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Science Prof Online (SPO) is a free science education website that provides fully-developed Virtual Science Classrooms, science-related PowerPoints, articles and images. The site is designed to be a helpful resource for students, educators, and anyone interested in learning about science. The SPO Virtual Classrooms offer many educational resources, including practice test questions, review questions, lecture PowerPoints, video tutorials, sample assignments and course syllabi. New materials are continually being developed, so check back frequently, or follow us on Facebook (Science Prof Online) or Twitter (ScienceProfSPO) for updates. Many SPO PowerPoints are available in a variety of formats, such as fully editable PowerPoint files, as well as uneditable versions in smaller file sizes, such as PowerPoint Shows and Portable Document Format (.pdf), for ease of printing. Images used on this resource, and on the SPO website are, wherever possible, credited and linked to their source. Any words underlined and appearing in blue are links that can be clicked on for more information. PowerPoints must be viewed in slide show mode to use the hyperlinks directly. Several helpful links to fun and interactive learning tools are included throughout the PPT and on the Smart Links slide, near the end of each presentation. You must be in slide show mode to utilize hyperlinks and animations. This digital resource is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Alicia Cepaitis, MS Chief Creative Nerd Science Prof Online Online Education Resources, LLC firstname.lastname@example.org From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Tami Port, MS Creator of Science Prof Online Chief Executive Nerd Science Prof Online Online Education Resources, LLC email@example.com Metabolism From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Aerobic Cellular Respiration → Aerobic Cellular Respiration → Utilizes glycolysis, synthesis of acetyl-CoA, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain; results in complete breakdown of _________ to carbon dioxide, water and The ultimate objective is to make molecules to do cellular work. Q: How many total ATP can be obtained from one glucose using aerobic cellular respiration? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Aerobic Cellular Respiration Images: Cellular Respiration, Regis Frey Q: What is the role of O2 in aerobic cellular respiration? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Using oxygen (1/2 O2) in metabolism creates toxic waste. Cells that are able to use aerobic respiration produce ______ to detoxify oxygen: Cells that don’t make one or both of these cannot exist in the presence of oxygen. (catalase) Catalase: H2O2 ------- H20 and 02 (SOD) Superoxide dismutase (SOD): oxygen radical ------- H20 and O2 From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Bacterial Genus: _____________ GRAM-POSITIVE Obligate anaerobe, bacillus-shaped All species form endospores. All have a strictly fermentative mode of metabolism (Don’t’ use oxygen). Vegetative cells are killed by exposure to O2, but their endospores are able to survive long periods of exposure to air. Known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. Clostridium tetani = agent of tetanus C. botulinum = agent of botulism C. perfringens = one of the agents of gas gangrene C. difficile = part of natural intestinal flora, but resistant strains can overpopulate and cause pseudomembranous colitis. Images:Clostridium botulinum: stained with Gentian violet. CDC Public Health Image Library. (PHIL #2107), 1979; Charles Bell 1809 painting. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com If oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration… If oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration… how do cells get energy if there is no O2, or if they can’t use oxygen? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com ______ ______ ________ Many anaerobic bacteria, and muscle cells that have run out of O2, can make ATP by using something other than oxygen as an electron acceptor (nitrate, sulfate & carbon dioxide). In anaerobic respiration, not all the ETC is used, so less ATP is produced. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Anaerobic Respiration & Farts When carbon dioxide is used as an electron acceptor, the product is either methane or acetic acid (depending on the organism). Methane produced in our gut is produced by this process. Image: Methane 3D, Ben Mills From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com ______________ When there is no final __________ __________ for the ETC, the electron transport can’t happen. Fermentation is an alternative system that allows glycolysis to continue without the other steps of respiration. Not as energetically efficient as respiration. Produces only 2 ATP. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Fermentation Yeasts and some bacteria are able to get their ATP from glycolysis by using __________ fermentation. Converts pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Animal cells and some bacteria through the process of _____ ______ fermentation. Here pyruvate results in end product of lactic acid. The formation of carbon dioxide, a byproduct of ethanol fermentation, causes bread to rise. When muscles need energy produced faster than the body can deliver oxygen, such as when lifting heavy weights, the working muscles generate energy anaerobically, through lactic acid fermentation. Two different fermentation pathways: From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Fermentation From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Why does fermentation require extra steps after glycolysis? In fermentation, after glycolysis, there are additional steps to oxidize NADH (into NAD+). Electrons and hydrogen ions from the NADH that was produced by glycolysis are donated to another organic molecule. No more ATP is created through these additional steps. So essentially… fermentation = glycolysis + recycling of NAD+ Image: Glycolysis, Regis Frey From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com • Muscle contains both slow twitch fibers and fast twitch fibers. Slow twitch fibers contract and fatigue more slowly than fast twitch muscle fibers. Most of us have about 50% slow twitch fibers and 50% fast twitch fibers. Long-distance runners often have more slow twitch fibers while sprinters or bodybuilders often have more fast twitch fibers. But what is the difference between slow and fast twitch muscle? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Slow and Fast Twitch Muscle White Meat & Dark Meat Poultry: White meat is ______ twitch muscle. Dark meat is ______ twitch muscle. It is dark because it contains an oxygen storing protein called __________. Slow twitch muscles tend to be wing and leg muscles where long term endurance is required. Fast twitch muscles more common in the breast where quick response but not necessarily endurance is needed. Wild animals tend to have more slow twitch muscle than their domestic counterparts. Image: Chicken parts, Wiki From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Fermentation Most of the potential energy remains in the bonds of fermentation products. Fermentation products are wastes to cells that make them, many are useful to humans (ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid). From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Souring vs. Spoilage Fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acid products is commonly called _________. Sour cream, cheese, and yogurt are produced by the action of fermenting bacteria. Lactic-acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus are used in the fermentation process. Bacteria convert lactose to lactic acid, which causes milk to change from liquid to solid curd. __________, or putrification, is when microbes use anaerobic respiration to break down proteins, releasing nitrogen and sulfur-containing organic compounds. Anaerobic respiration of protein often produces foul smelling chemicals such as putrescine, cadaverine & hydrogen sulfide. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Metabolic Processes … Bottom Line • Every cell acquires __________. • Metabolism requires energy from _______ or from ___________ of nutrients. • Energy is ultimately converted to _____ . • is used to do cellular work. Image: Jumping rope, Meagan E. Klein From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Confused? Confused? Here are links to fun resources that further explain cellular respiration: Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Main Page on the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom of Science Prof Online. Anaerobic Respiration Page by Timothy Paustain, University of Wisconsin, Madison. “Alphabutt” song by Kimya Dawson How NAD+ Works animation and quiz from McGraw-Hill. Glycolysis animation and quiz from McGraw-Hill. Krebs Cycle Animation & Quiz 1 from McGraw-Hill. Krebs Cycle Animation & Quiz 2 from McGraw-Hill. Electron Transport Chain animation from Molecular & Cellular Biology Learning Center. Food Molecules video from HowStuffWorks, a Discovery company. “Tiny Bubbles” song by Don Ho. (You must be in PPT slideshow view to click on links.) From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Assignment At the end of some lectures, I will give you some type of in-class assignment or homework to evaluate your understanding of today’s topic. This assignment will always be open-book. If assigned, today you will be completing an essay on the topic of question Fermentation. See the ScienceProfOnline Virtual Cell Biology Classroom: Anaerobic Metabolism Lecture for a printable Word .doc of this assignment. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Are you feeling blinded by science? Do yourself a favor. Use the… Virtual Cell Biology Classroom (VCBC) ! The VCBC is full of resources to help you succeed, including: You can access the VCBC by going to the Science Prof Online website www.ScienceProfOnline.com Images: Blinded With Science album, Thomas Dolby; Endomembrane system, Mariana Ruiz, Wiki
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