An Integrated Lesson Plan

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An Integrated Lesson Plan

Azra Ahmed
Azra Ahmed is a Senior Instructor at the Aga Khan University Centre of English Language. She holds a Masters in TEFL from Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. She has done COTE (RSA) from Cambridge University. She has a Diploma in Tourism Management from Schloss Klessheim, Salzburg, Austria; she has certifications for ‘Online Education and Training’ from the Institute of Education, University of London, and ‘ICT in the Classroom’ from E-Consultants/Trinity College, UK. Her areas of interest include materials development, online English language teaching /learning, and ESP.


I am a savage” – Chief Seattle



Target Vocabulary



Step 1: Warm-up

Step 2: Presentation

Step 3: Skimming

Step 4: Scanning

Step 5: Transfer of information

Step 6: Inference

Activity 7: Vocabulary

Activity 8: Group Discussion

Follow up activity: Group/Class

References 1

Materials and worksheets

Answer Key

References 2
This lesson plan is designed for EFL instructors who teach intermediate to Upper Intermediate language learners. It is based on not a very contemporary essay. The lesson plan includes various tasks and activities designed to assist the instructor in developing their students’ English language learning skills. More specifically, the activities have been designed to develop the students’ reading, speaking and thinking skills. The tasks should be done individually, in pairs and in groups.
The instructors can choose the parts of the lesson that they find most appropriate and useful for their class. This lesson is divided into eight activities, which could span over two class sessions. Approximate times for each part of the lesson are included, but these times may vary, depending on the individual class or teaching situation.

Reading, speaking, transfer of information

Target Vocabulary

precious, contaminate, destiny, suffocate, sacred, contempt

By the end of the lesson students should be able to:

  • skim the text to understand the basic concept

  • scan for specific information

  • transfer information given in the text

  • infer and give opinions

  • use information to make deductions

  • relate reading text to real life experiences and context.


  • Picture of ‘the savage’

  • Song about environment or a national song [Depending on the teaching/learning situation] – recommended song “Colors of the Wind” by Vanessa Williams sung for Pocahontas

  • Worksheets

  • Colour pencils

  • Blue tac/scotch tape/sticking tape

  • Cassette/CD player

Step 1: Warm-up
Pre-reading, 7-8 minutes)

  • Play the song – about 3 minutes. Ask students: Do you recognize the song? What it is about? Did you like the song? Why?

  • Then show the students the picture of ‘the Savage’. Ask students: Who do you think this is? [Expected answers could be: old woman, old man, grandfather, etc, etc. Finally, tell the students that it is a man!] Then, ask: Does this man look dangerous? [Expected answer: No]

  • Ask students what they think the passage they are going to read is about. The most likely responses you might get are : About a man, about the environment, a national hero, etc

Step 2: Presentation
(Reading, 10 minutes)

  • Ask the students to read the Prologue.

  • Elicit from them what they think the text is going to be about. In the process discuss who the ‘great white chief’ could be, what ‘profound’ means, what a ‘reservation’ is/was.

Step 3: Skimming
(While reading, 5 minutes)

  • Ask students: What in your opinion is the main idea of the text?

Step 4: Scanning
(While reading, 10 minutes)

  • Now ask students to read the text again and respond to question 1.

  • Next ask students to do questions 2 and 3 in pairs.

Step 5: Transfer of information
(45 minutes)

  • Question 4 requires students to transfer information. Most times students will hesitate and even resist doing Question 4 because of the sketching involved. You’ll have to persuade them, you will probably have to persist! Once students begin doing the task – the results are stunning – even for the students themselves.

  • Note. Students will ordinarily not restrict their illustrations/sketches to the information in the lines identified because inevitably the entire reading passage impacts their understanding of the text, which I think is a positive result of the first reading.

  • Give a time limit to complete the works of art. In most situations, once students get started, they take at least 10-15 minutes to complete the transfer activity.

  • Keep blank sheets handy, as some “artists” may want to sketch n a full sheet as opposed to drawing on the handout. Distribute colour pencils or crayons, at least two for each student. Depending on the resources available, you could keep two or three boxes of crayons accessible to all students. In my experience, the most used colours are blue, red, green and brown.

  • Students will ask you to explain the meanings of the vocabulary they need to transfer the information, e.g. meadows, unfurling, smoking iron horse, whippoorwill, pinion, etc.

  • As the masterpieces are presented to you, display them on the White Board/Blackboard. Use Blue Tac or Sticking tape [place it behind the drawing].

  • Once everyone has completed their drawings students visit the ‘art gallery’ made up of their own creations!

  • Students are asked to comment on the themes that emerge from the illustrations in the gallery.

  • List the themes on a flip chart, or leave some space on one side of the board for the list. Ask students to identify the words, phrases, or images in the text that helped them create their masterpieces.

  • This exercise of illustrating/sketching, colouring, visiting the ‘art gallery’, commenting on each others drawing takes at least half an hour.

  • The entire process in this activity ensures the students are quite familiar with the text and the vocabulary.

Step 6: Inference
(While reading, 10 minutes)


Paragraph IV

Paragraph V

Paragraph VI

Paragraph VII

  • Students get up and write their answers in bullet form on the sheet. Once everyone has completed the task, the teacher highlights the main themes for each paragraph, and reads them out.

  • If there is more than one theme for the given paragraphs, students are asked to develop a consensus and come up with one for each paragraph.

  • For question 6, students are given 2 minutes to locate the quotes. Teacher elicits answers from volunteers at the end of the time limit.

Activity 7: Vocabulary
(While reading, 5 minutes)

  • At this stage students will find inferring meaning from context (question 7) quite simple. Elicit the answers from the class.

Activity 8: Group Discussion
(Production stage, 15 minutes)

For question 8, students discuss the concept of ‘contaminate your bed’ with reference to

the text in groups.

  • If the group is made up of international students, they may have completely different experiences which they would like to share with each other.

  • Ask students to come up with two lists: global and local /country specific implications of the issue at hand. Each group chooses a group leader to share with the class how human beings have contaminated the earth.

  • Open discussion for recommendations regarding how we can look after our environment at the global and local / country level.

Follow up activity: Group/Class

  • Students design either a class poster presentation or group poster presentations portraying the recommendations made by the specific group or the class, respectively.

  • This poster / These posters should be displayed on the school / institution / class notice board for students to share their views, and exhibit their critical thinking skills.

  • Students are encouraged to use a variety of media, that is, text, images, cut-outs, etc.

If you are involved in teacher training you could begin the session with ‘Facts About Reading’. After completing the worksheet it would be useful to share an OHT highlighting the relationship between the activities the participants did with the sub skills required for efficient reading. You could end the session with ‘How Do I Read?’.

These three handouts lend themselves to getting the participants to engage in thinking about what reading as a skill in terms of language learning entails, and in reflecting on the approach they themselves take while reading.
This version of the text has been taken from a Public Service Advertisement released by John & Phillips (Private) Ltd in Pakistan.
Materials and worksheets

Facts about Reading



  1. It is necessary to read every word to get the meaning of a passage.

  2. It is all right to use a card or your finger as a guide when you read.

  3. A good reader reads all the material at the same speed.

  4. Seeing the connections among the paragraphs and the purpose of each paragraph group is a good reading habit.

  5. Important grammatical and punctuation clues can change the meaning of a sentence.

  6. Knowing the part of speech of a word will help you understand it when reading, even if you do not know the precise meaning of the word.

  7. A good way to expand your vocabulary is to look up all the new words in the dictionary, find the translations for them in your first language, and write the definitions above the words.

  8. An advanced reader should be able to read at least 300 words per minute.

  9. Reading is a passive process.

  10. When a difficult sentence appears in a reading passage, it is good to try and understand what makes the sentence difficult.

  11. Unless one has knowledge about or is able to infer an author’s beliefs, it is possible to understand all the sentences in a passage and yet not comprehend a writer’s ideas.

  12. Knowing the definitions of all the words in a passage will guarantee full understanding of what you read.

  13. Slow readers comprehend better than fast ones.

  14. Good readers are very good at concentrating on their work.

  15. It is a good idea to look over the material and ask yourself questions before you begin to read.

  16. It is not necessary to know the meaning of every word in a reading selection in order to read and comprehend the selection.

  17. Good readers read each paragraph as if it were standing all by itself, separated from all the other paragraphs in a selection.

  18. It is good to read the first and last paragraphs of a selection, then the first and last sentences of the other paragraphs to get an overview of your reading selection before reading the entire text.

Adapted from a questionnaire used by Ms Lisa Washburn (USIS Pakistan, 1995) for a session on Reading organized by Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT)

Colors of the Wind by Vanessa Williams

[for Pocahontas]

You think I'm an ignorant savage

And you've been so many places
I guess it must be so
But still I cannot see
If the savage one is me
Now can there be so much that you don't know?
You don't know ...

You think you own whatever land you land on

The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim
But I know every rock and tree and creature
Has a life, has a spirit, has a name

You think the only people who are people

Are the people who look and think like you
But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
You'll learn things you never knew you never knew

Have you ever heard the wolf cry to the blue corn moon

Or asked the grinning bobcat why he grinned?
Can you sing with all the voices of the mountains?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?

Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest

Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth
Come roll in all the riches all around you
And for once, never wonder what they're worth

The rainstorm and the river are my brothers

The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends

How high will the sycamore grow?

If you cut it down, then you'll never know
And you'll never hear the wolf cry to the blue corn moon

For whether we are white or copper skinned

We need to sing with all the voices of the mountains
We need to paint with all the colors of the wind

You can own the Earth and still

All you'll own is Earth until
You can paint with all the colors of the wind

Lyrics taken from:

The only known photograph of Chief Seattle was taken in the 1860s as he neared his 80th year.'s%20Reply

I am a savage” - Chief Seattle

The following is a copy of a letter that was said to have been written by Chief Seattle, a man of great wisdom and sorrow.  It's been widely reported that Chief Seattle wrote this letter to President Pierce as his people were being forced off their ancestral land. There is little evidence that this claim is in fact true. Regardless of who the author of this piece truly may be, the wisdom of the words is irrefutable.









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