Abc, Cbs, nbc share 1987: 75 2006: 36 Why? 8 Somebody’s Lying!
- What does that say:
- About magazines?
- About television?
- Page 260: “One study, for example, found that radio listeners are far less likely to change the dial during ads than are television viewers [8%]”
- Page 268: “CBS says that the typical drop during a normal show is approximately 5%”
- “The price of a 30-second ad has increased even as the size of the audience has decreased”
Introducing a critical Concept
- Meet the CPM
- Cost per thousand
- Television has the lowest CPM of any media by far: it is often measured in pennies.
- The most expensive medium is also the most efficient.
- A penny’s worth of Ivory liquid!
Concerns and New Developments in TV
- Mass vs. niche
- Efficiency vs. wastage vs. narrowcasting
- Pod placement
- Engagement guarantees
- Minute-by-minute ratings
- Reach: % of audience exposed at least once.
- Frequency: # of times a person sees it, on average.
- Effective reach: % of people who’ve seen it 3+ times (or more).
- Frequency distribution: Exactly how many see how often.
Back to the Future
- The Wonderful World of Disney
- Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom
- Bewitched Chevrolet
- Bewitched Quaker
Higher Levels of Engagement Experiential Media
Media Industry Trends
- The captivating quality of media to grab and hold attention.
- Brand Touch Points
- All the various ways consumers come in touch with a brand.
- Video Snippet
- Hasbro sends one cohesive message through several media to drive sales.
Print Media Characteristics
- Ads in newspapers, magazines, brochures, posters, outdoor
- More information, richer imagery, and longer messages than broadcast
- Often used to generate cognitive responses
- More flexible, less fleeting, and more engaging when targeted to special interest audiences
- Can engage the senses of sight, touch, and smell
- Newspaper’s primary function is news, making it appropriate for ads that announce sales, events, or other news.
- Readership is declining, especially among younger people.
- Newspapers are a local, mass medium.
- Market selectivity allows newspapers to target specific consumer groups.
- A basic principle of newspaper publishing
- is that people read newspapers as much for the ads as they do for the news stories.
- About 1,500 dailies in the United States, usually published in cities and larger towns.
- About 6,700 serving towns, suburbs, and smaller cities.
- Sunday editions
- Approximately 30% of dailies and a few weeklies also publish Sunday editions.
- Business or organization newspapers
- May be published weekly, monthly, quarterly, bimonthly (every other month), or semimonthly (twice a month).
Newspaper: Format and Size
- Standard size generally 22 inches deep and 14 inches wide with eight columns.
- Half the size of a broadsheet with five or six 2-inch columns.
- National vs. Local
- Advertising by individuals to sell their personal goods and advertising by local businesses.
- Any size, placed anywhere except editorial section.
- Run-of-paper (can run anywhere) or preferred-position (select sections where ad runs).
- Usually independently published, syndicated, magazine-style publications that are sold to newspapers and inserted on Sunday.
- Free-standing inserts are preprinted advertisements, such as the grocery ads, that are inserted into the newspaper for a fee.
Newspaper Industry Trends
- Readership is declining, particularly among young people.
- Newspaper production costs are increasing.
- Internet delivery is becoming a growth area for the industry.
- Stories are delivered through web phones, pagers, emails, Palm Pilots, Blackberries.
- Over 92% of all U.S. adults read one magazine per month, spending 44 minutes per issue.
- Quality of reproduction is their greatest strength.
- Over half of all new magazines fail.
- Most magazines focus on niche markets related to hobbies, sports, business, and professions.
- Zines, online versions of traditional magazines, represent the greatest growth area.
- If you want to start a successful magazine, create a special-interest publication aimed at a narrow or niche audience.
- Rank Gross Ad Revenue
- 05 04 Magazine $ Mil % change
- 1 People $1,374.2 8.1
- 5 Better Homes & Gardens 971.5 9.4
- 3 Time 944.6 -6.0
- 2 Sports Illustrated 925.7 -9.8
- 4 TV Guide 726.1 -20.9
- 7 Parade 626.0 1.6
- 6 Newsweek 622.0 -4.8
- 8 Reader’s Digest 586.9 5.5
- 9 Good Housekeeping 586.5 7.8
- 11 Woman’s Day 502.7 11.2
- 10 Cosmopolitan 472.8 3.5
- 13 InStyle 455.4 8.5
- 15 Family Circle 434.6 9.9
- 14 USA Weekend 431.4 3.6
- 22 Us Weekly 417.4 28.5
- 19 Ladies’ Home Journal 412.9 12.3
- 12 Business Week 396.5 -7.8
- 20 Vogue 392.8 8.5
- 16 Forbes 381.6 -0.2
- 23 The New York Times Magazine 373.8 21.1
- Table 8.2 Top 20 Magazine Advertising Leaders
- (ranked by total U.S. advertising and circulation gross revenues in 2005)
- Source: Maureen Morrison, “Leading Magazines Gain 5.2% to $36.6 Billion,” Advertising Age, October 23, 2006, S-13.
- Consumer Magazines
- Aimed at consumers who buy products for personal use.
- Business Magazines
- Trade papers are aimed at retailers, wholesalers, and other distributors; e.g., Chain Store Age
- Industrial magazines are aimed at manufacturers; e.g., Concrete Construction.
- Professional magazines are aimed at physicians, lawyers, and other professionals; e.g., National Law Review, MediaWeek.
- Farm magazines are aimed at those working in agriculture; e.g., Farm Journal and Feed and Grain.
Classifications of Magazines
- Vertical vs. horizontal publications
- Vertical: contains stories about and info about an industry
- Horizontal: deals with business functions across industries
- National, regional editions (e.g., Los Angeles Magazine, Southern Living’s southwestern edition zoned editions of national magazines)
- Age, income, occupation, etc. (e.g., Newsweek’s college edition and Time’s editions for business executives and doctors)
- Editorial Content
- General (Reader’s Digest), women’s (Family Circle), shelter (House Beautiful), business (Forbes), and special interest (Ski).
Magazine Advertising: Format
- Premium positions
- Back cover, inside covers
- Double-page spread
- Two ad pages facing each other
- Bleed page
- Color goes to edge of the page
- More than two connected pages that fold in on themselves
- Special ad page or section that looks like editorial
- Multiple-page photo essay
- Fractional page space
- vertical or horizontal half-page, half-page double spread
Magazine Readership Measurement
- Magazine rates are based on guaranteed circulation a publisher promises to provide.
- Readership represents total audience which includes pass-along readers.
- Objective, outside measurement companies:
- Audit Bureau of Circulation—independently verifies statements about magazine circulation statistics.
- Media Mark—MRI measures readership for many popular national and regional magazines.
- Simmons Market Research Bureau—provides psychographic data on readers plus what products they buy.
- Companies like Starch, Gallup & Robinson provide audience size and behavior information.
Magazine Advertising Trends
- Product placement, although opposed by the The Magazine Editors Association, will happen.
- Online technology has led to online magazines.
- Traditional formats provide interesting writing that’s portable.
- The questions is: What works best for the media strategy for a particular target audience?
- Directories list people or companies, phone numbers, and addresses.
- About 90% of the people who consult the Yellow Pages follow up with action.
- Retailers can buy display space for larger ads, but directories can be cluttered.
- 7,500 directories for professional and interest groups
- The principle behind directory advertising is that it is directional—it tells people who already are in the target market where to go to get the product or service they want.
- OOH includes billboards, hot-air balloons, buses, posters on walls, kiosks, blimps, airport displays.
- Ranks second to the Internet in terms of growth.
- It’s situational: can target specific people at a specific time when they’re most interested.
Out-of-Home Advertising: Outdoor Advertising
- Outdoor includes street and highway advertising, plus posters in public locations.
- Two primary uses of outdoor:
- As reminder advertising (e.g., McDonald’s)
- As a directional (e.g., hotels, gas stations)
Out-of-Home Advertising: Outdoor Advertising
- Size and Format
- Printed poster bulletin—posted like wallpaper
- Painted bulletin — on signs, buildings, roofs, mountains
- Extensions/cutouts — go beyond border of rectangle
- Digital displays — use wireless technology to change message
- Message is about 8 to 10 words
- Buying outdoor
- Sold in “showings”
- Based on traffic counts
- Boards are rented for 30 days
- On-premise signs
- Identify a store
- Directional and informational
- Help locate businesses
- Used on buildings, kiosks, vehicles, and bulletin boards
- Usually have few words
- Kiosks are designed for posters
- Transit advertising
- Ads on buses, taxis, and moving billboards
- Interior and exterior
- Both a container and a communication vehicle
- Constant brand reminder once at home or office
- Presents brand image and communicates critical benefits information
- Can deliver benefits like recipes
- A package is the last ad a customer sees before making a decision on which brand to buy.
Using Print and Out-of-Home
- Use newspaper for announcements of something new, or for targeting local markets.
- Use magazines for targeting people with special interests; they’re also good for brand image or longer explanations.
- Use outdoor for people on the move to provide directional information; also good for brand reminders.
- Use directories to catch people when they’re shopping.
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