Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators



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1. Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators

  • These procedural prompts supply the students with specific procedures or suggestions that facilitate the completion of the task.
  • The words "who," "what" "why" "where" "when" and "how" are procedural prompts that help students learn the cognitive strategy of asking questions about the material they have read.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Question Stems

  • Are scaffolds used to aid the learners’ acquisition of information
  • Provide a procedural map for what to do with lots of details

How are _____ and _____ alike?

  • How are _____ and _____ alike?
  • What is the main idea of __________? 
  • What do you think would happen if __________? 
  • What are the strengths and weakness of __________ ? 
  • In what way is _____ related to ______ ? 
  • How does _____ affect _____? 
  • Compare _____ and _____ with regard to ________.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

What do you think causes __________?

  • What do you think causes __________?
  • How does _____ tie in with what we have learned before? 
  • Which one is the best _____ and why? 
  • What are some possible solutions for the problem of _____? 
  • Do you agree or disagree with this statement: __________? Support your answer. 
  • What do I (you) still not understand about . . .?
  • Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps.

  • Teaching too much of
  • the cognitive strategy at once would swamp the working memory.

3. Provide Models of the Appropriate Responses

  • We cannot specify all the steps.
  • Models provide an important
  • scaffold for the learner in three phases:
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Models During Initial Instruction - Before Practice

  • In some studies:
  • Teachers began by modeling responses based on the procedural prompts
  • Students used questions based on elements of the story grammar
    • (e.g., What action does the leading character initiate?
    • What do you learn about the character from this action?)
      • Then they began by modeling questions based on this story grammar.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Models During Initial Instruction

  • In other studies:
  • Students received models of questions based on the main idea
  • Then they practiced generating questions on their own (Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988),
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Models Given During Practice

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Teacher first models asking
  • a question and the students
  • answer.
  • Then, the teacher guides students as they develop their own questions, to be answered by one of their classmates,
  • Teacher provides additional models when the students have difficulty.

Models Given After Practice

  • In studies on question-generation
  • Teachers provide models of questions for the students to view after they have written questions relevant to a paragraph or passage
  • The intent of this model is to
  • enable the students to compare
  • their efforts with that of an expert
  • (Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988). In J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud

  • Vocalize internal thought processes one goes through when using the cognitive strategy.
    • Example, when teaching students to generate questions, teacher describes the thought processes that occur as a question word is selected and integrated with text information to form a question. When... “When did she get the horse?”
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud

  • Think aloud while summarizing a paragraph
    • Example, illustrate the thought processes that occur as the topic of the passage is determined and then used to generate a summary sentence. Fishing in Oregon… Many factors related to ecology and laws have resulted in a decline in the fishing in Oregon.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”

  • 7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction:
  • 1. Carefully analyze the task(s) to be completed.
  • 2. Identify the strategies that will promote success. 
  • 3. Teach the strategy through explicit, direct instruction.
      • The teacher models and "talks through" the strategy.
      • The student observes all of the processes several times.



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