Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards


Review: Input & Output Accommodations



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Review: Input & Output Accommodations

    • Input accommodation.
    • - a service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction.
    • Output accommodation.
  • - a service or support to help validly demonstrate knowledge.
  • IN
  • OUT

The most critical components of “Effective Instruction” and “Accommodation Planning”

  • The most critical components of “Effective Instruction” and “Accommodation Planning”
  • In a Nutshell:
  • Input Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter presentation of information to the student.
  • Output Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter production from the student.

What is clearly an “accommodation” for a learning characteristic instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a “modification/non-standard accommodation” on a high stakes test

  • What is clearly an “accommodation” for a learning characteristic instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a “modification/non-standard accommodation” on a high stakes test
  • Input, e.g., reading the text or chapter test in social studies is an accommodation, reading the high stakes test likely defined as a modification.
  • Output, e.g., writing the dictated essay may be an accommodation in social studies, but be a modification on standardized assessment.

Are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and progressing in core/general curriculum

  • Are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and progressing in core/general curriculum
  • If an accommodation is on the IEP to level the playing field/remove the barrier, even if it is defined as a modification on a high stakes test, the student is entitled to that modification if necessary, regardless of the effects on “aggregating data.”
  • To do otherwise would be discriminatory.
  • Participation *
  • Sometimes called “engagement”
  • Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task.
  • For example:
  • During instruction, using “every pupil response techniques” or “choral responding.” In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations. Ask the student to lead a group. Have the student turn the pages while sitting on your lap (kindergarten).
  • Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
  • 1. Choral responses (answers are short/same)
  • - Students cue you they are attending
  • (“eyes on me”).
  • - Provide thinking time.
  • - Signal group response.
  • 2. Every pupil response techniques (answers are short/different)
  • - Student answers with gestures or answer card.
  • 3. Partner Responses (answers long/different)
  • - Teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s.”
  • - Alternate ranking for partnering.
  • - Specific topics/jobs; no one is passive.
  • Participation Enhancement to Increase Student Engagement
  • Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
  • 4. Written responses
  • - List first, then share.
  • - Touch something — “put your finger on the ______.”
  • Individual responses (AFTER practice on the new skill)
  • - Randomly call on individuals to share.
  • Participation/Enhancement
  • Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
  • Differentiating during whole class instruction options include:
  • support (e.g., partially filled out,
  • partner dialogue).
    • Projects — individual & small group
  • - Key is organization/structure
  • ~ rubrics ~ touch points along the way.
  • Participation AND
  • INPUT
  • IN

Peer-Mediated Instruction

  • DefinedStudents as instructional
  • agents, including:
  • Peer and cross-age tutoring.
  • Class-wide tutoring.
  • Cooperative learning.
  • Primary purpose—increase opportunities for distributed practice with feedback.
  • Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher.
  • Nolet (2000)
  • Comprehension instruction: PALS
  • http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy/pals/
  • - Stronger reader reads a paragraph.
  • - Weaker reader prompts.
  • Input & Participation
  • Enhancement
  • IN
  • Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to:
  • 1. Name the Who or What.
  • * identification
  • 2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What.
  • * elaboration
  • 3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less
  • (paraphrasing “straight jacket”)
  • * consolidation
  • * continues for 5 minutes —
  • then switch roles (new text)
  • Input & Participation
  • Enhancement
  • IN

Ponder This

    • How common is this practice?
    • Is it better to use participation/engagement strategies with a distractible student, or should that student be isolated so as not to distract others?
    • Is this an accommodation or
    • a modification?
  • Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
  • Alternate Goals •
  • Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities.
  • For example:
  • In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students learn to locate each state and name the capital.
  • Functional Curriculum •
  • Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s functional/life skills individual goals. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities.
  • For example:
  • During a language lesson a student is learning toileting skills with an aide.
  • Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations



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