Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”



Download 3.56 Mb.
Page6/15
Date08.12.2018
Size3.56 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”

  • 7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction:
  • 4. The teacher explicitly states:
        • the goal of the strategy to be
        • employed
        • the task for which the strategy
        • is appropriate
        • the range of the applicability
        • the learning gains anticipated from its consistent use
  • 5. Verbal rehearsal of the steps of the strategy to 100% criterion. Visual reminders (chart, checklist, schedule) are provided.

Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”

  • 7 Steps Toward Successful
  • Strategy-Based Instruction:
  • 6. If the strategy fails to work,
  • opportunities to review the process and to repair the breakdown are provided. Feedback is positive and corrective.  
  • 7. PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE!

5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties

  • Examples:
  • Teacher anticipates common
  • errors and discusses these errors before the students make them.
  • “Some students in my old school thought 9 – 21 = 28. What mistake is this?
  • (Student reveals: subtracting 1 from 9,
  • not regrouping to take the 9 from the 11)”

5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties

  • Examples:
  • Teacher anticipates the inappropriate questions that students might generate.
  • Students read a paragraph followed by discussing whether each question was too narrow, too broad, or appropriate.

Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties (continued)

  • Students were taught specific rules to discriminate:
  • A question from a non-question
  • A good question from a poor one:
    • A good question starts with a question word. 
    • A good question can be answered by the story. 
    • A good question asks about an important detail of the story.

6. Regulate the Difficulty of the Material

  • Begin with simpler material and then gradually move to more complex materials.
  • Example: Teaching students to generate questions
    • Teacher first models how to generate questions-single sentence. Class then practices.
    • Next, teacher models and provides practice on asking questions after reading a paragraph.
    • Finally, teacher models, class practices generating questions after reading an entire passage.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

7. Provide a Cue Card

  • A cue card:
  • Contains the procedural prompt.
  • Reminds what to do and when
  • Supports a student during initial learning by reducing the strain upon the working memory.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

8. Guide Student Practice

  • First teach a part of a strategy,
  • Then guide student practice in
  • identifying and then applying the strategy.
  • Remember Reciprocal Teaching
    • The teacher first models the
    • cognitive process being taught
    • Then provides cognitive support and coaching (scaffolding) for the students as they attempt the task.
    • As the students become more proficient, the teacher fades the support and students provide support for each other.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

8. Guide Student Practice (continued)

  • Use small group meetings –
  • two to six, without the teacher,
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

9. Provide Feedback and Corrections

  • Three sources of feedback and corrections to consider: the teacher, other students, and a computer.
  • Teacher feedback and corrections
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

9. Provide Feedback and Corrections

  • Group Feedback
  • Computer-based Feedback
    • students ask the computer to provide a model (e.g., of an appropriate question) if error is suspected.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

10. Provide and Teach a Checklist

  • Example:
  • How well did I identify important information?
  • How well did I link information together?
  •  
  • How well could I answer my questions?
  •  
  • Did my "think questions" use different language from the text?
  • Did I use good signal words?
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

11. Provide Independent Practice with New Examples

  • Student practices in applying the cognitive strategy
  • Use examples
  • Offer diminishing help from the teacher and other students.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.



Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2019
send message

    Main page