Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Increase Student Responsibilities



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12. Increase Student Responsibilities

  • Decrease scaffolds as skills increase
  • as students become more competent
  • Diminish the use of models and prompts and other scaffolds
  • Diminish the support offered by other students
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

12. Increase Student Responsibilities

  • Gradually, increase the
  • complexity and difficulty of
  • the material
  • In reading, begin with well-organized, reader-friendly material
  • Increase the difficulty and use less structured materials as mastery occurs
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

13. Assess Student Mastery

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Assess students’ achievement of a mastery level,
  • Provide for additional instruction when necessary
  • Beware!
    • Lack of review
    • Lack of periodic monitoring of mastery

Summary Of What We Know

  • 1. Present new material in small steps to that the working memory does not become overloaded.
  • 2. Help students develop an organization for the new material.
  • 3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting students during initial practice, and (b) providing for extensive student processing.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Summary Of What We Know

  • 4. When teaching higher-level tasks, support students by providing them with cognitive strategies.
  • 5. Help students learn to use the cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts and modeling the use of these procedural prompts.
  • 6. Provide for extensive student practice.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

What This All Means

  • Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When
    • There is focus on improving, monitoring, and providing corrective feedback on instruction
  • “Build It and They Will Come”
  • Achievement will follow

  • Review First
  • Review homework and any relevant previous learning
  • Review prerequisite skills and knowledge for the lesson
  • What Does The Well-Structured Lesson Look Like?
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Teaching Well-Structured Tasks

  • Beginning: The Presentation
  • State lesson goals or provide outline
  • Present new material in small steps
  • Model procedures
  • Provide examples and non-examples
  • Use clear language
  • Avoid digressions
  • Check for student understanding
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Teaching Well-Structured Tasks

  • Middle: Focus on Guided Practice 
  • Spend more time on guided practice
  • High frequency of questions
  • All students respond (to you, to each other) and receive feedback
  • High success rate
  • Continue practice until students are fluent
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Teaching Well-Structured Tasks

  • Middle: Corrections and Feedback
  • Provide process feedback when answers are correct but hesitant
  • Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or reteaching when answers are incorrect
  • Reteach material when necessary
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Teaching Well-Structured Tasks

  • End: Independent Practice
  • Students receive overview and/or help during initial steps
  • Practice continues until students are automatic (where relevant)
  • Teacher provides active supervision (where possible)
  • Routines are used to provide help for slower students
  • Daily, weekly and monthly reviews
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • What Does Explicit Engaging
  • Instruction Look Like?
  • I DO IT
  • gain attention & clearly model
  • cue students to notice critical aspects of the model
  • model thinking too - “mental modeling/direct explanation”
  • Struggling learners need US to:
  • Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
    • Provide Thinking Time
    • Structure/prompt engagement:
  •  choral responses if answer/response is short and you want the same answers
  •  partner responses if answer/response is long and can be differently worded
  •  correction/feedback - remodeling, more examples, etc.
  • What Does Explicit Engaging
  • Instruction Look Like?
  • WE DO IT
  • Struggling learners need:
  • Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
  • What Does Explicit Engaging
  • Instruction Look Like?
  • YOU DO IT
  • Struggling learners need:
  • Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice



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