Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily



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Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily

  • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily
  • Provides consistent format within a discipline
  • Gives you credibility as a writer
  • Protects yourself from plagiarism

Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.

  • Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.

Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.

  • Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.
  • It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments.

Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school.

  • Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school.

Academic honesty and integrity!

  • Academic honesty and integrity!
  • You are academically dishonest if:
    • Someone writes your paper for you
    • You purchase a paper
    • You copy a paper from online
    • You fail to cite your sources
    • Your present someone else’s ideas as your own
    • You use a previously written paper for another assignment

“Give credit where credit is due” (APA, 2001, p. 349)

  • “Give credit where credit is due” (APA, 2001, p. 349)
    • Direct quotation
      • Quotation marks around text
    • Paraphrase
    • Permission to reproduce
      • Deals with copyright issues

“Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, you must credit the source … For a direct quotation in the text, the information provided will vary depending on whether your source was in print or electronic form. When citing print sources, give the author, year, and page number in parentheses” (APA, 2001, p. 120).

  • “Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, you must credit the source … For a direct quotation in the text, the information provided will vary depending on whether your source was in print or electronic form. When citing print sources, give the author, year, and page number in parentheses” (APA, 2001, p. 120).
  • It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than quote, the ideas of others unless the wording is so wonderful that a quote is warranted.

Original wording

  • Original wording
  • It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than quote, the ideas of others unless the wording is so wonderful that a quote is warranted.
  • Paraphrased wording It is generally better to use your own words to describe someone else’s ideas instead of restating someone else’s words verbatim.

Use quotation marks if a direct quote.

  • Use quotation marks if a direct quote.
  • But be reasonable. You “don’t” need “a” quotation “mark” around every “stupid word” that the “original” “author” “used.”
  • Provide page numbers.
  • Paraphrase.
  • Be sure your reader knows who read what.

Solution 2: Block Quote

  • Solution 2: Block Quote
  • Direct quotes 40 words or more.
  • Indent five spaces on the left; same margin on the right.
  • Usually no need for opening or closing ellipses.
  • Final punctuation comes before the parenthetical element.
  • . . . too simplistic, however. (p. 294)
  • Solution 2: Block Quote
    • Citations should follow every sentence where the words and ideas are not original unless it is clear from the context that multiple sentences came from the same source.

Anything that is directly quoted from someone else’s work must be encased in quotation marks and properly cited or with ellipsis points.

  • Anything that is directly quoted from someone else’s work must be encased in quotation marks and properly cited or with ellipsis points.
  • Use 3 ellipsis points (…) to indicate that material has been omitted within a sentence.
  • Use 4 ellipsis points (….) to indicate material has been omitted between sentences (the first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted).

Provide the author, year of publication, and specific page number of quote.

  • Provide the author, year of publication, and specific page number of quote.
  • Include a complete reference for all quotations in the reference list.
  • Can use brackets to insert material not used by original author (explanation for example) or [sic]

When you’re referring to an idea or concept you drew from something you read.

  • When you’re referring to an idea or concept you drew from something you read.
  • When you quote from something you read or heard.
  • When you want to give the reader some other places to look for additional information.

Scott (1992) identified…

  • Scott (1992) identified…
  • Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reported…
  • Or at the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992).

A study by Pogoff and Pogoff (1997) suggested that workers in cubicles tend to steal office supplies (p. 436).

  • A study by Pogoff and Pogoff (1997) suggested that workers in cubicles tend to steal office supplies (p. 436).
  • A recent study (Pogoff & Pogoff, 1997) suggested that workers in cubicles tend to steal office supplies (p. 436).
  • Pogoff and Pogoff (1997) found that “workers in cubicles confiscate office products” (p. 436).

List the last names of all authors the first time you cite them, unless there are more than 5.

  • List the last names of all authors the first time you cite them, unless there are more than 5.
  • If there are more than five, or you are citing the paper of 3 or more authors for a second or more time, list last name of first author, followed by “et al.,” and the date.

Scott, Williamson, and Schaffer (1990) reported that…

  • Scott, Williamson, and Schaffer (1990) reported that…
  • (FIRST TIME)
  • Scott et al. (1990) reported that
  • (EVERY TIME AFTER)
  • Scott and Williamson (1990) reported that…
  • (FIRST TIME and EVERY TIME)
  • 6 or more authors, use “et al.,” first time and every time.

Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .

  • Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .
  • More than one author with the same last name
  • (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
  • Two or more works in the same parentheses
  • (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997)
  • Work with six or more authors
  • (Smith et al, 1998)
  • Specific part of a source
  • (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)

If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:

  • If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:
  • Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”
  • Citation: (“California,” 1999)

A reference to a personal communication:

  • A reference to a personal communication:
  • Source: email message from C. Everett Koop
  • Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
  • A general reference to a web site Source: Purdue University web site
  • Citation: (http://www.purdue.edu)

The chapter or article author gets the in-text citation--NOT the book editor.

  • The chapter or article author gets the in-text citation--NOT the book editor.
  • So if Reagan, R. wrote a chapter called “Ethics of Leaders” in a book edited by Clinton, W. called Absolved of Responsibility, then Reagan gets the in-text citation and Clinton shows up only in the Reagan spot in the reference list and in a White House intern’s diary.

In text

  • In text
  • of Reagan (1987), who called his handling of the Iran-contra affair “a masterpiece of obsfucation” (p. 356).
  • Reference List
  • Reagan, R. (1987). Ethics of leadership. In W. Clinton (Ed.), Absolved of responsibility (pp. 351-360). San Clemente, CA: Nixon Press.

Cite the secondary source in the reference list.

  • Cite the secondary source in the reference list.
  • In text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
  • Text Citation:
  • Block’s study (as cited in Kubsch & Gallagher-Lepak, 2004) …..
  • Reference List Entry:
  • Kubsch, M., & Gallagher-Lepak, S. (2004). Nursing models for the postmodern era. Advances in Green Bay Nursing Chronicle, 22, 446-450.

ONE WORK BY ONE AUTHOR

  • ONE WORK BY ONE AUTHOR
  • Author surname and year of publication
    • Kubsch (2003) compared nurse staffing patterns…………
    • In a recent study of nurse staffing patterns, it was found that …..(Kubsch, 2003).
  • ONE WORK BY TWO AUTHORS
    • Always cite both names every time the reference appears
    • Connect the last names of a multiple author work with an ampersand (Smith & Smith, 2004).

Start with APA’s basic forms.

  • Start with APA’s basic forms.
  • If it’s electronic, cite it as such.
  • Be “creative” about page numbers.
  • Include the date that you retrieved a nonpermanent electronic source.
  • http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
  • If you cannot find an author, cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title and year).
    • The homepage of UW-Green Bay’s Professional Program in Nursing (2003) has a PowerPoint presentation about APA format (American Psychological Association Writing, 2003).

A list of every source that you make reference to in your essay.

  • A list of every source that you make reference to in your essay.
  • Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay.
  • Each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference page, and vice versa.

One Author:

  • One Author:
  • Brookfield, S. (1993). On impostorship, cultural suicide, and other dangers: How nurses learn critical thinking. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 24, 197-205.
  • Two Authors:
  • Kane, D., & Thomas, B. (2000). Nursing and the “F” word. Nursing Forum, 35(2), 17-24.

Three to Six Authors:

  • Three to Six Authors:
  • Ossana, S. M., Helms, J. E., & Leonard, M. R. (1992). Do “womanist” identify attitudes influence college women’s self –esteem and perceptions of environmental bias? Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 402-408.

More than Six Authors:

  • More than Six Authors:
  • Sherr, M., Maddox, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S. I., Jacobs, B., Rogers, R. W., Katz, M., et al. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 81, 663-671.

Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • *Note: In the 5th edition of APA, there is NO underlining (everything that was underlined is now in italics).

Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (1995). Television: The critical view (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (1995). Television: The critical view (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • *Note: Capitals in the title of the book are restricted to the first letter of the first word of the title, the first letter of any proper names, and the first letter of the first word after a semicolon, period, or question mark.

Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

  • Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • *Note: when listing authors, use an ampersand (&) in the reference list, not “and.”

Edited Book:

  • Edited Book:
  • Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (Eds.). (1997). Women’s ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.
  • No Author or Editor:
  • Roget’s II: The new thesaurus (3rd ed.). (1995). New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Bryant, J. (1989). Message features and entertainment effects. In J. J. Bradac (Ed.), Message effects in communication sceince (pp. 231-262). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

  • Bryant, J. (1989). Message features and entertainment effects. In J. J. Bradac (Ed.), Message effects in communication sceince (pp. 231-262). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • *Note: You must include the page numbers if you’re just referencing one part of a book.

Online periodical:

  • Online periodical:
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author,   C. C. (2003). Title of article. Title of   Periodical, volume, page numbers.
  • Retrieved month, day, year, from URL.
  • Online document:
  • Author, A. A. (2003). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
  • General Form for
  • Electronic References

1. Articles are duplicates of print versions, therefore, the same basic primary journal reference is used

  • 1. Articles are duplicates of print versions, therefore, the same basic primary journal reference is used
  • 2. Make a note of “electronic version”
  • Goldberger, N. (1997). Ways of knowing: Does gender matter? [Electronic Version]. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 5, 117-123.
  • Internet Article
  • Based on a Print Source

Web sites: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/index.html

  • Web sites: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/index.html
  • http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html
  • http://www.drgwen.com/
  • http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~dcplumer/coursesopn/GWP-APA.ppt
  • http://www.library.kent.edu/files/APA_style.ppt
  • http://www.uwgb.edu/nursing/Docs/APA.ppt
  • http://legacy.waldenu.edu/acad-rsrcs/writing-center/apa4print-b.ppt

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition)

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition)
  • Your textbook (Appendix A.. Although be sure to note changes)
  • Various internet sites, such as http://www.lib.usm.edu/~instruct/guides/apa.html (make sure they’re reputable!)

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
  • www.apastyle.org
  • Composition textbooks
  • OWL website: owl.english.purdue.edu

They go in this order…

  • They go in this order…
  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Body of Paper
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Notes
  • Tables, Figures, etc.

Normally, double space between lines

  • Normally, double space between lines
  • Space once after all punctuation:
    • Commas, colons, semicolons
    • After punctuation mark at end of sentence
    • After periods in reference citation
    • Periods in initials of personal names
  • The Title Page

Page Header and Page Number

  • Page Header and Page Number
  • Running Head for Publication
  • Title of the Manuscript
  • Byline or the Author’s Name
  • Institutional Affiliation
  • Contains 5 Elements:

Papers in APA style require a title page.

  • Papers in APA style require a title page.
  • The running head will be used as the header for the whole paper. 50 Character length
  • Include the paper’s title and the author’s name and affiliation.
  • Headings

(APA 3.31)

  • (APA 3.31)
  • Using headings makes it easier to navigate your paper. In a short paper like your lit review, you’d probably only use the first-level heading, but this is what they look like in order:
  • First-Level Heading
  • Second-Level Heading
  • Third-level heading. Begin text of paragraph…

HIGHEST LEVEL

  • HIGHEST LEVEL
  • Next Level
  • Next Level
  • Next Level
  • Next level.

ONE HEADING:

  • ONE HEADING:
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • (Level 1)
  • TWO HEADINGS:
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • (Level 1)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
  • Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Examples

THREE HEADINGS:

  • THREE HEADINGS:
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase, and Lowercase
  • Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph
  • heading ending with a period. (Level 4)
  • Examples

FOUR HEADINGS:

  • FOUR HEADINGS:
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1)
  • Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending
  • with a period. (Level 4)
  • Examples

FIVE HEADINGS:

  • FIVE HEADINGS:
  • CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING (Level 5)
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1)
  • Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending
  • with a period. (Level 4)
  • Examples

Causes

  • Causes
    • A. Review of normal physiology
    • B. Pathophysiology in asthma
    • C. Common causes
  • Diagnosis
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Allergy testing
    • Lung functions
  • Treatment
  • A. Control of triggers
  • B. Staging
  • 1. Mild intermittant
  • 2. Mild persistent
  • 3. Moderate persistent
  • 4. Severe persistent
  • C. Clinical therapies
  • 1. Beta2-agonists
  • 2. Corticosteroids
  • 3. Anticholinergics
  • 4. Methylxanthines
  • D. Peak flow monitoring

Causes of Asthma (Level 1)

  • Causes of Asthma (Level 1)
  • Etiology of asthma (Level 3)
    • Review of normal physiology (Level 4)
    • Pathophysiology in asthma
    • Common causes

Causes

  • Causes
    • A. Review of normal physiology
    • B. Pathophysiology in asthma
    • C. Common causes
  • Diagnosis
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Allergy testing
    • Lung functions
  • Treatment
  • A. Control of triggers
  • B. Staging
  • 1. Mild intermittant
  • a. Characteristics
  • b. Treatment plan
  • 2. Mild persistent
  • a. Characteristics
  • b. Treatment plan
  • 3. Moderate persistent
  • a. Characteristics
  • b. Treatment plan
  • 4. Severe persistent
  • a. Characteristics
  • b. Treatment plan
  • C. Peak flow monitoring

Treatment of Asthma (Level 1)

  • Treatment of Asthma (Level 1)
  • Control of triggers (Level 2)
  • Staging
  • Mild intermittent (Level 3)
  • Characteristics (Level 4)
  • Treatment plan
  • Mild persistent
  • Characteristics
  • Treatment plan
  • Peak flow monitoring
  • Introduction
  • to
  • the Paper

Type title of manuscript at top center.

  • Type title of manuscript at top center.
  • Capitalize first letter of all verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and first letter of the first word after a colon or dash as well as both words of a hyphenated word
    • Exception: In titles of books and articles in reference lists, capitalize the first word, all proper nouns, the first word after a colon or hyphen, and only the first word of a hyphenated compound.

Maintain continuity between words, themes, and sections.

  • Maintain continuity between words, themes, and sections.
    • Use punctuation marks to show relationships.
    • Use transitional words, phrases, and paragraphs.
  • Say only what needs to be said.
    • Avoid jargon, redundancy, and wordiness.
    • Use direct, declarative sentences of various lengths that are logically composed.

Precision and Clarity

  • Precision and Clarity
    • Do not use third person when speaking about self.
    • Avoid colloquial expressions such as write up for report.
    • Restrict the use of “we” to yourself and co-authors not the broader meaning

Grammar

  • Grammar
    • Use active rather than passive verbs whenever possible.
    • Use past tense to express action that occurred at a specific time in the past.
    • Use the present tense to express past action that did not occur at a specific time or action that began in the past and continues to the present.
    • Subject and verb must agree in number (singular vs. plural).
    • Noun and pronoun must agree in number.
  • See Section 2.06-2.08 for more details.

Passive

  • Passive
    • The experiment was designed by Simpson (2004) to…..
  • Active
    • Simpson (2006) designed the experiment to demonstrate…..

Level of Specificity

  • Level of Specificity
    • Gender is a cultural term used to refer to men and women as social groups.
    • Sex is used when a biological distinction is preferred.
  • Use of Labels
    • Use adjectives to describe people (elderly people) or put the person first (people who are elderly) rather than saying “the elderly.”

Disabilities

  • Disabilities
    • Do not equate people with a condition (“schizophrenics” or “the disabled”).
    • The words “challenged” and “special” should be used only with permission.
  • Age
    • Be specific in providing age ranges.
    • Avoid open ended descriptors such as “over 65.”
    • Use “boy” and “girl” when referring to high school age and younger.
    • Use “men” and “women” for those aged 18 and older.

The first time a term to be abbreviated is used, write it out completely and follow it by its abbreviation in parentheses.

  • The first time a term to be abbreviated is used, write it out completely and follow it by its abbreviation in parentheses.
  • The American Nurses Association’s (ANA) standards ……(2001).
  • When referring to the same term later in the paper, the abbreviation can be used.
  • The ANA (2001)……..

Remember:

  • Remember:
  • Normally, numbers 10 and higher are written as numerals.
  • Nine and lower are written out.
  • Many exceptions where they appear as numerals so check the manual
  • Do not start a sentence with a numeral
  • NO: 59% of the sample….
  • YES: Fifty-nine percent of the sample…

Insert a comma in a series of three or more nouns or noun phrases before the words and or or: bacon, lettuce, and tomato

  • Insert a comma in a series of three or more nouns or noun phrases before the words and or or: bacon, lettuce, and tomato
  • Do use a comma in numbers: 4,356 weiners.
  • Do use a comma in citations (Jones, 1995).
  • Do not use a comma between month/year: May 1999
  • By the way, no apostrophe in 1990s.

Do not capitalize job titles unless preceding the name. A superintendent; the former president; President Bill Clinton.

  • Do not capitalize job titles unless preceding the name. A superintendent; the former president; President Bill Clinton.
  • Uppercase the word after a colon if complete sentence; lowercase if fragment. No colon if “midsentence” after a preposition or conjunction.
  • One space preferred after a colon and period.

Can be used to connect two independent clauses:

  • Can be used to connect two independent clauses:
  • I did at one time experiment with cocaine, however, that was a youthful indiscretion that I absolutely will not discuss.
  • I did at one time experiment with cocaine; however, that was a youthful indiscretion that I absolutely will not discuss.
  • X

Use etc., e.g., and i.e. only inside parentheses

  • Use etc., e.g., and i.e. only inside parentheses
  • Postal abbreviations in reference lists. U.S. only as adjective (otherwise, United States).
  • Abbreviate measurements--12 min, 18 hr, 5 lb --but overall, “use abbreviations sparingly”
  • Underline statistical abbreviations
  • Uppercase N means total sample; lowercase n means subsample

Data and media are plural.

  • Data and media are plural.
  • Use respectful and inclusive language.
  • Avoid first person
  • American not British English
  • Avoid contractions.
  • Seriation

Organizes elements of the statement, concept or idea

  • Organizes elements of the statement, concept or idea
  • Clarifies the sequence or relationship between elements
  • Indicated when elements are lengthy or complex
  • Used to facilitate reader comprehension
  • Purpose of Seriation

Within a sentence or paragraph

  • Within a sentence or paragraph
  • Identify each element with a small letter enclosed in parentheses.
  • Separate paragraphs in a series
  • Identify each element with a number.
  • Two Distinct Formats
  • EXAMPLE WITH COMMAS:
  • The nursing process contains five steps
  • including (a) assessment, (b) diagnosis,
  • (c) planning, (d) implementation, and
  • (e) evaluation.
  • Within a Sentence
  • or Paragraph
  • EXAMPLE WITH COLONS:
  • Bonnie Wesorick’s (1986) research identified three dimensions of professional practice: (a) independent, which is least reported by hospital nurses; (b) interdependent, which is reported more frequently than independent and involves many different disciplines; and (c) dependent, which is reported most frequently by hospital nurses.

Number paragraphs to itemize conclusions or steps in a procedure.

  • Number paragraphs to itemize conclusions or steps in a procedure.
  • Each paragraph of the series is numbered.
  • The number is followed by a period.
  • The number IS NOT enclosed in parentheses.
  • EXAMPLE OF A
  • PARAGRAPH IN A SERIES
  • The literature on Oppressed Behavior indicates
  • nurses exhibit a variety of behaviors in the workplace:
    • Silence and a lack of voice (paragraph cont.)
    • Inability to organize and form coalitions (paragraph cont.)
    • Horizontal violence among and between colleagues (paragraph cont.)

Vertical lists, use 1., 2., 3., 4. . . .

  • Vertical lists, use 1., 2., 3., 4. . . .
  • In the paragraph, use (a), (b), (c). . . .
  • The rules for punctuation within lists are tricky.
  • Remember that this PowerPoint presentation does not replace the APA manual. You must still purchase the 5th edition.


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