Acf regionals 2000 Tossups by Berkeley

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ACF Regionals 2000

Tossups by Berkeley
1. Some of its final sections include "From Noon to Starry Night," "Songs of Parting," and two annexes entitled "Sands at Seventy" and "Goodbye My Fancy.” It is generally read today in the ninth or "Deathbed Edition" which appeared in 1892, 37 years after the book was first published. FTP, name this collection which includes “A Passage to India,” “O Captain! My Captain!” “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking,” and “Song of Myself.”

Answer: Leaves of Grass

2. The first to describe this idea was a German astronomer in 1823, who had led a team that discovered the asteroids Pallas, Vesta and Juno twenty years earlier. The first proposed solution to the problem was that space was filled with dust, which would attenuate the light from distant objects, leaving only the nearby stars visible. This ignored the fact that dust re-radiates energy thermally and the problem remained unresolved until the establishment of an evolving, expanding universe one hundred years later. FTP, name this paradox which states that, in a static infinite universe, the entire night sky should be as bright as the sun.

Answer: Olbers' paradox

3. He was appointed Cardinal of Albano by Pope Gregory X largely as a result of the talent he displayed for reconciling opposing views when he settled the dispute between the spirituals and the Relaxati. An eloquent advocate of mendicant monastic orders, his notable works included the mystical treatise Journey to the Mind of God and a 1263 biography of Francis of Assisi. FTP, identify this namesake of an American university, the "seraphic doctor" who is considered the second founder of the Franciscan order.

Answer: Saint (John) Bonaventure

4. As a result of glacial melting and the monsoon season, the level of this river in the late summer is as much as 30 feet higher than its level in January, requiring some of its ports, such as Herzada, to have separate high- and low-water landing points. With a name deriving from the Sanskrit for “elephant river,” it forms from the confluence of Mali and Nmai rivers, passes through three gorges before reaching Mandalay, and empties into the Andaman Sea. FTP, name this major river of Myanmar.

Answer: Irrawaddy River

5. In 1994, this order was granted Permanent Observer status in the UN. In 1798, Napoleon expelled them from the home they had occupied since it had been granted to them in 1530 by Charles V of Spain; in 1834, they found a new home in Rome, where their Grand Magistracy enjoys extraterritorial rights. Long known for doing hospital work during wartime, their eight-pointed cross is widely recognized. FTP, name this order, possibly best-known for the story in a Dashiell Hammett novel about the jewel-encrusted falcon they sent to Charles V.

Answer: Knights of Malta (or the Order of Malta or the Order of St. John)

6. His critical works include The Perpetual Orgy, a study of Madame Bovary, and Garc’a Marquez: Story of a God-Killer. His story The Cubs depicts a teenager who gets castrated by accident, while a number of his early novels deal with the military, including Captain Pantoja (pan-TOE-ha) and the Special Service, Conversation in the Cathedral, and The Time of the Hero. FTP, name this Peruvian writer, best known for In Praise of the Stepmother, The War of the End of the World, and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter.

Answer: Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (YO-suh)

7. Seven years after the book was published, Shigeru Nakayama (she-GAY-ru nah-kah-YAH-mah) convinced the author to write a "Postscript--1969" which suggests a project for sociological study of a certain kind of community. The introduction considers a "role for history," and subsequent chapters take on anomaly, crisis, and the nature and necessity of the titular occurrences, which appear as invisible revolutionary changes in world view. FTP, identify this book, first published in 1962 by MIT professor Thomas Kuhn, which introduced the concept of “paradigm shifts."

Answer: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

8. This kingdom arose after the Cimmerians destroyed Phrygia, and according to legend was initially ruled by Gyges. According to Herodotus, it was culturally similar to Greece, and it played an important part in the rise of Greek commerce, thanks mainly to its establishment of permanent retail shops and its invention of gold and silver coins. FTP, name this kingdom which reached its height under Alyattes, had its capital at Sardis, and was destroyed when Cyrus the Great defeated Croesus.

Answer: Lydia

9. His lost works include On the Calendar, On Sphere Making, and Catoptrica, a book on optics. His extant works include Quadrature of the Parabola, which gives a formula for calculating the area of parabola segments; The Sand-Reckoner, which includes a system for expressing really big numbers; and On Spirals, which features the spiral now named for him. FTP, identify this Greek mathematician, whose other works include The Method, On Floating Bodies, and Measurement of the Circle, which gave pi its first exact value, who was killed in 212 B.C. during the capture of Syracuse when he was drawing a figure in the sand.

Answer: Archimedes

10. He went to his grave believing that his first symphony, The Bells of Zlonice, was lost. Originally, his symphonies were numbered one through five, but his symphonies were renumbered once his earliest four symphonies were published after his death. FTP, name this Czech composer of the Dumky Trio and Airs from Moravia, whose most famous work is his ninth symphony, From the New World.

Answer: Antonin Dv—r‰k (DVOR-zhak)

11. The narrator begins by telling us that he sat down to write it in Freising on the Isar on May 27, 1943, three years after the death of the subject of the story. Two years after the novel was published, the author wrote The Genesis of a Novel, which described its composition, and an Author's Note at the end of the work discloses that the system described in Chapter 22 is derived from the Harmonielehre (har-mo-neel-AIR-uh) of Arnold Schonberg. FTP, identify this novel, narrated by Serenus Zeitblom, which tells the story of German composer Adrian LeverkŸhn, a work by Thomas Mann.

Answer: Doctor Faustus

12. A flinty, black mineral, in ancient times it was known as the touchstone. If pure gold were scratched on it, it would leave yellow marks, while gold mixed with copper would leave red marks, thus giving a way of assessing the purity of gold. A metamorphic rock, it is composed of laminated, often flaky parallel layers of chiefly micaceous minerals. FTP, identify this rock, whose name comes from the Latin for "split", and sounds like a bad word.

Answer: Schist

13. When he died, e.e. cummings said "The only man, woman, or child who wrote a simple declarative sentence with seven grammatical errors is dead." This man knew he was a bad speaker; indeed, he coined the word "bloviate," meaning "to go at great length about nothing." Ironically, it was a misuse of the English language that propelled him to his crowning achievement, as his call for "a return to normalcy" galvanized public opinion during his 1920 campaign for the Presidency. FTP, name this President, who died in office in 1923.

Answer: Warren Gamaliel Harding

14. Her stepfather married her off to a poor farmer, but they never had sex and Apollo later commanded her to marry a friend of her brother, by whom she was the mother of Medon and Strophius. Also known as Laodice (la-oh-DEE-chay), in one version of her story her sister Chrysothemis unsuccessfully persuades her to forgive her mother to end her suffering. FTP, name this mythical Greek woman, sister of Orestes and vengeful daughter of Agamemnon.

Answer: Electra

15. The last name is the same: William was the Secretary of the Navy under Cleveland under whom the USS Maine was built; Hassler was an American mathematician who, by proving his eponymous embedding theorem in 1936, initiated the study of the field of differential topology; and Josiah was an explorer for whom a 14,494 foot mountain is named. FTP, give this name also shared by the man who in 1794 secured a patent for the cotton gin.

Answer: Whitney

16. It is a drama in three acts based on an actual case in 19th century Edinburgh that was detailed in the essay “Closed Doors, or The Great Drumsheugh Case” in Bad Companions by William Roughead. The story concerns an attempt by Mary Tilford, a student at a New England boarding school, to explain to her rich, indulgent grandmother why she has to run away from school. She accuses the women who own and run the school of being lesbians, which ends up closing the school. FTP, what is this play written by Lillian Hellman?

Answer: The Children’s Hour

17. His dissertation stemmed from the work of Frank Knight and studied the role of expectations in price formation. A few years later, he made the distinction between ex ante and ex post savings and investment contained in his Monetary Equilibrium, but he later shifted focus to applied economics and poverty. FTP, name this member of the Stockholm school and author of Beyond the Welfare State and An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy who shared the 1974 Nobel Prize.

Answer: Gunnar Myrdal

18. This city, the capital of Sogdiana in the 4th century B.C., lay uninhabited from 1720 to 1770 but later recovered to serve, from 1924 to 1936, as capital of a Soviet state. In the older part of the city, one can still find three Islamic schools, one of which was headed by astronomer Ulugh Beg, the grandson of the man who ruled out of the city after it achieved independence from the Mongols in 1365. FTP, name this endpoint of a literary “golden journey,” located in present-day Uzbekistan, the capital of the empire of Tamerlane.

Answer: Samarkand

19. They were purchased in 1806 by British diplomat Thomas Bruce to prevent them from being destroyed by Turkish forces or to adorn his Scottish country home, depending on which story you believe. They include a depiction of the Greek god Dionysus, but they are most well known for portraying men on horseback celebrating the goddess Athena. FTP, identify this collection of ancient sculptures that has been the focus of a long-running feud between the British and Greek governments.

Answer: the Elgin Marbles (also accept the Parthenon Marbles or the Parthenon Frieze)

20. This compound has chemical formula CH3COCOOH and is the simplest of the keto acids. Microorganisms use it in the synthesis of leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and alanine, and, in the absence of vitamin B1, it accumulates in tissues along with lactic acid, causing some of the symptoms of beriberi. FTP, name this compound whose ionized form is converted into acetyl coenzyme A if oxygen is present after it has been produced as the end product of glycolysis.

Answer: Pyruvic acid (accept pyruvate)

OT1. This type of orchestra uses colotomic structure and consists of two sets of intruments, with one set tuned to a five-note scale and the other to a seven-note scale. It sometimes accompanies theatrical performances, and is characterized by polyphony, with the main melody played either by a stringed instrument or a bamboo flute, and its percussion instruments include xylophones, metallophones, and gongs. FTP, name this orchestra indigenous to Bali and Java.

Answer: Gamelan

OT2. Euler proved that the sum of the reciprocals of the prime numbers diverges by using his discovery that this function may be written as the product over all prime p of 1 over 1 minus p to the negative x. It was not until 1859 that its namesake extended its domain to the whole complex plane, and since then much attention has been paid to the values it takes in the so-called “critical strip” of complex numbers whose real parts lie between zero and one. FTP, name this function, defined as the sum as n goes from 1 to infinity of 1 over n to the z, which is the subject of the celebrated Riemann hypothesis.

Answer: Riemann zeta function

OT3. After Julius Caesar defeated Juba I at Thaspus, the Roman army in this region stationed itself at Lambessa. The region was conquered by the Vandals in 429, but shortly before that it had become the center of the Donatist movement. During the long reign of Masinissa, it was initially allied with nearby Carthage in the Second Punic War but later switched sides. FTP, name this region, whose boundaries coincided approximately with those of modern Algeria.

Answer: Numidia

He was charged with heresy while in his 60s, but apparently retracted each of the 28 propositions attributed to him which were condemned by Pope John XXII in 1329. He identified the stages of spiritual evolution as dissimilarity, similarity, identity, and breakthrough, maintaining that detachment allows one to evolve from pure nothingness to a state in which God exists only when one invokes Him. FTP, name this most noted of the medieval German mystics.

Answer: Meister (Johannes) Eckhart or Eckhart von Hochheim

It is headless and poised upright with spread wings at a galley prow, and soft folds of fabric are flattened against the body. Since the 1950 discovery of its open right hand, it was assumed that the figure's right arm was stretched high to announce the victory of a Rhodian naval victory in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. FTP, what is this world-famous statue found in the Louvre?

Answer: Winged Victory of Samothrace (or Victoire de Samothrace)

Since the first experiments with this technology in 1946, rockets, cannons, aircraft, and ground generators have all been used for it. It was first used shortly after Schaefer and Langmuir discovered a way to form crystals in a supercooled body, although sodium chloride and calcium chloride have been used on non-supercooled bodies. FTP, name this technology which most commonly uses silver iodide or dry ice to form nuclei in clouds with the intent of preventing hail or inducing rain.

Answer: cloud seeding

Originally, they were farmers who left home in search of employment, with many ending up in the military. Today, the term refers to students who have failed their college or high school entrance examinations and are spending a year or two studying for the next round. FTP, what is this term, from the Japanese for "person cast on the waves", that refers to warriors without a master, that shares its name with a 1998 John Frankenheimer action film starring Robert DeNiro?

Answer: Ronin

ACF Regionals 2000

Boni by Berkeley
1. Give the last names of the following parent-child pairs of scientists on a 10-5 basis:

1. (10 points) Lazare (luh-ZAHR), also a prominent French Revolutionary statesman, wrote the 1803 book GŽomŽtrie de Position which dealt with problems involving complex numbers.

(5 points) Lazare’s son Sadi studied idealized heat engines and wrote the groundbreaking 1824 work Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire.

Answer: Carnot

2. (10 points) George, working at the University of Aberdeen, discovered electron diffraction independently of Davisson and Germer.

(5 points) George’s father Joseph discovered the electron in 1897.

Answer: Thomson

3. (10 points) Max was a German mathematician who proved an important result about the intersection of two algebraic curves in 1873.

(5 points) Max’s daughter Emmy proved the correspondence between symmetries and conservation laws and became the most prominent female mathematician of the 20th century.

Answer: Noether

2. Identify the following African geographical features, FTP each.

1. This forms the boundary between the interior African plateau and the coastal regions. It also forms the boundary between South Africa and Mozambique.

Answer: the Great Escarpment

2. This desert on the Atlantic coast of Africa stretches from Angola to South Africa through the country to which it lends its name.

Answer: Namib or Namibe

3. The semiarid region stretching from Senegal to the Sudan which forms a transition between the Sahara to its north and the humid savannas to its south.

Answer: Sahel or Sahil
3. Name the following musical instruments you probably won't find in a modern orchestra, FTP each.

1. Italian for "little goose", baked earth versions of this instrument were played in Egypt at least 5000 years ago. It has a bulbous shape with a blowing-hole and fingerholes.

Answer: Ocarina

2. This is a ram's-horn trumpet bent into a "J"-like shape and bearing inscriptions. It was most likely these that caused the destruction of Jericho.

Answer: Shofar or Shofarot

3. In its most basic form, this stringed instrument consists merely of a stick, some strings parallel to it, and some frets to raise the strings away from the stick. Its most famous practitioner was Anton Karas, who provided the score for the film The Third Man.

Answer: Zither
4. Identify the following plays of Eugne Ionesco (ee-oh-ness-co), FTP each.

1. This is his first play, which consists mainly of meaningless conversations between two couples that eventually deteriorates into babble.

Answer: The Bald Soprano (La Cantatrice Chauve)

2. The 1951 play in which a professor uses the meanings he assigns to words to establish dominance over a female pupil.

Answer: The Lesson (La Leon)

3. The 1952 play in which an old couple tries to spread their life story by inviting a vast crowd of guests. The guests never arrive, but, convinced that they have, the old people kill themselves.

Answer: The Chairs (Les Chaises)
5. Answer the following about cryptography, for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) This kind of cipher is created by shifting each letter over by three, turning ‘A’ to ‘D’ and ‘B’ to ‘E’. For five, what is this cipher named for a famous Roman general?

Answer: Caesar cipher

2. (10 points) One of the most famous cryptographic systems, it was broken first by the Polish, with the more advanced versions broken by the English, led by Alan Turing. What was this German system used in World War II?

Answer: Enigma

3. (15 points) This word, derived from the Greek word for “covered” and “to write”, describes hidden communications. Examples include using invisible ink or encoding a message inside of the image of a JPEG file. For fifteen, what is this five-syllable term?

Answer: Steganography
6. Answer these questions about the Roman army FTP each.

1. The Romans found the Greek phalanx unwieldy for fighting in the hills of Italy. So they developed this military unit which consisted of 120 men in 12 files and 10 ranks. Groups of 10 of these drew up for battle in three lines.

Answer: maniple

2. The Roman equivalent to a battalion, originally, this was the term for three maniples arranged in three lines. Under Augustus, the term was also referred to a group of 1,000 men responsible for fire and police protection in sections of Rome.

Answer: cohort

3. The Roman legion chiefly used two weapons. One was a seven-foot javelin used for both throwing and thrusting, and the other was a twenty-inch cut-and-thrust sword with a broad, heavy blade. Name either for a final ten points.

Answer: pilum or gladius
7. Identify the following late 19th century American novels FTP each from plot descriptions, or for 5 if you need the author.

1. (10 points) The daughter of a brutal father and a drunken mother falls in love with a bartender, is disowned by her mother, and eventually commits suicide.

(5 points) Stephen Crane

Answer: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets

2. (10 points) An observer named Frowenfeld witnesses race conflicts and a feud between the De Grapions and the title family in New Orleans.

(5 points) George Washington Cable

Answer: The Grandissimes: A Story of Creole Life.

3. (10 points) A Pennsylvania German moves his family to New York and buys his son Conrad a magazine in order to help him climb socially, only to see Conrad turn to radical poltics.

(5 points) William Dean Howells

Answer: The Hazard of New Fortunes

8. Identify the following figures of Celtic mythology, FTP each:

1. After being forced to marry Conchubar (CON-coo-bar), he gave her to Eoghan (OH-gan) and she killed herself by jumping out of a chariot.

Answer: Deirdre of the Sorrows

2. The man, so large that he had to live in a tent because no house had ever been built large enough to contain him, who figures in the Mabinogion as the King of Britain and whose severed head brought his compatriots 80 years of fortune.

Answer: Bran

3. The earth-goddess who lends her name to an Irish company of gods headed by Dagda.

Answer: Danu
9. Answer the following about 19th-century wars of German unification, FTP each:

1. This July 3, 1866, battle in Bohemia was the only major battle of the Seven Weeks’ War, which allowed Prussia to organize the North German Confederation.

Answer: Battle of KšniggrŠtz (or Battle of Sadowa)

2. Bismarck’s doctoring of a telegram reporting a meeting between William I of Prussia and the French ambassador in this city sparked the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.

Answer: Ems

3. Prussia’s military success against Austria and France was due in large part to this man, who was among the first military men to recognize the usefulness of railways in deployment and who served as Chief of the Prussian General Staff starting in 1858.

Answer: Helmuth Karl Bernhard, Count von Moltke
10. Answer the following about one of the pioneers of computing FTP each.

1. Professor Emeritus at Stanford, he is best known for writing the epic “The Art of Computer Programming”.

Answer: Donald Ervin Knuth

2. Probably Knuth’s second most important contribution to computing, this UNIX-based software allows for easy mathematical typesetting and is essential to scientific journals.

Answer: TeX (pronounced “tech”)

3. Knuth has a standing offer of this amount of money for being the first person to find a given error in one of his books. Expressed in pennies, it is equal to a hexadecimal dollar.

Answer: $2.56
11. Name the following medieval Italian painters, FTP each.

1. The founder of the Sienese school of painting, best remembered for the altarpiece Maesta of the Siena Cathedral, who is also now generally agreed to be the painter of the Madonna Rucellai in Florence even though Vasari attributed it to an older painter.

Answer: Duccio di Buoninsegna

2. The most important Italian painter of the 14th century, who has been revered since then as the father of European painting. Only a few works, such as The Madonna in Glory, can be attributed to him with certainty, but he also appears to have painted a cycle of frescoes in Assisi.

Answer: Giotto di Bondone

3. The 13th century artist who taught Giotto, painted Madonna Enthroned with St. Francis, and is considered the last great Italian artist in the Byzantine style.

Answer: Cimabue (chih-ma-BOO-ay) (or Bencivieni di Pepo)
12. Identify the following kinds of phonetic sounds, FTP each.

1. A consonant sound, such as f or v in English, produced by bringing the mouth into position to block the passage of the airstream without making complete closure.

Answer: fricative (or spirant)

2. A fricative in which the tip of the tongue is brought near the roof of the mouth and air is pushed past the tongue to make a hissing sound. Examples in English are the s, z, sh, and zh sounds.

Answer: sibilant

3. A consonant sound characterized by the momentary blocking of some part of the oral cavity. English examples are b, d, and g.

Answer: stop (or plosive)
13. Answer the following about the Opium Wars, for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) Give any year during which the first Opium War was fought.

Answer: (accept any year from 1839 to 1842)

2. (5 points) Name the treaty signed in August, 1842 which ended the first Opium War.

Answer: Treaty of Nanking

3. (5 points) Give any year during which the second Opium War was fought.

Answer: (accept any year from 1856 to 1860)

4. (15 points) The British saw fit to start the second Opium War after some Chinese officials boarded a certain British ship and lowered its flag. Name the ship, which also gives its name to an alternative name for the second Opium War.

Answer: HMS Arrow
14. Answer the following about Beowulf, for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) Name the monster which has been ravaging the mead hall, Heorot, for 12 years until Beowulf kills him.

Answer: Grendel

2. (5 points) Name the king of Denmark to whom Heorot belongs.

Answer: Hrothgar

3. (10 points) Name the kingdom of southern Sweden from which Beowulf comes.

Answer: Geats

4. (10 points) Name the king of Geats succeded by Beowulf.

Answer: Hygelac
15. Identify the following minerals, FTP each.

1. The most common mineral in the Earth’s crust, its types include plagioclase and albite.

Answer: Feldspar

2. The most common mineral found in iron ores, it is usually found as a red pigment, with chemical formula Fe2O3.

Answer: Hematite

3. The most abundant ferromagnesian silicate mineral, its types include augite, diopside, and jadeite.

Answer: Pyroxene
16. Identify the following Old Testament figures, FTP each.

1. The prophet who suceeded Elijah in the struggle to maintain the worship of Yahweh under the kings Joram and Jehu, opposing the cult of Baal.

Answer: Elisha

2. The prophet who, in the book named for him, predicted the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem because of the people’s apostasy, and who advocated submission to Babylon.

Answer: Jeremiah

3. The 11th minor prophet, whose visions included the four horsemen of the apocalypse, the rebuilding of Jerusalem’s temple, and the worldwide recognition of Yahweh.

Answer: Zechariah
17. Answer the following about the founders of Rome, FTP each.

1. Romulus and Remus were sons of what daughter of Numitor?

Answer: Rhea Silvia

2. Numitor was ousted by this brother, who was eventually overthrown by Romulus and Remus.

Answer: Amulius

3. Romulus was taken into the heavens by Mars, and was worshiped as a god among the Romans under this name.

Answer: Quirinus
18. Few things are as interesting in science as crackpot science, as these cranks will demonstrate.

1. (5 points each) In 1989, this pair of University of Utah scientists put two electrodes near a slug of heavy water and declared that they had discovered cold fusion.

Answers: Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman

2. (10 points) He believed that he could "train" spring wheat to be winter wheat and thus increase annual harvests. His untested theory led to disastrous harvests in the Soviet Union, and even today Russian biology lags behind that of the west because of him.

Answer: Trofim Lysenko

3. (10 points) He believed that the planet Venus was, until rather recently, a comet. He based this on myths from the ancient Greeks, believing that the goddess Athena (representing the planet Venus) sprang from the head of Zeus (or the planet Jupiter). Name this author of Worlds in Collision.

Answer: Immanuel Velikovsky
19. Identify the following 20th-century novels inspired by the story of Cain and Abel, FTP each.

1. The title character of this Hermann Hesse novel influences his younger friend Emil Sinclair by teaching him about a demon-god named Abraxas and about the “mark of Cain,” which he purports to recognize in Emil.

Answer: Demian

2. In this novel, set in California’s Salinas Valley and based on the story of Cain and Abel, Cal Trask drives his brother Aron to death by telling him that their mother is a prostitute.

Answer: East of Eden

3. This 1917 modern re-creation of the Cain and Abel story, arguably the most famous novel by Miguel de Unamuno, centers on the painfully conflicting impulses of the character representing Cain.

Answer: Abel S‡nchez: History of a Passion (Abel S‡nchez: Historia de una Pasi—n)
20. Given a description, name the development in European unification FTP each.

1. Named for a French foreign minister, this plan created the European Coal and Steel Collective.

Answer: Schumann Plan

2. This 1957 treaty whose stated goal was “an ever closer union” took initial steps to create a European Parliament and Court system.

Answer: Treaty of Rome

3. The goal of this 1991 treaty was to unite Europe under a single currency by 1999.

Answer: Treaty of Maastricht
Answer the following about the Chou (cho) Dynasty, for the stated number of points:
1. FFP, name either the dynasty which preceded it or that which it preceded.

Answer: Shang or Ch’in

2. FFP, name either of the capitals out of which it ruled.

Answer: Hao or Lo-yang

3. FTPE, name the two main periods of the Eastern Chou, the first of which, from 722-481 BC, saw China overrun by small squabbling states, and the second of which, from 481-221, saw these states conglomerate into larger units which fought each other for supremacy.

Answers: Spring and Autumn period (Ch’un Ch’iu) and Warring States period (Chan Kuo)

30-20-10, Name the material

1. A type of bitumen, it was used as a water stop in the walls of a a reservoir at Mohenjo-Daro in Pakistan in the third-millenium BC. The Pitch Lake on the island of Trinidad was the first large commercial source.

2. The natural variety is known as brea; however it is generally manufactured today. It consists of compounds of hydrogen and carbon with minor proportions of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. It softens when heated and is elastic under certain conditions.

3. Its principal application is in road surfacing where its binding and adhesive properties are useful. It is generally obtained today from the distillation of petroleum.

Answer: asphalt

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