Agenda Part 4



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Agenda Part 4

  • Part 4 New POI
    • How to look at the POI
    • The Program
    • Education
    • Training
    • Evaluating
    • Conclusion
  • “If the mind is to emerge unscathed from this relentless struggle with the unforeseen [in war], two qualities are indispensable: first, an intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow this faint light wherever it may lead.”
  • Carl von Clausewitz On War

How to Look at POI Defining the end state

  • Future LTs must be adaptive and have intuition:
    • Commanding units that operate dispersed, but cannot rely on technology
    • Leading more powerful units at all levels!
    • Influence decisions at all levels of war
    • Transition from complex unit fighting to humanitarian tasks demanding different skills, based on decision making skills => Both are Key to Success
  • “The US military must overcome the way it has trained and educated leaders. Defense officials are moving ahead to overcome Cold-War era training to create a new generation of leaders who aren't constrained by what the doctrine says.”
  • General Richard B. Myers, CJCS September 2004

How to Look at POI Defining the end state “Adaptability”

  • What is Adaptability?
    • Adaptability refers to the process of adjusting practices, processes, and systems to projected or actual changes of environment, e.g., the climate or the enemy.
    • Adaptability includes the creation of innovative combined arms organizations, doctrine, systems, and training concepts as demanded by the environment, allies, and the enemy.
    • Adaptive solutions to complex problems in chaotic, unpredictable situations are based more on intuition than on analysis, deliberate planning, and doctrine.
  • Sun Tzu’s theory of adaptability to existing situations is an important aspect of his self thought. Just as water adapts itself to the conformation of the ground, so in war one must be flexible; he must adapt his tactics to the enemy situation.”
  • John Poole, The Last Hundred Yards

How to Look at POI Defining the end state “Intuition”

  • What is Intuition?
    • Intuition is the way we translate experience into action
    • Training and education can provide experience that builds intuition
    • Intuition enables rapid decision making without conscious awareness or effort
    • Intuition enhances decisions at all levels
    • Three elements of intuition training:
      • Identify decision requirements of the job
      • Practice decision making in context
      • Review and obtain feedback on decision making experiences
  • From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
  • The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
  • “Defining intuition: As Army officers, we are primarily decision makers. Our weapon is the unit we command. We decide on a course of action and then clearly communicate that decision to our unit.  Our Soldiers translate that decision into action.” 
  • ”Combat Squad Leader’s Course,” Syllabus for
  • MLSC 113, Georgetown University ROTC (Spring 2005)

How to Look at POI Principles in Education

  • Theme: Develop adaptability and intuition
    • Take people out of their comfort zones
      • Training with stress
      • “Experience the thing before you try to give it a name” teaching approach
    • Knowledge and abilities to be learned
      • Mental processes to be developed
    • Experience
      • Real or virtual in the broad spectrum of missions associated with asymmetric war
      • Exposure to problem solving processes
  • From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
  • The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
  • “Finally, ‘Duty, Honor and Country’. Those intangible things must still be taught but over the length of the 4 years.”
  • Major Darryl M. Perry
  • Morgan State University, Nov 2004

How to Look at POI Principles in Education (EPIC)

  • Encourage Self-awareness
    • Elements: Self-awareness; character; self-leadership
      • “Self-aware and adaptive leaders are the basis for success in full spectrum operations. The greater self-awareness gained by assessment against measurable standards, the more adaptive the leader” (ATLDP, 2004)
  • Promote Critical and Creative thinking
    • Elements: Critical thinking/creativity & innovation; risk-taking
      • “Critical thinking skills are becoming especially important now as our world is changing at an ever-accelerating rate … Critical thinking skills are needed to adapt to a changing environment …” (ARI)
  • Insist on Courageous Communication
    • Elements: relationship management; effective listening
  • Create an environment for continuous learning
    • Elements: The learning organization; Owner/Coach mentoring; Effective Feedback (360 degree—”safe “two-way” feedback)
  • From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
  • The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)

How to Look at POI Principles in Education

  • Adaptability
    • Is a cognitive skill, e.g., intuition
    • Must be inculcated across Cadet Command in all aspects of training
    • Requires trust and cohesion – human interpersonal dynamics trump technical solutions
    • Requires a climate that accepts and rewards adaptable and creative individuals
  • Learning adaptability requires
    • Education in how to think
    • Multiple training events with widely varying and frequently shifting tasks and conditions
    • Recognition of the need to change
    • Encourage experimentation with doctrine, task organization, etc.
    • Focus feedback on adaptability, innovation and outcomes rather than on performance to standard
    • Training environment that acknowledges failure as a possibility
  • From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
  • The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)

How to Look at POI Development-Education vs. Training

  • Complexity
  • Resources
  • Task Training
  • Education:
  • “How to think”
  • In sum:
  • Educate early, task-train as necessary to enhance decision making, as cognitive skills established plug in task training
  • Cognitive
  • Skills education
  • Task
  • Training
  • Baseline

How to Look at POI Development A Better BLOC

  • Ft Benning
  • Ft Bliss
  • Ft Knox
  • Ft Sill
  • SC
  • MI
  • QM
  • OD
  • FI
  • AG
  • TC
  • MS
  • FA
  • AV
  • AD
  • IN
  • AR
  • EN
  • MP
  • CM
  • Functional
  • Training
  • (ABN/Ranger,
  • Scout Leader)
  • BLOC I BLOC II BLOC III
  • Establishes the
  • foundation in
  • cognitive skills
  • “how to think”
  • sets the foundation
  • “Culturalize”
  • Brings together
  • those who passed
  • through the “gate
  • of commissioning,”
  • creating bonds
  • Specialized
  • training, and
  • administrative
  • tasks
  • Academic Rigor begins here
  • First tough cut
  • comes here
  • Rite of Passage
  • Begins with tough screening
  • These may be offered
  • earlier
  • First unit
  • Cognitive
  • Skills education
  • Task Training
  • Baseline

How to Look at POI Development-Lots of Tools

  • STX (LDX, LTX-Free play, force on force)
  • Vignettes
  • Mentors/Coaches
  • “What if? What then?”
  • Combat Land Navigation
  • Distributed Learning
  • Standards
  • 360 degree evaluations (for Everyone, Even Cadre)
  • Ownership of Program by Cadets
  • Positions of Responsibility mirror the Army’s
  • Complex learning scenarios
    • Grey area situations
    • Volatility, ambiguity, uncertainty
    • Non-Combat Problems
  • Tactical Decision Games (TDGs)
  • Innovative Physical Training
  • OEF/OIF LL Scenarios
  • ARI/SCP “Best Practices”
  • Internet War Games
  • TEWT
  • Staff Rides (virtual?)
  • Reading lists
  • Timed Essay Exams
  • Competitions like improved Ranger Challenge
  • Leadership Development Program

The Program The Future Program New Name

  • What do people think when they hear “ROTC?”:
    • “Extracurricular activity,” “A club”?
    • “Drill and ceremony?”
    • “Lieutenant lost with map? can’t spell lost without LT”
    • “It’s a dead end assignment!”
  • Increased demands for professionalism warrant a new name, OEP:
    • Officer
    • Education
    • Program

The Program Keystone the right people

  • More of a personnel investment
    • Rotate successful commanders at company and battalion into PMS and APMS jobs
      • PMS job becomes second battalion command (to consolidated programs), i.e., like training battalion
      • Identifier for those who instruct, can return
      • PMS as combat arms only
      • As educators and trainers
      • Establish a new career track as educator
    • Give those who teach a masters degree in leadership
    • School of Cadet Command focus on “how to teach”
    • Non-deployable combat veterans as cadre
    • NCO schools teach more NCO/officer relationships, and mentorship

The Program Keystone the right people

  • More of a personnel investment
    • Expand the Army’s stabilization program where
      • Divisions (or Brigades) throughout the nation sponsor programs
      • Enables personnel to rotate from units to programs and back
        • Will further to enhance stabilization of families
        • Example, 82nd Airborne Division sponsors schools in NC, SC and VA
        • Units will have a more vested interest in quality of lieutenants
        • Can host cadets to unit visits/participate in training
  • Outside command, officers sought instructor assignments as the only valuable place to be if they could not lead soldiers.”
  • Bruce Gudmundsson
  • Stormtroop Tactics (1989)

The Program The Future Program Recruits and Retains

  • Good programs sustain themselves:
    • Cadets will sell “their” program
    • Conduct a strengths, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis every six months
    • An analysis into “their” strategic value target (SVT) based on the SAL.
    • Conduct a positioning analysis
      • Determine the points of differentiation
      • Reasons to believe those points will impact a programs success
    • Marketing campaigns centered around the individual school, not a canned CC campaign
    • Incentivize a program for success. Instill an entrepreneurial spirit within a battalion
    • Stop using Neo-Taylorism language in speaking about people
  • “Build it and they will come”
  • The Field of Dreams

The Program Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships

  • Theme of marketing:
    • Sell the army on its true merits
    • Standards and academic rigor will sell over time (patience)
  • Scholarships are a thing of the past
    • MS I (freshman) does not get benefits, transitions into the program
    • Beginning their MS II (upon contract),
      • A low interest loan to pay for their entire education (including room and board; minus stipend)
      • Army loan is paid and forgiven upon commissioning (including freshman year, exception is disenrollment or medical reasons)
  • Problem: Officers entering [active duty] (OCS/ROTC non-scholarship) often have debt associated with educational costs without access to debt repayment plan such as exists for enlisted personnel.”
  • “State of Command” Brief (Fall 2002)
  • U.S. Army Cadet Command

The Program Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships

  • Green to Gold receives loan under same conditions as stated
  • Other incentives:
    • Cadet completes each year given an increased bonus 1k for MSI, 2k for MS II and 3k for MS III
    • Like USMA graduates, new officers get a low interest loan
    • Cadets get bonuses for completing hard to find
      • Foreign language skills such as Chinese or Arabic
      • Skills that lean toward specialties in need
      • Completion of a graduate degree
  • “…the October 2004 survey at Northwestern specifically asked how many of the students would consider serving as a prison guard in places like Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo. In return, they would have their student loans forgiven and be given G.I. Bill benefits for graduate school. A remarkable 11 percent that this would be a ‘very likely’ option and another 18 percent would ‘seriously consider’ such an option.” Dr. Charlie Moskos “The Citizen Soldier: The Ideal and Reserve Culture” (October 2004)

The Program The Degree in Decisive Leadership

  • Commissioning
  • BA Decisive
  • Leadership
  • Army loan forgiven
  • MS I
  • Contracts at end
  • Of first year, begins
  • Army loan
  • Open to any person admitted to school
  • and passes DOPMER
  • MS II
  • Foreign language
  • Attends Army schools
  • Or cultural experience
  • Prior service/
  • Green-to-Gold
  • MS III
  • MS IV
  • LDAC Evaluation
  • History, Cultural, and Leader requirements

The Program The Future Program Summary

  • Course
  • Semester 1
  • Semester 2
  • Summer Training
  • MS I
  • Soldier First
  • MS I, Science, Writing, Communications,
  • Foreign Language
  • MS I, History, Literature, Foreign Language; Contract
  • Army Schools
  • Or, cultural studies
  • MS II
  • Squad Ldr
  • MS II, Grp Dynamics, History, Foreign Language
  • Army Schools
  • Or, cultural studies
  • MS III
  • Innovative
  • MS III, Sociology, Cultural studies, Foreign studies
  • MS III, Cultural studies, mil-history, Foreign Language
  • LEC
  • Army schools
  • MS IV
  • Transition
  • MS IV, Security studies, mil-history, Foreign Language
  • MS IV, Strategic studies, mil-history, Foreign Language
  • 2LT
  • TAC at LEC or Goldbar
  • Other
  • Reqs.
  • Orientation Course, FTXs, Labs, PT, BDE FTX, Counseling
  • FTXs, Labs, PT, BDE FTX, Counseling

The Program BA in Leadership

  • BA in Leadership
    • A better education for all cadets
    • Over time, the curricula of Future Program merges with other existing on-campus leadership programs
    • Cadets still have option for “minor,” while enrolled and advancing in other disciplines, especially in sciences
    • Focus is “how to think” and “decision-making” as the foundation all officers
    • Understands their role in the “larger picture”
    • Additionally
      • Proficiency in foreign language
      • Establishes cognitive skills
      • Cultural studies
      • Military history
      • Physical fitness is stressed and greatly improved

The Program BA in Leadership

  • Understand other cultures (part of contract to commission)
    • Bonuses for languages such as Arabic, Russian, Chinese, Urdu, Pashtun, Farsi, Tagalog, etc…
    • No bonuses for Spanish, French and German, but meets requirement
    • Must take some type of foreign cultural studies prior to commissioning
    • Assist cadets who qualify for Scholarships and Fellowships
      • After commissioning, 2 years of graduate school before returning
      • funds to study abroad and learn about other cultures
  • “In the late 19th century, the British Army ‘seconded’ bright officers to various corners of the world to immerse them in the cultures of the Empire and to become intimate with potentates from Egypt to Malaya. Names such as China Gordon and T. E. Lawrence testify to the wisdom of such a custom.”
  • “Culture-Centric Warfare” Major General Robert Scales, Jr.
  • U.S. Army (Retired) Proceedings, September 2004

Education The military curriculum

  • The principles of education and the tools just mentioned are embodied in:
    • Academics:
      • MS I-Laying the Foundation: The Soldier
      • MS II-The Combat Squad Leader’s Course
      • MS III-Innovative Tactical Thought
      • MS IV-Transition Toward Officership
    • Training:
      • Physical training must be challenging and innovative
      • Labs centered around individual and unit tasks
      • FTXs focus on free play force on force scenarios
  • “The advantage which a commander thinks he can attain through continued personal intervention is largely illusory. By engaging in it he assumes a task that really belongs to others, whose effectiveness he thus destroys. He also multiplies his own tasks to a point where he can no longer fulfill the whole of them.” Helmuth von Moltke, papers of von Moltke

Education The military curriculum

  • Know the tactical and operational doctrine manuals
  • The “Future Program” text books by John Poole
    • The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to Warfare
    • Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods
    • The Tiger’s Way: A U.S. Private’s Best Chance for Survival
    • Phantom Soldier: The Enemy’s Answer to U.S. Firepower
  • Other Core Books
    • William S. Lind, The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
    • Anton Myrer, Once an Eagle
    • Alister Horne, A Savage War of Peace
  • “The Last Hundred Yards was the best small unit tactics manual published in many years. Now, just in time for Iraq, Afghanistan and wherever else the neo-cons want to send American soldiers to die, he is offering his take on how Islamic non-state forces fight. Tactics of the Crescent Moon, should be in the backpack of every American soldier and Marine.” Book review by William S. Lind

Education The military curriculum

  • Tactical decision games (TDGs) develop adaptability and intuition
    • Johann Pestalozzi’s methods adapted by Prussians
    • “Experience the thing before you try to give it a name”
    • Use as quizzes or exams (oral or written)
    • Vary conditions
    • Brief decisions to instructor, peers and subordinates
  • “A subordinate's failure to act in the absence of orders was ‘illegal’ and inexcusable in the eyes of his superiors and peers. An officer was expected to act on the situation as he saw it, and he knew his action would be supported. As a result, action in the face of uncertainty and responsibility for that action was developed into a social norm.”
  • LTC John Silva “Auftragstatik: Its Orgin and Development”
  • Infantry Magazine (Sept-Oct 1989)

Education The military curriculum

  • MS I: “Laying the Foundation—The Soldier”
    • Revolves around The Tiger’s Way: A U.S. Private’s Best Chance for Survival & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
    • Two-day course introducing them to the US Army
    • Riflemen in same squad, platoon and company entire time as cadet
    • Land navigation, physical training; intro to orders process
    • Semesters, consisting of four core blocks:
      • “A Growing Threat at 75 Yards”
      • “The New Basics”
      • “What The Eastern Soldier Does”
      • “The Winning Edge”
    • Includes historical case studies for examples
    • Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate classes or as dog tags
  • Encourage “how to think”

Education The military curriculum

  • MS II: “The Combat Squad Leader’s Course”
    • Revolves around Phantom Soldier: The Enemy’s Answer to U.S. Firepower , Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
    • Team and squad leaders
    • More land navigation and physical training
    • TDGs
    • Focuses on squad level missions
    • Semesters four core blocks:
      • “The Eastern Way of War”
      • “The Differences in Tactical Technique”
      • “The Next Disappearing Act”
      • “Strategies for Deception”
    • Includes historical case studies for examples
    • Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate blocks of instruction
  • Encourage “how to think”

Education The military curriculum

  • MS III: “Innovative Tactical Thought”
    • Revolves around The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to Warfare & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
    • Initially squad leaders and platoon sergeant, evolve to PLs/CO
    • Land navigation and physical training
    • Briefing OPORDs and TDGs to peers and instructors
    • Officer and NCO relationships
    • Consists of three core blocks:
      • “The Shortfall in Recorded Knowledge
      • “Techniques from the NCO Corps”
      • “More Complex Problems”
    • Includes historical case studies for examples
    • Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate blocks of instruction
  • Encourage “how to think”

Education The military curriculum

  • MS IV: “Transition toward Officership”
    • Updated reading lists based on “Canon”
    • Two-day duties and responsibilities course
    • “Extension of Cadre” positions based on campus OML
    • Plan and execute labs (task training) and field training exercises are variables in free play force on force environments
    • OPORDs to PMS and cadre for each major event
    • Two Semesters, Consisting of:
      • “News Briefings” & “Leadership Briefings”
      • “Discussions from Readings”
      • “Essays Based on Assigned Readings”
      • Quizzes, Tests and Final Exams
    • Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate classes
  • Encourage “how to think”

Training

  • Train the mind as well as the body
    • PT must be challenging and fun
    • “By the time APFT is given, it is seen as a break”
      • Three days is not enough
      • Not punishment—it becomes a way of life
    • Cadre and cadets must be innovative as well
      • “Get that wounded member to this location”
      • Weekly foot road marches
  • Reference, “Physical Training Programs for light infantry units: are they preparing soldiers for the rigor of combat?” by Major Frank O’Donnell
  • “FM 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, is a good manual that emphasizes combat readiness and train as you fight but does an equally poor job of explaining how to do this, and the Army physical fitness test (APFT) does not adequately correspond to the actual physical readiness of a soldier in the performance of his combat tasks.”
  • Frederick O’Donnell, MAJ, USA, “Physical Training Programs”

Training

  • Labs (see back ups-approach to training)
    • Move from the classroom to practice
    • Decentralize as much as possible
    • Individual tasks up to squad
      • Buddy team drills
      • Individual movement techniques (IMT)
      • Land navigation
    • Train as cohesive squads as much as possible
    • Let MS IVs and MS IIIs serve as trainers
      • Must rehearse classes before cadre
      • Must recon, calibrate and walk through each lab
  • “Our labs train cadets on ‘the how to’ with tools which they can chose when making decisions during free play exercises.”
  • c/LTC Dan Feehan (Nov 2004)

Training

  • Field Training Exercises (see back ups-approach to training)
    • Evaluation of leadership dealing with complex unit problems
      • Center around force-on-force free play exercises
      • Involve latest lessons from war,
        • Cadet Command creates mobile training team
        • Continually develops new scenarios
      • Cadre evaluate how people change under stress
    • Brigades host two major FTXs, one fall and one spring:
      • Multi-echelon free play force-on-force exercise fire team through company
      • Masses limited resources such as MILEs and blanks
      • Create TAC teams for continual assessment and mentorship
      • TAC Teams rotate for 12 hours, in order to maintain continual observation
  • “MS IIIs and MS IVs stated that they learned the most during FTXs”
  • MS3 & MS 4 Survey SY02-03, U.S. Army Cadet Command, 11 Nov 2004

Training

  • LTC becomes an “Infusion Course,” for “lateral entry” cadets to catch up with progression cadets
  • Summer training not limited to Army schools/units
  • Eliminate 2 and 3-year ROTC contracts/cadets (except Green-to-Gold)
    • Military education demands this in the 21st Century
    • Applicants with prior service at least two years, and pass screening may advance to MS III year if academically aligned
  • Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.”
  • Napoleon Bonaparte,
  • ”Napoleon’s Maxims”

Training

  • Leadership Evaluation Course (LEC), a “Ranger course (with sleep)”—28 Days. Replaces LDAC (“summer camp”)
    • No “make ups” (unless injured) on APFT or Land Nav
    • Is “a test”: exceeds standards, standards, or fails
    • Focus on evaluation of leadership, not training tasks
    • Evaluations during free play force on force exercises:
      • LDP as used on campus (focused on decision making)
      • Complexity of problems grows throughout exercise
      • Programs assess cadets who can handle more prior to arrival
    • Three TAC Teams throughout rotation => 24 hour observed
    • Emphasis on the Warrior Ethic:
      • Garrison for in-processing, APFT, and clearing (4 days)
      • Cadets live in field as in combat environment the entire time
      • Will continue to do land navigation and BRM (tactical)
      • Foot road march everywhere

Evaluating

  • Core of the Leadership Evaluation Approach (LEA) is:
    • Uses “double looping”
      • Provides different perspectives to develop leadership
      • Clarifies assumptions across the frame work of leadership
      • Uses 360 evaluations, peer, subordinate and cadre
    • At heart of assessment, is “did the cadet make a decision,” then ask, “in a timely manner,” in the spirit of:
      • “Commander’s intent” (two levels up)
      • “Mission statement” (given the conditions at that time)
      • If no decision, then failure
    • From dimensions of 15 To 3 “guiding-actions”:
      • Problem solving
      • Social judgment
      • Knowledge

Evaluating

  • Other aspects of “double-loop”:
    • In task performance:
      • APFT
      • Land Navigation
    • To briefings: OPORDs, Training,
    • Leadership, News, TDGs
    • With exams and quizzes, which revolve around essays under timed conditions for example:
    • Cadet receives a “higher OPORD” with instructions “given the company
    • OPORD, a map, cadet will write a platoon OPORD, and then be
    • prepared to respond with actions (in writing) to a series of questions
    • pertaining to this mission, under a time restriction”
  • Instructors continually “tweak” character through feedback on evaluations

New POI Conclusion

  • Establishing and sustaining a reputation
    • “Making-Mission” is subordinated to quality
      • Using “Goals” instead of “mission” when talking “numbers”
      • Flexibility to get within a percentage below or above “Goal”
    • It is subordinated to how well a program prepared cadets
      • LEC becomes a “test,” measure of program as well
      • How do cadets do at other evaluations and training as well
      • Positive, vice negative, view: programs will build “credibility points” for:
        • Honor and distinguished graduates of OBCs and Army schools
        • Or, finishing difficult schools like Ranger school
        • Sending a number of cadets and finishing summer training
        • Percentage of cadets finishing DMG
    • Inspections adhere to principles in education, bde/Rgn sit in on classes, watch instruction or training.


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