Abnormal Psychology A. K. A. Psychological Disorders
- A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.
- Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out.
- Trephining was often used.
- Psychological School/Perspective
- Internal, unconscious drives
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- Failure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings.
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- Reinforcement history, the environment.
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- Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking.
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- Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.
- Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders.
- DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms.
- DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures.
Two Major Classifications in the DSM
- Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally.
- Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions.
- a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety.
- the patient fears something awful will happen to them.
- They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.
- A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread.
- Must be an irrational fear.
- Phobia List
Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD
- An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
- The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia.
- An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.
- Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action.
- Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD
- Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event.
- Memories of the even cause anxiety.
- Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom.
- Two types……
- Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause.
- They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses.
- Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason.
- Like blindness or paralysis.
- These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process.
- Three types….
- A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory.
- Retrograde Amnesia
- NOT organic amnesia.
- Organic amnesia can be retrograde or antrograde.
- People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
- Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder.
- A person has several rather than one integrated personality.
- People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.
- Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
- A.K.A. unipolar depression
- Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause.
- Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders.
- Experience depression during the winter months.
- Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight.
- Treated with light therapy.
- Formally manic depression.
- Involves periods of depression and manic episodes.
- Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable).
- Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
- Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function.
- Dominates their personality.
- Lack of empathy.
- Little regard for other’s feelings.
- View the world as hostile and look out for themselves.
Dependent Personality Disorder
- Rely too much on the attention and help of others.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Needs to be the center of attention.
- Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance.
- Thinking that you are the center of the universe.
Obsessive –Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors.
- Not as extreme as OCD anxiety.
- About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia.
- Symptoms of Schizophrenia
- Disorganized thinking.
- Disturbed Perceptions
- Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
- The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs.
- Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information.
Delusions (false beliefs)
- hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation.
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
- Laugh at inappropriate times.
- Flat Effect
- Senseless, compulsive acts.
- Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility
Positive v. Negative Symptoms
- Positive Symptoms
- Presence of inappropriate symptoms
- Negative Symptoms
- Absence of appropriate ones.
Types of Schizophrenia
- disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.
- Clang associations
- "Imagine the worst Systematic, sympathetic Quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic Your heart is prosthetic"
- preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations.
- Somebody is out to get me!!!!
- Flat effect
- Waxy Flexibility
- parrot like repeating of another’s speech and movements
- Many and varied Symptoms.
- Paraphilias (pedophilia, zoophilia, hybristophilia)
- sadist, masochist
- Eating Disorders
- Substance use disorders
The Rosenhan Study
- Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices.
- They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia.
- None were exposed as imposters.
- They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission.
- What are some of the questions raised by this study?
- It used to be that if someone exhibited abnormal behavior, they were institutionalized.
- Because of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S. went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.
- Psychoanalysis (manifest and latent content through…. hypnosis free association, dream, interpretation).
- Other therapies will result in symptom substitution.
- Client-Centered Therapy by Carl Rogers
- These are non-directive therapies and use active listening.
- Self-actualization, free-will and unconditional positive regard.
- Gestalt Therapy by Fritz Perls encourage clients to get in touch with whole self.
- Classical Conditioning
- Aversive Conditioning
- Systematic desensitization
- Operant Conditioning
- Token Economy
- Change the way we view the world (change our schemas)
- Aaron Beck
- Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy
- Antipsychotics (thorazine, haldol)
- Anti-anxiety (valium, barbiturates, Xanax)
- Mood Disorders (serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- Bipolar (lithium)
- Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- for depression.
- Prefontal lobotomy
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