Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers



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Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers." Midwifery 20(3): 240-250.

Objective: to examine cultural expectations and experiences of breast feeding amongst first time mothers from low-income areas, in order to improve understanding of why many cease breast feeding in the early days of their babies' lives. Design: qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 women, who expressed an intention to breast feed, at 37 weeks in their pregnancy and again at 3-9 weeks postnatally. Setting: women were interviewed in their own homes in low-income areas of North Tyneside, north-east England. Findings: decisions about breast-feeding cessation were usually made within the first few days as women negotiated the pathways of informal cultures of feeding babies and the availability and quality of formal care. A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture is identified, where women who intended to breast feed had a strong expectation of difficulties and even failure. Expertise and confidence with bottle feeding were more widespread among family and friends. The many influences on the mothers' decision-making were interconnected and contingent upon each other: if one aspect of breast feeding "goes wrong", other reasons were often brought into play and the underlying pessimism that was felt antenatally was borne out. Conclusions: positive experiences of formal support could make a crucial difference in the early days of breast feeding. However non-breast-feeding cultures permeated and found expression in negative discourses. Support needs to take account of the cultural contexts in which mothers make decisions and the fact that breast feeding is affected by a multitude of factors simultaneously. Access to advice at the right time is a key issue for some low-income women. (Original abstract)


Abraham, S., W. King, et al. (1994). "Attitudes to Body-Weight, Weight-Gain and Eating Behavior in Pregnancy." 15(4): 189-195.

The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common Mnu,anted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were move likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest goon obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.


Acharya, P. K. (2003). "Maternal factors and nutritional status of preschool children." 83(1-2): 109-119.

The linkage of maternal factors, such as mother's education, employment, nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and adherence to food taboos and beliefs related to child's nutrition, with the nutritional status of preschool children (11 to 5 years old) is evaluated. The study, which comprised 215 preschool slum children of Bhubaneswar city, was undertaken following the techniques of nutritional anthropometry and interview. The results indicate that nutritional status of the children deteriorates with mothers' low nutritional status, poor nutritional knowledge, adherence to food taboos and beliefs, and low educational status. That apart, mother's employment at home keeps the children in better nutritional health than her unemployment or employment away from home. Hence it is suggested that any programme to improve the nutritional status of the preschool slum children should have strategies to improve the nutritional status, educational status, and nutritional knowledge of the mothers besides providing them scope for employment at home.


Adams, A. K., R. A. Quinn, et al. (2005). "Low recognition of childhood overweight and disease risk among Native-American caregivers." Obesity Research 13(1): 146-152.

Objectives: Pediatric obesity is a significant and increasing problem in Native-American communities. The aim of this study was to determine whether parents and other caregivers from three Wisconsin tribes recognized overweight children. We also assessed caregiver attributes associated with levels of concern for risk of future overweight and chronic disease. Research Methods and Procedures: Data were obtained from child health screenings and caregiver surveys. Participants included 366 kindergarten-through-second grade child-caregiver dyads. Children's BMI percentiles were calculated and compared with caregiver responses. We assessed the relationships between predictors of caregiver concern for health risk factors and recognition of overweight. Results: Twenty-six percent of children were overweight (>= 95th percentile), and 19% were at risk for being overweight (>= 85th to < 95th percentile) using Centers for Disease Control standards. Caregivers recognized only 15.1% of overweight children. Factors predictive of child overweight recognition included a child BMI > 99th percentile and grandmother as caregiver. Overall, caregivers were more concerned about diabetes and cardiovascular disease than obesity. Parents with diabetes and heart disease were more concerned than others about risk for these diseases; however, only diabetic parents made a connection between child weight status and future risk of obesity-related disease. Child sex, child age, and parental education level were not significant predictors for caregiver recognition of an overweight child. Discussion: Most caregivers did not recognize overweight children or associate excess weight with increased risk of disease. When designing community interventions, it is crucial to incorporate caregivers' attitudes and beliefs regarding childhood overweight and risk of future disease.


Adams, R. (2002). Social Policy for Social Work. London, Palgrave.

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Addis, M. and G. Cohane (2005). "Social scientific paradigms of masculinity and their implications for research and practice in men's mental health." JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 61(6): 633-647.

Clinical researchers and practitioners are increasingly aware of the need for quality theory, research, and intervention in men's mental health. Successful work in this area requires an understanding of the multitude of ways that gender, and more specifically masculinities, can be conceptualized beyond a sole focus on sex differences between men and women. Drawing from a range of social sciences in addition to psychology, the authors consider several theoretical, research, and clinical directions that can follow from social learning, psychodynamic, social constructionist, and feminist paradigms. It is concluded that thinking deeply and critically within different paradigms of masculinity is critical for progress in both research and practice.
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Discusses table manners and mealtimes in Denmark since 1920 through the rules for table manners and the suggestions for dinner-services found in books on etiquette, cookery books, architectural journals and food magazines. Compares material from trend-setting circles with descriptions of how people actually ate in a number of different environments throughout Denmark. After discussing the variety of customs connected with a meal such as grace, seating, conversation, fastidiousness, toasts, and thanking the host for the meal, the author describes mealtimes and table manners at work, in the army, in kindergartens and gourmet temples. Considers in conclusion the increasing homogeneity of mealtimes and table manners among all classes as the result of a better standard of living and greater cultural uniformity. The differences today are not particularly geographical and only socially determined to a limited extent.
Agras, S. W., L. D. Hammer, et al. (2004). "Risk factors for childhood overweight: a prospective study from birth to 9.5 years." The Journal of Pediatrics 145: 20-25.

Ahlqvist, M. and E. Wirfalt (2000). "Beliefs concerning dietary practices during pregnancy and lactation - A qualitative study among Iranian women residing in Sweden." 14(2): 105-111.

Growing multiculturalism in Sweden challenges health professionals to provide safe and culturally meaningful care. Differences between the health-disease explanatory models of lay persons and health professionals may lead to communication problems, which ultimately could affect health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore cultural beliefs about food and health during pregnancy and lactation. Increased knowledge and understanding among health professionals on such issues should facilitate culturally congruent nutrition counselling. Individual interviews were performed among first-generation Iranian female immigrants in the county of Stockholm. The interviews followed a set of predefined key questions. Content analysis of interview transcripts followed a grounded theory approach. Five major categories emerged, which referred to 'hot-cold' values, foetal attributes, satisfaction of cravings, survival of the mother, and quantity and quality of breast milk. 'Mother's diet provides strength that sustains life' emerged as the most relevant core concept. This study demonstrated maternal strength to be important for a successful pregnancy outcome and lactation. Displacement of food items caused by migration in combination with a strong adherence to Iranian health beliefs could potentially cause food choices with detrimental health effects.
Ahluwalia, I. B., B. Morrow, et al. (2003). "Who is breast-feeding? Recent trends from the pregnancy risk assessment and monitoring system." Journal of Pediatrics 142(5): 486-491.

Ahye, B. A., C. M. Devine, et al. (2006). "Values expressed through intergenerational family food and nutrition management systems among African American women." 29(1): 5-16.

This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Alaimo, K., C. M. Olson, et al. "Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children." American Journal of Public Health 91(5): 781-786.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children.


Alder, E. M., F. L. R. Williams, et al. (2004). "What influences the timing of the introduction of solid food to infants'?" 92(3): 527-531.

The aim of the present study was to assess the factors which may influence the timing of the introduction of solid food to infants. The design was a prospective cohort study by interview and postal questionnaire. Primiparous women (n 541) aged between 16 and 40 years were approached in the Forth Park Maternity Hospital, Fife, Scotland. Of these, 526 women agreed to participate and seventy-eight were used as subjects in the pilot study. At 12 weeks we interviewed 338 women of the study sample. The postal questionnaire was returned by 286 of 448 volunteers. At 12 weeks 133 of 338 mothers said that they had introduced solids. Those that said that they had introduced solids early (<12 weeks) were compared with those who had introduced solids late (>12 weeks) by bivariate and multiple regression analysis. Psychosocial factors influencing the decision were measured with the main outcome measure being the time of introduction of solid food. The early introduction of solids was found to be associated with: the opinions of the infant's maternal grandmother: living in a deprived area; personal disagreement with the advice to wait until the baby was 4 months; lack of encouragement from friends to wait until the baby was 4 months; being in receipt of free samples of manufactured food. Answers to open-ended questions indicated that the early introduction appeared to be influenced by the mothers' perceptions of the baby's needs. Some of the factors influencing a woman's decision to introduce solids are amenable to change, and these could be targeted ill educational interventions.


Alderson, T. S. J. and J. Ogden (1999). "What do mothers feed their children and why?" Health Education Research 14(6): 717-727.

Alexander, J., T. Anderson, et al. (2003). "An evaluation of a support group for breast-feeding women in Salisbury, UK." Midwifery 19(3): 215-220.

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Amir, L. H., J. P. James, et al. (2005). "Review of tongue-tie release at a tertiary maternity hospital." 41(5-6): 243-245.

Objective: To review the first 12 months of assessment and release of lingual frenulum (frenotomy) at a breast-feeding clinic in a tertiary maternity hospital (August 2002 to end of July 2003) and to report on the breast-feeding outcomes and parental satisfaction. Methods: A structured telephone interview was conducted with the mother at least 3 months after the assessment. Data were collected about the presenting problem and the effect of release of the tongue-tie (if performed). Parents were also asked about their satisfaction with the procedure and of problems following the release. Results: Sixty-six babies were assessed in 12 months. If infants were assessed as: (i) having impaired lingual function (using the Hazelbaker assessment tool for lingual frenulum function); (ii) the frenulum visualized to be a thin membrane; and (iii) the parent(s) gave informed consent, the frenulum was released. Initial and follow-up data are available on 46 infants. Infants had a mean age of 18 days (range 3-98), 63% were male infants and most had difficulties with attachment to the breast. Frenotomy was performed on 35 infants and breast-feeding improved in 83%. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the frenotomy procedure and no complications were reported. Conclusion: Frenotomy is a safe and easy procedure. Infants with a significant tongue-tie that is interfering with breast-feeding have shown an improvement with breast-feeding following frenotomy.
Anderson, D., D. Anderson, et al. (1997). The British woman today : a qualitative survey of images in women's magazines. [Great Britain], Social Affairs Unit.

Anderson, E. S., A. Jackson, et al. (2002). "Child care decisions: parental choice or chance?" Child Care Health and Development 28(5): 391-401.

Andreasen, K. R., Andersen, M.L, & Schantz, A.L. (2004). "Obesity and pregnancy." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83: 1022-1029.

Background: ...Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarian section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in small children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects.

Objectives: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy.

Results: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.
Anon (2002). "Formula feeding a safe alternative to breastfeeding." Reproductive Health Matters 10(19): 211-211.

Antoniades, M. and V. Tarasuk "A survey of food problems experienced by Toronto street youth."

A brief survey was undertaken to assess the nature and severity of food scarcity experienced by a sample of 88 street youth in downtown Toronto, and to identify markers of vulnerability to food scarcity. Almost half of the youth reported experiencing involuntary hunger or food deprivation during the previous 30 days. Youth who were literally homeless (i.e., on the street or squatting in abandoned buildings) and those relying primarily on street-based activities for income appeared particularly vulnerable to food deprivation. Although limited in scope, the findings raise questions about the nutritional well-being of street youth and highlight the need for more effective interventions to address problems of poverty, hunger, and homelessness among Canadian youth.
Antoniades, M. and V. Tarasuk. "A survey of food problems experienced by Toronto street youth."

A brief survey was undertaken to assess the nature and severity of food scarcity experienced by a sample of 88 street youth in downtown Toronto, and to identify markers of vulnerability to food scarcity. Almost half of the youth reported experiencing involuntary hunger or food deprivation during the previous 30 days. Youth who were literally homeless (i.e., on the street or squatting in abandoned buildings) and those relying primarily on street-based activities for income appeared particularly vulnerable to food deprivation. Although limited in scope, the findings raise questions about the nutritional well-being of street youth and highlight the need for more effective interventions to address problems of poverty, hunger, and homelessness among Canadian youth.


Arapoglou, V. P. (2004). "The Governance of Homelessness in Greece: Discourse and Power in the Study of Philanthropic Networks."

This article argues that the study of homelessness in the European South can be advanced by employing concepts & methods of critical discourse analysis, which integrate different conceptualizations of homelessness into wider changes in the direction of the "pluralistic" & "decentralized" treatment of poverty & social exclusion. To illustrate the dialectical relationship between power, discourse, & practice in the treatment of homelessness in Greece the analysis of documents & interviews amongst key stakeholders is contrasted with information from my participation in local projects. Findings suggest that powerful actors resort to a mix of philanthropic & managerial discourses to promote their own charitable work & to select deserving from undeserving clients. 2 Tables, 63 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Ltd., copyright 2004.].


Arendell, T. (2000). "Caregiving and investigating motherhood: The decade's scholarship'." Journal of Marriage and Family, 62:(1192-1207).

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Askhim, O. (2003). "Empowerment as guidance for professional social work: an act of balancing on a slack rope." European Journal of Social Work 6(3): 229-240.

Association, A. P. Psychology of men and masculinity. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.

Atkins, R. C. (2002). Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution. New York, HarperCollins.

Attwood, L. (1999). Creating the new Soviet woman : women's magazines as engineers of female identity, 1922-53. Basingstoke, Macmillan in association with Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.

Audi, C. A. F., A. M. S. Correa, et al. (2005). "Factors associated with infant feeding practices after hospital discharge." Revista De Saude Publica 39(3): 406-412.

Auerbach, C., A. Beckerman, et al. (1990). "Can Homelessness Be Prevented? An Evaluation of a Homelessness Prevention Program."

Inadequacies in US social policies that contribute to homelesness are outlined, including lack of: (1) coherent & specific public housing policy, (2) an income maintenance policy, (3) coherent zoning policy covering low cost housing, (4) public housing building policy, & (5) mental health policy providing supported housing & community mental services for deinstitutionalized patients. The effectiveness of a Housing Service Demonstration Project in the Northern Manhattan section of New York City is evaluated in a six-month pilot study. The project's goal was to reduce the numbers of evictions of public assistance recipients through a combination of social & legal services. Preliminary results indicate that the project has had strongly positive outcomes including helping seven families avoid eviction entirely; illustrative case examples are provided. It is concluded that programs reducing housing evictions would reduce homelessness, & are cost effective as well. 18 References. C. Grindle.


Auerbach, J. A. (1997). "What They Read: Mid-Nineteenth Century English Women's Magazines and the Emergence of a Consumer Culture." Victorian Periodicals Review 30(2): 121-140.

Traces shifts in the content of three English women's periodicals published between 1832 and 1851 - The Ladies' Cabinet, The New Monthly Belle Assemblee, and The Ladies Companion - that demonstrate that the most successful women's magazines of those years responded to a burgeoning feminized bourgeois consumer culture by rejecting romantic literature and presenting practical information about overseeing a middle-class household.


Avdi, E., Griffin, C & Brough, S. (2000). " Parents' constructions of professional knowledge, expertise and authority during assessment and diagnosis of their child for an autistic spectrum disorder',." British Journal of Medical Psychology,
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