National Championship Tournament
April 1, 2006
Packet by Texas A&M
1. One of the bloodiest battles in this nation’s history occurred at Hauganes, and ended with the execution of Brandur. The greatest and in fact only naval battle in this nation’s history took place two years earlier, and was known as “the Bay Battle.” The civil war in which those battles were fought also included a battle in which Gissur the White and Kolbeinn the Young proved victorious in 1238. That period of conflict is known as the Age of the Sturlungs, which came to a conclusion with the signing of a so-called “Old Covenant” that put an end to this country’s commonwealth, which had been founded in 930. FTP, name this island nation whose current republic was established in 1944 after it achieved independence from Denmark, which is governed by the Althing.
2. In the third section, the title character of this work notes that he is only 42 and wishes that he had a Ruch tailcoat. In the next section, he goes to a theater where the fool Filatka is appearing and notes that authors write very funny plays nowadays. He has several conversations with Medji, who has been writing letters to Fidèle, and later astonishes Mavra by revealing that he is the king of Spain. It begins on the morning of October 3, while the last entry is cryptically dated to February 34, in the year 349. FTP, name this story about a clerk named Poprishchin which appeared with Nevsky Prospect in Arabesques, a collection by Nikolai Gogol.
ANSWER: Diary of a Madman (or Zapiski sumashedskogo)
3. This man’s work is discussed in a 1969 book by Alfred Marrow, which refers to him as a “practical theorist.” He wrote one of Dan Passner’s favorite essays, 1941’s “Self-Hatred Among Jews,” while he collaborated with his best-known student on the essay “Level of Aspiration.” The concepts of “unfreezing” and “cognitive aids” play a major role in his theory of the “T-group.” More famously, a spiral of steps enables people to find the most effective form of social engagement in his so-called “action research.” FTP, name this student of Carl Stumpf and teacher of Leon Festinger who wrote A Dynamic Theory of Personality and Frontiers in Group Dynamics, a German who is considered the founder of modern social psychology.
ANSWER: Kurt Lewin
4. The effect of lateral confinement on this quantity on the holes in gallium arsenide semiconductors was reported in 2006. In 1925, it was while working as an assistant to its German-American namesake that Ralph Kronig hypothesized spin. For a given amount of total angular momentum, it may be quantified as the energy change divided by the product of magnetic quantum number, nuclear magneton, and nuclear magnetic field. It is equal to approximately 2, 2/3, and 4/3 for the D-lines of sodium. For the electron, it is approximately 2 and is one of the most precisely-measured quantities in physics. FTP, what is this dimensionless unit, the ratio of the magnetic dipole moment to the angular momentum, which is a quantification of the interactions that generate the Zeeman Effect?
ANSWER: Lande g-Factor (accept gyromagnetic ratio; prompt on “g”)
5. He rose in favor after refusing to join Santiago Mariño’s challenge to another leader’s power. A year after he won a major victory at Tarqui, he was murdered in the Berruecos Mountains, possibly at the behest of José Maria Obando. After being defeated at the second battle of Huachi, he won a victory over the army of Melchor Aymerich which allowed him to put down resistance in the Pasto province. The year before that victory at Pichincha, he became chief of staff to the army, and he went on to win success at Junin [who-NEEN] and Ayacucho, which led to the establishment of a new nation. FTP, name this first president of Bolivia, after whom a South American capital city is named.
ANSWER: Antonio José de Sucre
6. The “presuppositions” of a “critical” form of this concept were the subject of the first published work by F. H. Bradley. Wilhelm Dilthey [dill-TIE] wanted to write a critique of this form of reason, but never got around to it. Benedetto Croce [CROW-chay] wrote an important essay on this “subsumed under the concept of art,” and later wrote a book on it “as the story of liberty.” The “influence of Christianity” on it and various “scientific” forms of it are discussed in a book on the “idea” of it by R. G. Collingwood. More famously, the philosophy of it is discussed in a work which introduces the dubious concept of the “cunning of reason.” FTP, name this concept which was paired with “class consciousness” in a book by Gyorgy Lukacs [loo-KAZH], the “philosophy” of which is the subject of a famous set of lectures by Hegel.
ANSWER: history (accept alternative word forms, like historical)
7. The best known work of this author was attacked by Germaine Greer for misrepresenting the city in which she had spent four months teaching upper-class women. This author responded by satirizing Greer in a work featuring an ailing former English professor who is cared for by his daughter, Roxana. The short story “Squatter,” which centers on an emigrant who is unable to evacuate his bowels on a foreign country’s toilet, was included in his first collection, Tales from Firozsha Baag. This author of a novel about Gustad Noble, Such a Long Journey, is better known for a work set during the state of emergency declared by Indira Gandhi in 1975. FTP, name this author of the recent Family Matters, a Canadian who was born in India and who also wrote the novel A Fine Balance.
ANSWER: Rohinton Mistry
8. Garrett Hardin has suggested that the economic variety of this variable must be the basis for demographic accounting. The modified Dewar equation defines it for density-dependent variables, but does not give a method for calculating those variables independently. First used in describing range surveys of the Kaibab Plateau, its land-based version accesses the health of training areas. The Lotka-Volterra model extends it to generations between competing species. Biomass is the critical factor for this quantity in forests, which is why redwood groves are often given as the extreme example of natural selection by it. Appearing in the numerator and denominator of the Verhulst modified equation, it appears as K in simple logistic models for population growth. FTP, name this ecological quantity, the measure of a habitat's ability to support populations.
ANSWER: carrying capacity
9. He was almost killed in 2004 when a rocket was launched at his helicopter when he took a trip to open a school in Gardez. After that near-death experience, he left much of his campaign for re-election to his running mates, Karim Khalili and Ahmed Zia Massoud. Two years earlier, he had almost been killed by a gunman while visiting Governor Gul Agha Sherzai. This man is a member of the Popalzay clan, which is part of the Pashtun people. In 2002, he was appointed the interim holder of the position he now holds electively, and which was previously held by Burhanuddin Rabbani before the latter was forced out of office in 1996 when the Taliban took over his country. FTP, name this man who is now president of Afghanistan.
ANSWER: Hamid Karzai
10. The “Conclusion” to this work features a wedding held at the Rainbow, which is looked in upon by such guests as Mr. Osgood and Mr. Crackenthorp. In the previous chapter, the title character takes a journey to Lantern Yard to look up his old minister, Mr. Paston, but he only finds Prison Street. When we first see the title character, he’s working in his cottage near the edge of a deserted stone-pit. He moved to a small village after being framed by William Dane, but his life gets better when he starts caring for the daughter of a barmaid named Molly. FTP, name this work which features Godfrey Cass, his daughter Eppie, and the titular weaver of Raveloe, a short novel by George Eliot.
ANSWER: Silas Marner
11. The 1911 study for this work included a table with a vase near the window, which was not included in the finished product. That product was painted at a studio in La Ruche where the artist lived in communal squalor with Soutine, Léger, and others. The top of the work is dominated by shades of red which contrast with the planked floor of the room depicted. At the top right a simple farm house is depicted in a bubble on the wall; in the top left a window is opened to a view of the Eiffel Tower. In the center a tuxedo-clad artist is depicted as he works on a canvas features a floating woman in a white dress trying to milk a cow. FTP, name this anatomically suspect painting in which Marc Chagall depicts himself.
ANSWER: Self Portrait with Seven Fingers
12. One ruler of this name fought a war which was settled at Margut-sur-Chiers when he made peace with Otto II. One Holy Roman Emperor of this name rose to power after winning the battle of Welfesholz, and fought a war against Roger II of Sicily with the help of his son-in-law Henry the Proud of Bavaria. An earlier ruler of this name was decisively defeated at the battle of Fontenay, after which he agreed to a treaty which granted Aquitaine to Pepin II while giving the eastern and western portions of an empire to this man’s two brothers. FTP, give the name shared by a man who laid claim to the Holy Roman Empire on the death of his father Louis the Pious in 840, but decided to share with Louis the German and Charles the Bald at the Treaty of Verdun.
13. At the beginning of this work, a group of men including Jetter and Soest have a shooting competition with crossbows. In the last scene, Silva reads the title character’s death sentence, after which that title character inquires about the fate of his secretary Richard and his attendant Adolphus before asking Ferdinand to leave him. At the conclusion an apparition of Freedom, in the form of a woman named Clara who had committed suicide, shows up to bestow a wreath on the title character, who is to die even though he’s a member of the Knights of the Golden Fleece. The title character became a national hero following victories at Saint-Quentin and Gravelines [grah-veh-leen], but was killed along with Count Horn by the despotic Duke of Alva. FTP, name this play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to which Beethoven wrote a notable overture.
14. The Kaministiquia, Nipigon, Pigeon, and Pic rivers flow into this body of water, on whose shores are Pukaskwa National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. It contains a large island which is home to Mount Desor, and which is close to a peninsula whose northern end is known as Copper Island. The islands of Michipicoten and Madeline lie within it, the latter being the largest of the Apostle Islands. It contains the Keewenaw and Whitefish bays, and is drained by the St. Mary’s River to Lake Huron. FTP, name this body of water which is one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world, and which is the largest of the Great Lakes.
ANSWER: Lake Superior
15. In 1799 an Italian built upon the work of Joseph Lagrange and used permutation groups to approach this mathematical result. Despite this one can achieve good numerical results, for instance with Newton-Raphson methods. It shows that an analog of Cardano's formula cannot exist in some cases. In 1824, it was shown that a certain group did not have a composition series with Abelian quotients, and hence was not solvable. The group of interest is called a Galois group. FTP, name this algebraic result proved by Niels Abel which demonstrates the inability to generalize the exact forms of solutions for polynomials above a certain degree.
ANSWER: insolvability of the quintic (accept Abel–Ruffini theorem; also accept clear knowledge equivalents, so long as they refer to 5th degree polynomials)
16. There are no known copies of this man’s Latin comedy Philologia. This man’s prose works include an attack on “a man of high rank with no knowledge or virtue” and the essay “On His Own Ignorance and That of Many Others,” which are among his four Invectives. His more uplifting works include a set of three imaginary dialogues with Saint Augustine, On Contempt for the Worldly Life, and the autobiographical Letter to Posterity. More famously, he wrote the biographies collected in On Illustrious Men and the poetry collection Triumphs, not to mention an unfinished epic about Scipio, Africa. FTP, name this Italian poet whose Canzoniere contains many sonnets written to his love Laura.
ANSWER: Francesco Petrarch or Petrarca
17. They included a boar who brought the earth back from the bottom of the ocean after winning a 1,000-year-long battle against the demon Hiranyaksha. Another was a turtle who himself lived on the bottom of the ocean, supporting Mount Mandara. Yet another was a dwarf who tricked Bali into assuming responsibility for the underworld. In addition to Varaha, Kurma, and Vamana, they include the fishy Matsya and the leonine Narasinha. FTP, name this group of mythical figures which also includes Kalki and Rama, the ten terrestrial incarnations of a Hindu deity.
ANSWER: the avatars of Vishnu
18. One work named for this man was composed for the marriage of his daughter to Franz Xaver Spath, and is the longest of its composer’s serenades. A better-known work of this name begins with an allegro con spirito movement, and the composer noted that the direction sciolto in its first movement called for "a clear and aggressive separation of the bowstrokes." Written in D major, it features a menuetto third movement followed by a lighthearted presto finale, which borrows from Osmin's comic aria "O how shall I triumph" from The Abduction from the Seraglio. FTP, name this 35th symphony of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which was originally composed to honor the ennoblement of the namesake citizen of Salzburg.
ANSWER: Haffner symphony or Sigmund Haffner (accept the Haffner Serenade before the second sentence)
19. In oceanography, the f-ratio is the total primary production of organic compounds caused by them. They have a trigonal planar arrangement, and are a hybrid of resonance structures that give each of their oxygen atoms either a double bond or a formal charge of minus one. The copper type can be impregnated on zeolites, forming a catalyst useful in treating diesel fumes, while their hydroxylamine variety undergoes violent autocatalysis. The calcium type, also called Norgens-salpeter, inhibits steel corrosion by reacting with ferrous ions. The sodium salt combines with sulfuric acid and then can be fractionally distilled to form sodium bisulfate and nitric acid. The ammonium and potassium varieties are powerful oxiders used in fertilizers and explosives. FTP, name this polyatomic ion with formula NO3 [N O 3] minus.
20. His namesake “plan” was developed with Paul Warburg at the secret Jekyll Island Conference. He was accused along with Arthur Gorman of taking corporate kickbacks in David Graham Phillip’s Treason of the Senate. Though he earlier declared it communistic, he later introduced an amendment for a national income tax and served as the first chairman of the National Monetary Commission. The father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, Jr, he was elected to the Senate to replace the deceased Ambrose Burnside. FTP, name this senator from Rhode Island who sponsored an act with Vreeland which led to the formation of the Federal Reserve, and also sponsored a tariff bill with Representative Sereno Payne.
ANSWER: Nelson Aldrich
21. In 1997 Edwin Hall wrote a book about this work which discussed the inclusion of St. Margaret emerging from the belly of a dragon, which can be seen carved above the back of a chair, to argue that Erwin Panofsky’s influential interpretations are too simplistic. Commissioned by its subject, a counselor to the Duke of Burgundy who made his money as a silk merchant, the year and the artist’s signature can be seen above the mirror whose reflection depicts the artist himself. That artist would go on to paint other famous portraits like The Madonna with the Chancellor Rolin. Filled with details like a lit candle, a little dog, and a pair of discarded clogs, FTP, identify this work that depicts a man dressed in dark heavy wool and a big hat holding the hand of his betrothed, a painting by Jan van Eyck.
ANSWER: The Arnolfini Wedding (or The Arnolfini Marriage)
22. The mathematical formulation of this physical theory is based on a namesake function on a symplectic manifold. The symplectic form of the manifold defines the Poisson bracket of the theory. When the symplectic manifold is the cotangent bundle of a space, it directly corresponds to the physical idea of phase space, i.e. of coordinates and momenta. This differs from the Lagrangian formulation, based on coordinates and velocities. The namesake function is the generator of time translations, and plays the role of total energy. FTP, what is this formulation of mechanics named for the discoverer of quaternions?
ANSWER: Hamiltonian mechanics
23. Based on notes for a play tentatively titled Nostalgia, its setting features cheerful wallpaper and an inoffensive rug. The character Nat is based on Fred Latimer, a former boss of the author, while Sid frequents the Sachem Club. One character quotes to his wife Essie from Edward Fitzgerald’s Rubaiyat, the work which inspired its title. The main character quotes from his favorite works and authors, include “The Ballad of Reading Gaol,” Shaw, and Ibsen. Opening at the senior dance, the main character begs his girlfriend to go boating with him but after she breaks up with him on the Fourth of July, he meets Belle at a bar. Ending with Richard reunited with his love Muriel McComber, FTP, name this only comedy by Eugene O’Neill.
ANSWER: Ah! Wilderness
Academic Competition Federation
National Championship Tournament
April 1, 2006
Packet by Texas A&M
1. Name these forms of radioactive decay, FTPE:
 In this form the binding energy of a parent nucleus is smaller than the would-be daughter, resulting in an unusual decay. The neutrinoless form would suggest Majorana neutrinos, and one example is germanium-76 decaying to selenium-76.
ANSWER: double beta decay
 A medical diagnostic tool is based on this form of decay in which a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force. One example is oxygen-15 decaying to nitrogen-15.
ANSWER: positron emission or beta plus Decay
 Auger emission may be one by product of this form of decay which sees a proton and electron become a neutron and neutrino. One example is nickel-59 decaying to cobalt-59.
ANSWER: electron capture
2. Name these 20th-century French novelists, FTPE:
 His last novel, Monsieur Quine, was not actually about the author of Word and Object. His other works include Under the Sun of Satan and a novel which was made into a Robert Bresson film, The Diary of a Country Priest.
ANSWER: George Bernanos
 His God and Mammon is an answer to André Gide's accusation that being a writer and being a Christian are incompatible. Other works by this Nobel Prize winner include A Kiss for the Leper.
ANSWER: Francois Mauriac
 The Age of Reason was the first volume of this man’s fictional trilogy The Roads of Freedom; he also wrote a novel about Antoine Roquentin.
ANSWER: Jean-Paul Sartre
3. Answer the following about musical pieces featuring the celesta, FTPE:
 This work features not only a celesta but also a bass oboe, an organ, and a wordless female chorus. Its composer started writing it in 1913 after reading Alan Leo’s book What Is a Horoscope?
ANSWER: The Planets
 The celesta is also featured in this Russian composer’s tone poem Kikimora. He also composed The Enchanted Lake, a tone poem about Babi Yaga, and a piano work known as the “Musical Snuffbox.”
ANSWER: Anatol Liadov
 In 1936, Paul Sacher commissioned this composer to write his Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Basel Chamber Orchestra; this man’s other works include the opera Duke Bluebeard’s Castle.
ANSWER: Bela Bartók
4. It broke out in response to a tax based on the number of windows in taxpayers’ houses. FTPE:
 Name this insurrection which broke out in 1799, and which was also known as the Hot Water Rebellion.
ANSWER: John Fries’ Rebellion (accept equivalents like John Fries’ Revolt; also accept the House Tax Rebellion)
 This governor of Pennsylvania sent the militia to stop Fries’ men and arrest those who would not pay the tax; he also called out the militia during the Whiskey Rebellion.
ANSWER: Thomas Mifflin
 This justice of the Supreme Court was impeached in 1804, ostensibly for his conduct during the trial of John Fries.
ANSWER: Samuel Chase
5. Katherine Anne Porter wrote the introduction to this 1941 book. FTPE:
 Name this collection of 17 short stories that included the previously published “Death of a Traveling Salesman” and “A Worn Path.”
ANSWER: A Curtain of Green
 This Mississippian wrote A Curtain of Green as well as the novel The Optimist's Daughter.
ANSWER: Eudora Welty
 The narrator of this sixth story of A Curtain of Green lives at the title location in China Grove to escape living with her family after the return of Stella-Rondo.
ANSWER: "Why I Live at the PO"
6. Severe diarrhea can cause one manifestation of this condition, which may is characterized by a reduction in bicarbonate anions in plasma. FTPE:
 What is this condition during which the pH of human blood drops below 7.35, a condition that can occur due to high ketone levels in type I diabetics?
 The study of metabolic acidosis was the context in which the modern form of this equation was first used by one of its namesakes.
ANSWER: Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
 One bodily response to acidosis is this form of hyperventilation named for a 19th-century German physician. He was the first to attempt gastroscopy and his name is associated with Poly-arte-ritis nodosa.
ANSWER: Kussmaul breathing
7. Answer the following about a novel, some historical events, and a painting, FTPE:
 In this book by Sir Walter Scott, the Children of the Mist murder the uncle of Allan M'Aulay in the midst of the War of the Three Kingdoms.
ANSWER: A Legend of Montrose
 The Earl of Montrose led royalists against a Scottish army which supported this 1643 agreement, which called for England to adopt Scotland’s system of church administration.
ANSWER: Solemn League and Covenant
 In 1650 Charles II agreed to the Covenanters’ agenda in exchange for military support in a treaty signed in this Dutch location. In 1625, this city was the site of a surrender memorialized by Diego Velasquez.
8. It is given to eight kinds of people, including those who are in debt, or the Gharmin, and those who want to escape slavery, or the Riqab. FTPE:
 Name this pillar of Islam, whose name comes from an Arabic word for purification.
ANSWER: zakat (accept zakah)
 In Buddhism, this term refers to the practice of giving; it is one of the paramitas, or perfections, when it reaches the level of absolute generosity.
 In traditional Judaism, this term refers to the first portion of the tithe. It usually represented 2% of one’s income and was given to a priest known as a Cohen.
9. In 2005, Washington DC's Phillips Collection matched all "53 Stages on the Tokaido" Road of this artist with western works. FTPE:
 Name this ukiyo-e rival of Hokusai who created the "53 Stages on the Tokaido."
ANSWER: Utagawa Hiroshige or Ando Hiroshige
 One of the pairings contrasts Hiroshige's view of Mt. Fuji with Paul Cézanne’s depiction of this Provence landmark.
ANSWER: Mont Saint-Victoire
 The depiction of a narrow Paris street by this artist is compared to another Hiroshige work. This artist of the Open Window was a friend of Edouard Vuillard and Paul Sérusier, with whom he was a leading member of the Nabis.
ANSWER: Pierre Bonnard
10. Its fifth chapter discusses the “automaton theory,” and is followed by a chapter on the “mind-stuff theory” which notes that the “evolutionary” form of the title discipline “demands a Mind-dust.” FTPE:
 Name this work written in the late 19th-century, which also features chapters on “conception” and “memory.”
ANSWER: The Principles of Psychology
 This Harvard professor wrote The Principles of Psychology.
ANSWER: William James
 The fourth chapter of The Principles of Psychology is devoted to this concept. That chapter ends with a series of practical maxims, such as “Seize the very first possible opportunity to act on every resolution you make.”
11. He destroyed Susa after conquering the Elamites and sacked Babylon after his brother, Shamash-shum-ukin, rebelled against him. FTPE:
 Name this Assyrian ruler, who came to the throne when Esarhaddon died in Egypt.
ANSWER: Ashurbanipal or Assurbanipal (accept Sardanapal or Sardanapalus)
 After the death of Ashurbanipal the Assyrian empire was beaten down by this Babylonian ruler, the father of Nebuchadnezzar II.
 The Assyrian empire was finally overthrown at this 605 BC battle, a victory for Nebuchadnezzar II, which was fought at the city that became the Assyrian capital after the fall of Harran.
12. Answer the following about condensed matter physics, FTPE:
 This term refers to the generation of an electric field across a conductor when a current flows across a magnetic field. It can be used to learn about the charge carriers in a material.
ANSWER: Hall effect
 This quantity, denoted mu, measures the relationship between an applied electric field and the drift velocity of charge carriers. The conductivity is proportional to this and the density of charge carriers.
 Electrons tend to have higher mobility than holes. As a result, the Hall coefficient can change sign with temperature in this type of semiconductor, of which germanium is an example.
ANSWER: p-type semiconductor
13. Its first stanza describes a “hoary cripple” who is suspected of being a liar “in every word” by this poem’s title character. FTPE:
 Name this poem in 34 six-line stanzas, which also describes the sad fate of men named Cuthbert and Giles.
ANSWER: “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came”
 This British poet wrote “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came,” as well as “Rabbi Ben Ezra” and “A Toccata of Galuppi’s.”
ANSWER: Robert Browning
 The title of “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came” is derived from this character’s song in King Lear.
14. Saint Bonaventure died here, and Thomas Aquinas died on his way to it. FTPE:
 Name this ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, which was held in 1274 in a French city.
ANSWER: Second Council of Lyons
 At the Second Council of Lyons, James of Aragon represented this Byzantine emperor; this ruler founded the Palaeologos dynasty.
ANSWER: Michael VIII (prompt on “Michael Palaeologos”)
 Pope Gregory X and Michael VIII held the Council of Lyons to end the schism partly caused by a dispute over this clause of the Nicene Creed; this Latin word describes the origin of the Holy Ghost.
15. After King Nidud stole one of his creations, this figure got some old-style payback by killing Nidud’s son and raping his daughter. FTPE:
 Name this lame craftsman of Northern European mythology.
ANSWER: Weyland or Wieland or Wayland or Völundr
 In some myths Weyland is said to be the ruler of this Norse realm. It was home to the beings which grew from the maggots of Ymir's flesh, and is sometimes associated with Nidavellir.
ANSWER: Svartálheim or Svartalfheim
 Weyland crafted this sword used by Siegfried to kill Fafnir.
ANSWER: Gram or Balmung
16. This poet's daughter edited a compilation of his work entitled The Palm at the End of the Mind which contains the one-act play, "Bowl, Cat and Broomstick." FTPE:
 Name this poet whose collections include The Auroras of Autumn and Transport to Summer.
ANSWER: Wallace Stevens
 One of Wallace Stevens’ best-known poems is this lyric from Harmonium which begins with a call for “the roller of big cigars,” who is to “whip / In kitchen cups concupiscent curds.”
ANSWER: “The Emperor of Ice Cream”
 This 12-line lyric is considered Stevens’ first mature poem; the titular woman is instructed three times to “look in the terrible mirror of the sky.”
ANSWER: “Blanche McCarthy”
17. Identify these qualities of minerals, FTPE:
 Lepidolite, sphalerite and most notably fluorite possess this property common to non-metallic minerals with good cleavage faces. In it, light is given off when the mineral is crushed.
 Parallel arrangement of inclusions or closely-packed parallel fibers imparts this quality visible as a band of reflected light at right angles to the fibers. It is most associated with chrysoberyl and crocidolite.
 This type of internal iridescence is caused by light scattering by extremely fine exsolution lamellae. It produces a blue-green color and is named for a variety of plagioclase.
18. Name these geographical locations which are associated with mythological figures, FTPE:
 Adam's or Rama's Bridge separates this body of water from the Gulf of Mannar.
ANSWER: Palk Strait
 This body of water was named for a daughter of Athamas who drowned in it, though the modern name of this strait comes from a Greek city on its Asian coast.
ANSWER: Hellespont (accept Dardanelles)
 Fingal's Cave is located on the island of Staffa, a member of this group of islands.
ANSWER: Inner Hebrides
19. Name these people and things associated with the Fulani, FTPE:
 During a campaign against the Fulani in 1492, this great monarch of the Songhai Empire died.
ANSWER: Sonni Ali or Sunni Ali
 This empire fell due to the rise of the Fulani, having reached its apex during the 16th century under Idris Alooma.
 In 1809 Usuman dan Fodio founded a Fulani empire based at this Nigerian city. Its 19th-century caliphs included Muhammed Bello and Abu Bakr Atiku.
20. Answer the following about an important process of red giants, FTPE:
 The hottest interiors of large red giants undergo this two-step bi-atomic nuclear reaction with beryllium-8 as an intermediate. The final product is carbon-12.
ANSWER: Triple Alpha or 3 Alpha Process
 The triple alpha process requires temperatures of up to 10 million degrees due to the necessity of sufficient ionization to pass this barrier, which prevents the onset of the strong interaction due to electrostatic interaction. It is named for a French scientist after whom a unit of electric charge is also named.
ANSWER: Coulomb Barrier
 Quantum tunneling may occasionally enable the triple-alpha process without penetration of the Coulomb envelope at this set of conditions set around the intersection of the e to the minus kT curve and the penetration probability curve.
ANSWER: Gamow window or Gamow conditions
21. Answer the following about some bickering playwrights, FTPE:
 In 1672's The Rehearsal, George Villers represented John Dryden as this character whose surname was derived from the laurel used to crown a conqueror.
ANSWER: John Bayes
 In 1681 Dryden responded to Villers by portraying him as Zimri in this Biblically-inspired satire of the conflict between the Dukes of Shaftesbury and Monmouth.
ANSWER: Absalom and Achitophel
 In Absalom and Achitophel, Dryden satirized this playwright as Og; this author of Epsom Wells responded with The Medal of John Bayes.
ANSWER: Thomas Shadwell