Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards



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Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards

  • Presented by:
  • Diana Browning Wright
  • Diagnostic Center, Southern California

But first, a word from our sponsors…

Diagnostic Centers California Department of Education

  • Diagnostic Center, South
  • 4339 State University Drive
  • Los Angeles, CA 90032
    • (323) 222-8090
    • www.dcs-cde.ca.gov

Diagnostic Centers provide:

  • Continuum of assessment services for students with special needs
  • Training and consultation to LEAs: SELPAs, Districts, and County Offices of Education

Who am I?

And who are you?

  • PENT? Cadre Members?
  • P E N T
  • www.pent.ca.gov

Today’s Agenda Effective Differentiated Instruction What we know about instruction for all students—a 30 year summary Review Terms & Concepts Accommodations Modifications Differentiated Instruction

Today’s Agenda (continued) Practice Types of Accommodations Review a case study Discuss Nuances of Application and Implementation Barriers

Self Study Materials

  • The Learning Strengths Project How to engage students in their accommodation plans
  • Input/Output Adaptations and Differentiated Instruction A review of what we NOW know about struggling learners
  • Write accommodation plans integrating what we know about teaching and learning
  • To be able to “differentiate instruction” and plan “accommodations or modifications,” we first must need know what constitutes effective instruction!
  • Introduction: Reviewing Advances in Research on Instruction
  • From a Pivotal Paper by:
  • Barak Rosenshine University of Illinois at Urbana

The Most Important Instructional Advancements of the Last 30 Years

  • I. Research on cognitive processing
  • II. Research on teacher effects, that is, studies of teachers whose classes made the highest achievement gain compared to other classes
  • III. Intervention studies in which students were taught cognitive strategies they could apply to their learning
  • From three bodies of research discussed in J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

1. Findings from Research on Cognitive Processing:

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Knowledge Structures

  • Knowledge Structures
  • Information in our long-term memory is stored in interconnected networks
  • A Well-Connected Network is important for processing information and solving problems:
  • The size of these structures
  • The number of connections
  • between pieces of knowledge
  • The strength of the connections
  • The organization and richness
  • of the relationships
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Well-Connected Network means:

  • Any one piece of information can serve to help retrieve the entire pattern.
  • Strong connections and a richness of relationships
    • enables one to retrieve more pieces
    • of the pattern
  • When information is "meaningful"
    • more points in their knowledge
    • structures to attach new information
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

What is Education?

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Importance of Well-Connected and Elaborate Knowledge Structures

  • Allow for easier retrieval of old material
  • Permit more information to be carried in a single chunk
  • Facilitate the understanding and integration of new information.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Three Important Instructional Implications

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities. 11

Enhancing Background Knowledge

  • Background Knowledge helps students
  • develop well-connected bodies of knowledge
    • Provide extensive reading, review, practice, and discussion
      • Helps students increase the number of pieces of information in long-term memory
      • Organize those pieces
      • Increase the strength and
      • number of interconnections.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • What do you need to know?

Information Processing

  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • I. Cognitive Processing Research Findings:
  • All Teachers Must Support
  • All Students By:
  • Providing for extensive reading of a variety of materials
  • Frequent review and testing
  • Discussion and application activities.



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