Analysing Adverts



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Analysing Adverts

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  • © Boardworks Ltd 2006
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Introduction

  • Did you think of all of these?
  • on television
  • in magazines
  • on public transport
  • on the radio
  • in newspapers
  • on billboards
  • Where do we find advertisements?
  • Write some ideas on the TV screen.

Purpose

  • Advertisements can serve a variety of different purposes.
  • To inform us about a specific issue
  • To persuade us to buy a specific product
  • To increase our ‘brand awareness’
  • Can you think of any others?
  • Think of three adverts you have seen or heard recently and decide what their purposes are.

Persuasion

  • Advertisers must persuade us to buy their idea, whether it is a product, service, brand, or issue.
  • They make it sound as exciting and interesting as possible.
  • How exactly do they achieve this?
  • Here are some ideas:
  • They try to make us believe that everyone else has or wants this product.
  • They try to make us believe that it will enhance our lives.
  • They make it sound like the best possible example of its kind that we can buy.

Target audience

  • Before they create an advertisement, the advertisers must think about the audience that their advertisement is aimed at. This is important because:
  • They need to match the content of the advert to its intended audience using suitable language.
  • They need to create an advertisement that will attract the audience, using images that the target audience will find appealing.
  • They need to place the advert in a suitable media to reach its intended target audience.
  • List ten different potential target audiences.

Target audience

  • Here is a sample advert and some possible target audiences that it might be aimed at:
  • school age children?
  • Is the advert aimed at ….
  • wealthy holiday makers?
  • budget tourists?
  • keen gardeners?
  • Answer: wealthy holiday makers

Analysing an advertisement

  • When you are analysing an advertisement, there are various aspects that you will need to consider:
  • The images that have been chosen and what aspects of the product they serve to emphasize.
  • The message that the advert is giving about the product.
  • The target audience that the advert is aimed at.
  • The overall ‘look’ of the advert.

Use of language

  • Beautiful, descriptive language makes the product sound wonderful.
  • Advertisers use linguistic techniques to convince us to buy their products:
  • Alliteration makes the advert more ‘catchy’ and memorable. The use of repeated consonant sounds creates a rhythm within the text that helps emphasize certain words.
  • Repetition strengthens an image in our minds. By repeating certain words, aspects of the product are emphasized and the idea is made more memorable.
  • Repeating a phrase three times
  • reinforces the idea.
  • Juicy, tender, succulent chicken coated in a smooth blend of honey and mustard sauce…
  • Cutting costs on crazy creations!
  • Whitening toothpaste for whiter teeth: make your bright smile whiter!

Travel/holiday advertisements

  • Can you think of any other features typical of holiday advertisements?
  • Which features are typical of travel or holiday adverts?
  • We will now go on to look at holiday adverts for specific destinations.
  • They emphasize positive aspects of the destination, e.g. sun, sports, history.
  • They appeal to a specific audience, e.g. lovers of culture, honeymooners.
  • They stress points about the place that make it unique or unusual.
  • They use an idealized image of the destination to appeal to tourists.

Advertising Cyprus

  • Imagine you are designing an advertisement for Cyprus:
  • Which images of Cyprus could you use?
  • Which persuasive techniques might you include in the advertisement?
  • Which aspects of Cyprus might you choose to emphasize?
  • What does Cyprus mean as a holiday destination to you?

Advertising Cyprus

Analysing the image

  • Look at the images below, taken from the advertisement for Cyprus. Why do you think these particular images were chosen? What do they emphasize about Cyprus as a holiday destination?
  • The three images show the contrasting aspects of Cyprus that appeal to more than one target group.
  • Picture of ‘ancient architecture’
  • Deep blue sky – not a cloud in sight!
  • Beautiful sunset

Analysing the headline text

  • Now look at the headline text below. What do you notice about the text, both in terms of its appearance and its content?
  • The name of the destination is in the largest text, making it stand out.
  • The word ‘island’ is repeated three times, emphasizing the location and using the technique of ‘listing in threes’.
  • The word ‘culture’ will appeal to tourists keen on history.
  • The word ‘pleasure’ will tempt people who want to have fun and party.
  • The word ‘contrasts’ makes it clear that there is something for everyone in Cyprus.

Analysing the body of the text

  • Visitors can sample culture, take part in sports, and be romantic
  • The consumer is asked to use his/ her imagination
  • Alliteration gives emphasis and rhythm to the text
  • The use of questions addresses the reader directly
  • The final sentence again stresses that Cyprus offers a variety of holidays for tourists
  • Look at the body of the text. How do the advertisers use language to persuade you to come to Cyprus? Do they use any linguistic techniques in the text?

The message

  • Cyprus is…
  • An island where tourists can experience several different ‘holidays’
  • A place that offers culture, sports and romance, all on the one island
  • An island that could be enjoyed by a couple or a group
  • Somewhere that tourists will really enjoy themselves
  • What sort of messages about Cyprus are the advertisers trying to send to people reading their advertisement?

Target audience

Advertising Germany

  • On the next slide you will find a travel advertisement
  • promoting Germany as a place to go on holiday.
  • Before you look at it, discuss what you might expect to find
  • in it. Use the following discussion points to guide you:
  • What images of Germany could be used?
  • What words do you expect to find in the advert?
  • What aspects of Germany might the advertiser emphasize?
  • What does Germany mean as a holiday destination to you?

Analysing an advertisement

Analysing the image

  • Soft, blue sky fading into darker blue, showing the contrast between Germany’s good weather and its Gothic castles.
  • Beautiful yet mysterious mountain and forest setting.
  • Fairytale castle that looks creepy and mysterious.

Analysing the headline text

  • The word ‘Cinderella’ evokes children’s fairy stories, taking the reader back in time.
  • A play on the word ‘princes’, again evoking fairytales, and also suggesting good value.
  • The word ‘castles’, used frequently in this advert, suggests a fairytale/ historic land and also links to the main image.
  • The reader instantly feels ‘welcomed’ to this place.

Analysing the body of the text

  • The holiday maker learns that Germany’s castles are the best in the world.
  • The typical opening for a fairy story.
  • Tourists will be pleasantly surprised by this place.
  • A typical fairy tale line. A king suggests wealth and historical interest.
  • Suggests that visitors will also be happy here.
  • The low cost is stressed.
  • A phrase typical of fairy tales. It is suggested that tourists will also be happy here.

Use of language – repetition

  • In addition to the techniques already found, the advert also uses REPETITION, which adds emphasis to the words. It also echoes the idea of a children’s fairy story, in which simple words are often repeated.
  • castles
  • land
  • happy/happily
  • beautiful
  • Count how many times these words are used:

The message

  • Germany is...
  • A land of childhood dreams and fairytales
  • A place full of historic interest, e.g. castles, kings
  • A beautiful country where the tourist will find happiness
  • A reasonably priced destination
  • What sort of messages about Germany are the advertisers trying to send to people reading their advertisement? Write your ideas on the brainstorm below.

Exploring connotations

Advertising India

  • Let’s look at a travel advertisement promoting India as a place to go on holiday.
  • Before you look at the advert, discuss what you might expect to find in it. Use the questions below to guide you.
  • Which images of India could be used?
  • Which words do you expect to find in the advertisement?
  • Which aspects of India might the advertiser emphasize?
  • What does India mean as a holiday destination to you?
  • How do your expectations of an advertisement for India differ from one for Germany or Cyprus?

Advertisement for India

Analysing the image

  • Look at the images below, taken from the advertisement for India. Why do you think these particular images were chosen? What do they emphasize about India as a holiday destination?
  • A temple – a symbol of India’s ancient culture and Hindu religion
  • Skyscrapers to show the fact that India is a modern country too
  • The two images show the old and new aspects of India (as referred to in the main body of text – where ‘Old meets New’).

Analysing the headline text

  • Now look at the headline text below. What do you notice about the text, both in terms of its appearance and its content? What about the colours that are used?
  • The font is modern, to tie in with the idea in the text about the modern side of India
  • The text challenges the consumer to ‘surprise’ themselves, suggesting that their preconceptions about a holiday in India might be wrong
  • The blue background is gentle on the eye and makes the words in white stand out clearly
  • It is also in capital letters, for emphasis

Analysing the body of the text

  • Look at the body of the text. How do the advertisers use language to persuade you to come to India? Do they use any linguistic techniques in the text?
  • The word ‘India’ is repeated to emphasize the location
  • The ancient and modern sides of India are described
  • The advertisers use the technique of ‘listing in threes’, and then play on that to make the final sentence more emphatic.
  • Again, the reader is challenged to make up his/her own mind, rather than believing stereotypes

The message

  • Very different to the stereotyped place that we might believe it to be
  • What sort of messages about India are the advertisers trying to send to people reading their advertisement? Write your ideas on the brainstorm below.
  • A place where old and new mix easily and freely, and the tourists can have all the comforts of home
  • A place where two cultures meet
  • India is…

Summary and essay task

  • You should now be familiar with the following terms:
  • Alliteration
  • Repetition
  • Emotive
  • Slogan
  • Rhetoric
  • Persuasion
  • Target audience
  • Description
  • Metaphor
  • Simile
  • Now plan and write an essay which reviews, compares and analyses two adverts that you have seen on television or heard on the radio. Remember to use as many literary terms as you can!



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