Ancient Egypt Tentative Test Date



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Ancient Egypt

Tentative Test Date:


Egyptian Geographical Features

Cataract

  • Waterfalls along the Nile River

Topography

  • the shape and elevation of surface features of a place, such as its mountains or deserts

Egyptian Culture/Civilization



Government







Pharaoh

Stable Food Supply







  • Nile River Valley was very fertile from repeated floods

Religion




Monotheism

  • a belief on one god

Polytheism

Temple

  • a house of worship

Written Language




Hieroglyphics

  • a form of writing based on pictures

Papyrus

Rosetta Stone

  • a stone on which a passage was written in three languages: Greek; Egyptian hieroglyphics; and demotic, a form of Egyptian cursive writing

Social Structure




Peasant

  • unskilled laborer

Pharaoh

  • a god-king

Social Class

  • a group in society that is ranked by factors such as wealth, property, and rights

Social Pyramid

  • a pyramid outline showing the positions of social classes according to their status in a society

The Arts




Sphinx

Technology







  • pyramids

  • papyrus

  • mummification

  • ships

Egyptian Government



Old Kingdom

  • lasted from about 2700 to 2200 BCE; early pharaohs set up a strong central government and built great pyramids; the Age of Pyramids



Middle Kingdom

  • lasted from about 2000 to 1800 BCE; called the Period of Reunification because it came after years of chaos

New Kingdom

Pyramids


Mummy/

Mummification



  • a preserved dead body/the process of preserving a dead body



Pyramid

Sarcophagus

  • stone coffin

People


Akhenaten

  • Egyptian ruler during the New Kingdom who changed his name from Amenhotep IV and called for the worship of one god, Aten; Akhenaten is said to be either the father or uncle of King Tutankhamen; Akhenaten was hated by the Egyptians for changing their religion from polytheism to monotheism



Hatshepsut

  • female pharaoh who ruled Egypt during the New Kingdom; she expanded trade and oversaw several building projects during her reign

Howard Carter

  • archaeologist who found the tomb of King Tutankhamen or King “Tut.

Khufu

Ramses

  • a New Kingdom pharaoh who built more statues and temples than any other pharaoh

Senusret I

  • Middle Kingdom pharaoh who was a strong leader and patron of the arts (literature and visual arts); built the White Chapel

Tutankhamen

Thutmose III

  • New Kingdom pharaoh who conquered Nubia and brought ancient Egypt to the height of its power

Places


Kush (aka Nubia)

  • the kingdom to the south of Ancient Egypt; filled with resources (e.g., gold, iron, ivory, timber) that Egypt lacked; was an important trading center



Lower Egypt

  • the delta area of the Nile River nearest to the Mediterranean Sea; lies NORTH of Upper Egypt and is lower in altitude than Upper Egypt

Nile River

  • the longest river in the world; its source is primarily Lake Victoria; the Nile flows NORTH through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea

Nile River Valley

  • the fertile area of land along the Nile River

Upper Egypt


Key Ideas: You should be able to answer the following questions in a good essay.



Central Question: Is it wise to be dependent solely on one person or thing for your welfare? Why or why not?

Why was the Nile called both the "giver and taker" of life?

How were religious beliefs involved in most aspects of Egyptian life?

What changes in the economic system helped lead to the development of a civilization in ancient Egypt?



Why is writing important in the development of a civilization?


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