Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Devastating Conclusion of Research



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  • “Little evidence of instruction of any kind was observed in the classes.”
  • What was/is happening?
    • Teachers spend most of their time--- assigning activities,
    • Monitoring to be sure the pupils are on task,
    • Directing recitation sessions to assess how well children are doing
    • Providing corrective feed back in response to pupil errors.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • What Wasn’t Observed or
  • Was Seldom Observed?
  • Teaching in which a teacher
  • presents a skill, a strategy,
  • or a process to students,
  • Shows students how to do it,
  • Provides assistance as they initiate attempts to perform the task
  • Assures students they can be successful
  • How will this affect “adequate yearly progress”?
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • No Child Left Behind!
  • What a cognitive strategy is NOT
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • What a cognitive strategy IS
  • A guide that serves to support or facilitate the learner as s/he develops internal procedures that enable them to perform the higher level operations.
    • Ex. Teaching students to generate questions about their reading
    • But, generating questions does not directly lead, in a step-by-step
    • manner, to comprehension.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • How the Cognitive Strategy of Generating Questions Works
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • In the process of generating questions, students must
    • search the text
    • combine information,
  • These processes serve to help students comprehend what they read.
  • Comprehensive Summary of Interventions
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • See Pressley et al. (1995) for:
  • Intervention studies-in reading, writing, mathematics, and science,
  • combined with
  • description of the cognitive strategies and instructional procedures
  • Surprise!
  • Teaching is a Science AND Teaching is an Art
  • Scope and Sequence Counts!

Cognitive Apprenticeship

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • The instructional process by which teachers provide and support students with scaffolds as the students develop cognitive strategies.
  • Students need apprenticeships of different durations

Cognitive Strategies Provide a Scaffold

  • A scaffold is a temporary support used to assist a learner during initial learning.
  • Provided by the teacher to help students bridge the gap between current abilities and the goal.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Common Cognitive Strategies Providing A Scaffold

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Simplified problems
  • Modeling of the procedures
  • by the teacher
  • Thinking aloud by the teacher
  • as s/he solves the problem, prompts, provides suggestions, and guidance as students work problems.
  • A model of the completed task against which students can compare their work

"The metaphor of a scaffold

  • "The metaphor of a scaffold
  • captures the idea--an adjustable and temporary support that can be removed when no longer necessary"
  • Assists the learner in learning a cognitive process, gradually withdrawn or faded as learners become more independent
  • Some students may continue to rely on scaffolds when they encounter particularly difficult problems.
  • Fast Facts On Scaffolds
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Can be applied to the teaching

  • Can be applied to the teaching
  • of all skills
  • Use especially for higher-level cognitive strategies
  • Thirteen major instructional elements have been identified for teachers
  • to use to teach cognitive strategies.
  • Scaffolds to Teach
  • Cognitive Strategies
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies

  • 1. Provide procedural prompts specific to the
  • strategy being taught.
  • When and how should the strategy be used?
  • 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps.
  • 3. Provide models of appropriate responses.
  • 4. Think aloud as choices are being made
  • 5. Anticipate potential difficulties.
  • 6. Regulate the difficulty of the material.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies

  • 7. Provide a cue card
  • 8. Guide student practice.
  • 9. Provide feedback and corrections.
  • 10. Provide and teach a checklist.
  • 11. Provide independent practice
  • 12. Increase student responsibilities.
  • 13. Assess student mastery.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.



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