From the tomb of a famous vizier named Ptah-hotep

1st intermediary period

  • This first intermediary period was the downfall of the old kingdom because of:
  • Crop failure
    • Famine (kelaparan)
  • Power struggle
  • Lost money trying to build the pyramids

Middle Kingdom

  • Pharaohs reunite the land and the Middle Kingdom began
  • 1900-1600 BCE
  • Pharaohs were buried in tombs
  • Corruption
  • Rebellion
  • Nile did not flood enough
    • Large drainage project (irrigation for the crops)
  • Expanded Egyptian rule to parts of Nubia (south of Egypt)
  • Looked for gold in Nubia

2nd intermediary period

  • Downfall of the Middle Kingdom…
  • A group of people called the Hyksos (pronounced “Hik-sos”) came with chariots from the Middle East. Assimilated into Egyptian culture.
  • Hyksos ruled for about 100 years

New Kingdom

  • Finally, the Egyptians kicked out the Hyksos, beginning the New Kingdom.
  • 1500-1100 BCE
  • Build the largest empire in Ancient Egypt.
  • Strong pharaohs
  • Egypt prospered and developed
  • Battled with the Hittites from Asia
  • End of Ancient Egypt:
  • Nubians regained independence and built their own empire in the south.
  • Assyrians and Persians take over Egypt

Quiz tomorrow! November 1

  • Short Essay on the Nile river and its importance(11 points)
    • Graded on content and structure!
    • What was it used for?
    • What were the dangers?
  • Facts about the 3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt (notes from today) (12 points)

Rosetta Stone

  • Created c. 196 BCE
  • Discovered: 1798
  • Current location: British Museum in England
  • 1802-present

Rosetta Stone

  • Demotic: “dee-mah-tik” Cuneiform: “q-neh-form”

Why was the Rosetta Stone so important?

  • Why was the Rosetta Stone so important?
  • Why do we call the language learning program “Rosetta Stone”?

3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt

Quiz reminder for tomorrow

    • Short Essay on the Nile (11 points)
    • Facts about the 3 kingdoms of Ancient Egypt (12 points)

Biblical plagues of Egypt vs. Scientific evidence

  • Some facts to know before you begin reading:
  • The Israelites came to Egypt around 1730-1445 BC or
  • 1450-1275 BCE
  • They were enslaved there for about 430 years. (Exodus 12:40)
    • Why were they enslaved there? (Exodus 1)
    • What other rule did Pharaoh make to control the Israelite’s population? (Exodus 1:15)
  • When they fled, there were about 6,000 men (not counting women and children)
    • 3. How many women and children do you think there were and why?

Answer these questions in your History Notebook:

  • In the Bible, what is reason for the plagues?
  • According to Exodus
  • In the scientific article, what is the reason for the plagues?
  • Which of the scientific article’s reasons for a plague seems most believable?
  • Which of the scientific article’s reasons for a plague seems the most unbelievable?
  • Can we reconcile (mendamaikan) these two perspectives? If we can, how?

Egyptian make-up



Modern-Day Egypt: International Sailing

Suez Canal

  • Painting of the Suez Canal by Albert Reiger

Suez Canal

  • Opened on November 17, 1869, the Suez Canal
  • Connected the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
  • Took more than 15 years to plan and build
  • Its construction was repeatedly hindered by political disputes, labor shortages and even a deadly cholera outbreak.
  • 162 kilometers
  • Permanently transformed international shipping
  • The Egyptian Pharaoh Senusret III may have built an early canal connecting the Red Sea and the Nile River around 1850 B.C., and according to ancient sources, the Pharaoh Necho II and the Persian conqueror Darius both began and then abandoned work on a similar project. The canal was supposedly finished in the 3rd century B.C. during the Ptolemaic Dynasty, and many historical figures including Cleopatra may have traveled on it. Rather than the direct link offered by the modern Suez Canal, this ancient “Canal of the Pharaohs” would have wound its way the through the desert to the Nile River, which was then used to access the Mediterranean.
  •  It’s about to get a major overhaul.  The Suez Canal has enjoyed increased traffic in recent years, with roughly 50 ships passing through its waters every day. Shipping tolls allow Egypt to rake in around $5 billion annually, but the canal is still hampered by its narrow width and shallow depth, which are insufficient to accommodate two-way traffic from modern tanker ships. In August 2014, Egypt’s Suez Canal Authority announced an ambitious plan to deepen the canal and create a new 22-mile lane branching off the main channel. Preliminary work has already begun on the $8.5 billion project, which Egyptian authorities claim could more than double the canal’s annual revenue by 2023.

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