Abbe Marc-Antoine Laugier 1713-1769
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Abbe Marc-Antoine Laugier 1713-1769 Born January 22, 1713 in Manosque, Provence Family of upper-class bourgeoisie Studied at ages 14-17 at college at Avignon to become a Jesuit priest, then on to Lyons, Province. Participated in public education with the Jesuits Developed interest in architecture and began discovering buildings on his own. Spoke publicly to the king and his consorts regarding religious and political problems Wrote the Essai. Easy for people to read and understand. Became “l’Abbe Laugier” by appeal and worked on his own Worked with embassy and devoted his time to writing Wrote Essai sur l'architecture (1753) among others including: Observations sur l’architecture, Venetian history, Peace of Belgrade, Art criticism, History of troubadours, Commerce of the Levant, History of Malta, History of the Popes. Died April 5, 1769 in Paris, France The Enlightenment (The Age of Reason): 1680s to 1790s International, intellectual movement likely beginning with the political, economical, moral and religious struggles in Britain and France. Believed in reason (science and thinking), rather than faith or tradition: The Rationalist movement The Enlightenment’s Creed: “Sapere aude!” (“Dare to know!) Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man’s inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another.” Immanuel Kant, 1784 “…it is above all important to think.” -Laugier Essay on Architecture Chapter II: The Different Architectural Orders Article I: What All Orders Have in Common Article II: The Doric Order Article III: The Ionic Order Article IV: The Corinthian Order Article V: The Different Kinds of Composite Article VI: How to Enrich the Various Orders Article VII: On Buildings without any Orders Chapter III: Observations on the Art of Building Chapter IV: On the Style in Which to Build Churches Chapter V: On the Embellishment of Towns Article I: On Entries of Towns Article II: On the Layout of Streets Article III: On the Decoration of Buildings Chapter VI: On the Embellishment of Gardens Chapter I: General Principles of Architecture Founded on simple nature. Nature indicates its rules. Example: The Primitive Hut Tells story of primitive man seeking shelter and building out of necessity. What this man built became the basis for all architecture The Hut is made of the following architectural elements: The column The entablature The pediment Chapter I: General Principles of Architecture The Primitive Hut Architecture was founded on simple nature. Laugier wanted a "more rigorous" understanding of architecture and ornament: look for precedents for classical architecture at the absolute roots of history. He searched for absolute beauty, which in his primitive hut came from nature. Was rooted in functional or structural basis. (This theory was the basis of the so-called Rationalist movement.) Little basis in archeology or fact, and tangental basis in historical text The Primitive Hut Like Vitruvius, Laugier places the origins of architectural forms in nature: the first dwelling was built in the forest, with branches and trees. This differs from the previous theories of Vitruvius in one important aspect: the hut is an abstract concept as much as it is a material construction. The Primitive Hut represents the first architectural idea. Shows beginnings of an understanding of column, entablature, and pediments . Future architecture is based on these principles. Columns must: Be strictly perpendicular to the ground Be free-standing, to be expressed in a natural way Be round, because nature makes nothing square Be tapered from bottom to top in imitation of plants in nature Rest directly on the floor The faults: “Being engaged in the wall” is a fault because it detracts from the overall beauty and aesthetic nature of columns. The use of pilasters should strictly be frowned upon especially since in nearly every case columns could be used instead. Setting columns upon pedestals is “like adding a second set of legs beneath the first pair.” Article II: The Entablature The Entablature must: The Faults: Instead of a beam-like structure it becomes an arch Against nature because: require massive piers and imposts They become pilasters Force columns to give lateral support; columns are meant to give vertical support only. Not straight, but broken with angles and projections Why? “Never put anything into a building for which one cannot give a sound reason.” Nature is so, buildings should also be. Article III: The Pediment The Pediment must: represent the gable of the roof never be anywhere except across the width of a building. be above the entablature The faults: To erect the pediment on the long side of a building. To make non-triangular pediments To pile pediments on top of each other Chapter II: The Different Architectural Orders The Doric Order (in columns): Has the most beautiful base, but is difficult to use: Doric columns can never be coupled successfully Interior angles become difficult because of the bases and capitals must penetrate each other The Ionic Order: Almost faultless, lighter and more delicate than the Doric The column suffers because nature dictates that the heaviest part must always be at the bottom, but the Ionic column is heavy at top The base is ill-formed and could be eliminated Offends against the true principles of nature The Corinthian Order: The greatest, most majestic order Beautiful, harmonious composition Architects should stop using anything by the acanthus leaf which “has by nature the contour and curves which suit the leaves of the Corinthian capital.” Chapter III: Observations on the Art of Building (Laugier’s Commodity, Firmness and Delight) Article I: On the Solidity of Buildings Building must be solid for long life, much like the ancients did Solidity depends on two things: Choice of material and its efficient use Article II: On Convenience The situation (site) must be considered to include views and ventilation The planning (exterior and interior) must be suitable, comfortable, have good circulation, and always include a courtyard The internal communications (servants halls, stairways, etc) must be located for quick access Article III: On How to Observe Bienseance in Buildings A building must be neither more nor less magnificent than is appropriate to its purpose “Beauty of buildings depends on three things: accuracy of proportions, elegance of forms, and choice and distribution of ornaments.”
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