Agenda 6/7 Finish Movie Last topic: Ottoman Empire Go over dbq essay

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Agenda 6/7

  • Finish Movie
  • Last topic: Ottoman Empire
  • Go over DBQ Essay
  • Hand your Global textbook in at the final.
  • June 10th 8:30 am in the Gym
  • Period 1- ROW 6
  • Period 7- ROW 7

The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

  • By the 1400s, the once mighty Byzantine Empire had been in decline for nearly two centuries.
  • In the 1400s, it faced a growing threat from the Ottomans, a nomadic Turkish-speaking group that had migrated from central Asia into Asia Minor.
  • In the previous century, the Ottomans had moved through Asia Minor and into the Balkans.

The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

  • In 1453, Ottoman armies surrounded the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.
  • During, a two-month siege, Ottoman cannons pounded Constantinople's defensive walls, eventually allowing the attackers to break through and capture the city.
  • The Ottomans changed the city's name to Istanbul and made this ancient Christian city the Capital of their Muslim empire.

Ottoman Expansion

    • The Ottoman Empire greatly expanded its territory in the century that followed the fall of Constantinople.
    • With its well-armed forces and effective military strategies, the Ottoman Empire grew quickly.

Ottoman Expansion

    • After 1453, the empire made spectacular gains, conquering lands south to Mecca as well as along the Nile River in Egypt.
    • The Ottomans also expanded further north into the Balkans and into Russia, capturing the Crimean peninsula.

Ottoman Expansion

    • The Ottomans even laid siege to Vienna in 1529, causing great fear among Europeans.
    • Ottoman forces failed to capture Vienna, however.
    • Even so, by the 1500’s, the Ottomans had built the largest, most powerful empire in the Middle East and Europe.
    • At its peak, the Ottoman Empire reached across three continents, from, southeastern Europe through the Middle East and North Africa.

Reasons for Ottoman Success

  • The success of the Ottomans was due in large part to new military technology.
  • In addition to the cannons that smashed Constantinople's defenses, the Ottoman army equipped its foot soldiers with muskets.

Reasons for Ottoman Success

  • This strategy increased the soldiers' battlefield effectiveness and reduced the importance of mounted soldiers.
  • The new military technology allowed Ottoman leaders to consolidate their rule within the empire as well as to conquer new lands.

New Trade Routes

  • As the Ottoman Empire expanded into Eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean, European trade routes were disrupted.
  • For example, Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean interfered with Western Europe's trade with East Asia.
  • Europeans could no longer depend on old trade routes to Asia, Portuguese sailors sent explorers out over the oceans in search of new trade routes. Other European countries would soon follow.

New Trade Routes

  • In the 1400s, Europeans wanted to get around the Muslim and Italian "middlemen" and gain direct access to Asian trade.
  • Portugal, then Spain, and eventually other European nations sought a route to Asia that bypassed the Mediterranean.

Ottoman Achievements

  • The Byzantine Heritage
  • The Ottoman Empire absorbed many influences from the conquered Byzantine Empire.
  • As you know, the Byzantine heritage was itself, a mingling of Greco-Roman and Middle Eastern influences.
  • The Ottomans blended Byzantine culture with Muslim culture. Byzantine influences could be found in Ottoman government, social life, and architecture.

Suleiman’s Golden Age

  • Suleiman, called Suleiman the Magnificent by westerners, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566.
  • Suleiman was a sultan, the name Turks gave to their rulers.
  • An effective military leader who further modernized the army, Suleiman continued to add new territories to the empire.

Suleiman’s Golden Age

  • Although Suleiman held absolute power, he did consult with an advisor and a council in governing the empire.
  • He also chose able officials to run the large bureaucracy he needed to supervise everyday matters of government.

Suleiman’s Golden Age

  • The years of Suleiman's rule are considered the golden age of Ottoman history.
  • A wise leader, Suleiman strengthened the government and improved the system of justice in his empire.
  • As a Muslim, he based his law on the Sharia, the Islamic system of law.
  • In fact, he was known to his subjects as Suleiman the Lawgiver.


  • Developed by Quran scholars, the Sharia is the Islamic code of law. It covers moral issues, business dealings, government, and numerous other aspects of community and family life.
  • Most Middle Eastern countries continue to incorporate some traditional Sharia into their legal codes.

Sharia Laws

  • Wine-drinking and, by extension, alcohol-drinking, punishable by flogging
  • Unlawful sexual intercourse, punishable by flogging for unmarried offenders and stoning to death for adulterers
  • False accusation of unlawful sexual intercourse, punishable by flogging
  • Theft, punishable by the amputation of a hand
  • Highway robbery, punishable by amputation, or execution if the crime results in a homicide.

Ottoman Society

  • The Ottomans ruled a vast area that included many diverse peoples with many religions.
  • Nevertheless, the Ottomans held their empire together successfully for hundreds of years, thus making Islam the dominant cultural force throughout the region.

Ottoman society had four social classes:

  • Men of the Pen At the top of the social structure were highly educated people, such as scientists, lawyers, judges, and poets.
  • Men of the Sword Also ranked high were members of the military.
  • Men of Negotiation Below the elite classes were businesspeople, such as moneychangers, tax collectors, and artisans.
  • Men of Husbandry A fourth class included farmers and herders.

Ottoman Society

  • The top two classes were made up almost entirely of Muslims; the two lower classes included people from all backgrounds.
  • This class structure helped make Islam the dominant cultural force in the empire.
  • Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire were organized into religious communities called millets.
  • Each millet was allowed to maintain its own religious traditions and educate its people as long as it obeyed Ottoman law.


  • The influence of the Ottoman millets can be seen in the many ethnic and religious groups that still exist in southeastern Europe.
  • In the Balkans in particular, this diversity has sometimes led to conflict.
  • Although the Ottoman Empire was ruled by Muslims, other religious beliefs were tolerated in the empire.
  • For example, when restrictions on Jews in Europe became severe in the 1500s, many Jews fled to the Ottoman Empire, where they were allowed to prosper.

Ottoman Society

  • Ottoman leaders furthered Muslim influence by recruiting military and government officers from conquered groups.
  • Some Christian families in the Balkans were required to turn their young sons over to the government. The boys were converted to Islam and trained for service.
  • The best soldiers became Janissaries, members of an elite force in the Ottoman army.

Arts and Literature

  • Throughout the empire, Muslim architects built many palaces as well as Muslim houses of worship, or mosques.
  • Muslim religious structures promoted the further spread of Muslim culture into the Christian areas of southeastern Europe.
  • Ottoman arts reflected Persian influences.
  • Painters used Persian styles to create detailed miniatures (beautiful illuminated manuscripts).
  • Ottoman writers and poets used Persian and Arab models to produce great works in the Turkish language.

Istanbul's Blue Mosque, built by Sultan Ahmet I during the 1600s and named for its blue ceramic tiles

  • Miniatures

Decline of The Ottoman Empire

  • Although the Ottoman Empire survived into the twentieth century, it began to decline much earlier than that. The reasons for this decline came from both within and outside the empire.
  • Internal Disorder
  • Problems developed within the Ottoman Empire. Slowly, over time, nations were able to break free from foreign Ottoman rule.
  • The empire also experienced government corruption and poor leadership in its later years.

European Advances

  • The rising power of European nations was the major external reason for the Ottoman decline.
  • In 1571, Spain and its Italian allies defeated an Ottoman fleet at Lepanto.
  • Even while the Ottomans were adding to their empire in the 1400s and 1500s, they were increasingly being cut out of global trade.

European Advances

  • By the 1700s, European commercial and military technology had surpassed that of the Ottomans.
  • Also, industrially based European economies became stronger than the Ottoman economy, which was still based on agriculture.
  • The commercial revolution in Europe, therefore, was a strong factor in Ottoman decline.



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