Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Opportunity to Process Information



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Opportunity to Process Information

  • Key for Achieving High Outcomes
  • New material is stored in the long-term memory when one processes it.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Opportunity to Process Information

  • Key for Achieving High Outcomes
  • “Quality of storage” can depend on the "level of processing." Examples:
    • Highest: summarize or compare the material in the passage rather than simply reading it.
    • Middle: read the passage and focus on its meaning
    • Lowest: read a passage and count the number of times the word "the" appeared

How We Teach Makes A Difference!

How We Teach Makes A Difference!

Processing of New Material

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Processing Helps Strengthen Knowledge Structures

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Processing asks students to:
  • organize information,
  • summarize information, or
  • compare new material with prior material

Examples of Processing Activities

  • Extensive reading of a variety of materials
  • Explain the new material to someone else
  • Write questions/answer questions
  • Write daily summaries
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Processing Activities (continued)

  • Apply the ideas to a new situation
  • Give a new example
  • Compare and contrast the new material to other material. 
  • Study for an exam
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Understanding Is Especially Strengthened When:

  • The student explains, elaborates,
  • or defend his/her position to others
  • “The burden of explanation is often the push needed to make him/her evaluate, integrate, and elaborate knowledge in new ways.”
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Help Students Organize Their Knowledge

  • Without direction, students might develop a fragmented, incomplete, or erroneous knowledge structure.
  • Teachers must help students organize the new material.
  • “Graphic organizers," are
  • organizing structures for
  • expository material
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

I. Cognitive Processing Summary

  • Processing results in development of well-connected knowledge structures
  • Develop these by extensive reading and practice, processing new information, and organizing new knowledge
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

II. Research on Teacher Effects

  • 20 to 30 procedures studied, including:
  • Use of praise
  • Use of criticism
  • The number and type of
  • questions that were asked
  • Quality of the student answers
  • Responses of a teacher to a student's answers
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers:

  • The “most- effective teachers” in
  • studies:
  • Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning.
  • Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals.
  • Present new material in small steps, providing for student practice after each step.
  • Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations.
  • Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers (continued)

  • Provide a high level of active
  • practice for all students.
  • Ask a large number of questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students.
  • Guide students during initial practice.
  • Provide systematic feedback and corrections.
  • Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercises and, where necessary, monitor students during seatwork.
  • Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • The importance of teaching in small steps
  • The importance of guiding student practice
  • The importance of extensive practice, is shared with the research on cognitive processing.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • II. Three Findings on Teacher Effectiveness

Present New Material in Small Steps

  • Most-effective teachers -- taught new material in small steps; presented small parts of new material at a single time, and after presenting the material, guide students in practicing the material that was taught.
  • Least-effective teachers -- present an entire lesson, and then pass out worksheets and tell students to work the problems.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.



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