A u. S. tank passes the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, during the liberation from German occupation (August 1944)
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The United States in World War II The U.S. helps lead the Allies to victory in World War II, but only after dropping atomic bombs on Japan. American veterans discover new economic opportunities, but also simmering social tensions. The War for Europe and North Africa The United States in World War II Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilizes for war. VLA : Pearl Harbor with die roll details : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBdIR7_B3JA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sv1niwxQgoY PHOTO Analysis #1: Study this photo and note 3 to 5 details you notice AND PREDICT what is happening: PHOTO Analysis #2: Study this photo and note 3 to 5 details you notice (“use the 5 W’s”)AND PREDICT what this is: Message here? **Selective Service and the GI After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteer for military service 10 million more drafted in lottery to meet needs of two-front war *Only accepted those men who passed physical requirements Expanding the Military • General George Marshall—Army Chief of Staff—calls for women’s corps • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)—women in noncombat positions • Thousands enlist; “auxiliary” dropped, get full U. S. army benefits Recruiting and Discrimination Minority groups are denied basic citizenship rights Question whether they should fight for democracy in other countries Americans Join the War Effort continued Dramatic Contributions 300,000 Mexican Americans join armed forces 1 million African Americans serve; live, work in segregated units 13,000 Chinese Americans and 33,000 Japanese Americans serve 25,000 Native Americans enlist The Industrial Response Factories convert from civilian to war production Shipyards, defense plants expand, new ones built Produce ships, arms rapidly - use prefabricated parts - people work at record speeds A Production Miracle continued Labor’s Contribution Nearly 18 million workers in war industries; 6 million are women Over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first • A. Philip Randolph, head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters • Organizes march on D.C.; FDR executive order forbids discrimination Mobilization of Scientists ****Office of Scientific Research and Development— technology, medicine, ADD: also developed radar, sonar, ddt, penicillin • Manhattan Project (as part of OSRD) develops atomic bomb The Federal Government Takes Control Economic Controls • Office of Price Administration (OPA) freezes prices, fights inflation • Higher taxes, purchase of war bonds lower demand for scarce goods • ** War Production Board (WPB) says which companies convert production - allocates (*distributed raw materials to civilian companies for use in making WW2 products) - organizes collection of recyclable materials Rationing • Rationing—fixed allotments of goods needed by military Wrap Up Activities for Section 1: Create web or list of die roll details #1. VLA review of WPB: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vs3pgaMcV3w #2: in groups appoint a writer and a presenter and Review section 1. Discuss and predict 5 questions I may ask on the WW2 Quiz. THEN write down your 5 questions and include the Answers. Be ready to share: The War for Europe and North Africa Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battle Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa. Warm uP: Use your Psychic Powers & Predict what shall be on the Quiz! Review the Section 1 Notes from last class and on a separate paper create 5 fill in the blank questions based on KEY material covered. Be sure to write the correct answer to your question and be ready to ask a classmate! (or the teacher/TA make 2 questions very specific!) (include name & date) Sims and Differences? 3 each minimum. Photo Analysis: Details? 4… clever ones and a headline: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLUyEXO-jI0 Before US enters WW2 there is the Battle of Britain: Only WW2 battle to take place entirely in the skY! Britain’s airforce (RAF) vs German Airforce (Luftwaffe) July 10, 1940 – October 31, 1940 The United States and Britain Join Forces War Plans **Churchill convinces FDR to strike first against Hitler, Japan 2ndary The War for Europe and North Africa The Battle of the Atlantic (battle on Ocean) Hitler orders submarine attacks against supply ships to Britain - wolf packs destroy hundreds of ships in 1942 **Allies organize convoys of cargo ships with escort: - destroyers with sonar; planes with radar Construction of Liberty ships (cargo carriers) speeds up The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean The Battle of the City of Stalingrad Hitler wants to capture Caucasus oil fields and destroy Stalingrad Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign - Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die *Soviet army begins to move towards Germany Battle a turning point. An Entire German Army lost The North African Front ***General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands invasion of North Africa (Later becomes President in the 1950s due to his popularity) Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, surrenders May 1943 (Germans lose a second entire army of 250,000 men on Hitler’s no retreat order) The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean continued The Italian Campaign Allies decide will accept only unconditional surrender from Axis Summer 1943, Allies capture Sicily; Mussolini forced to resign 1944 Allies win “Bloody Anzio” ; Germans continue strong resistance American Heroes in Combat African Americans —Tuskegee Airmen, Army unit Buffalo Soldiers—highly decorated Mexican-American soldiers win many awards Japanese-American unit most decorated unit in U.S. history The Allies Liberate Europe ***D-Day the invasion of France Allies set up phantom army, send fake radio messages to fool Germans as to where they are landing **Eisenhower directs Allied invasion of Normandy, France on D-Day June 6, 1944 (Allies begin to take Europe back from Nazi control) The Allies Gain Ground General Omar Bradley bombs to create gap in enemy defense line General George Patton leads Third Army, reach Paris in August FDR reelected for 4th term with running mate Harry S. Truman The Battle of the Bulge October 1944, Allies capture first German town, Aachen December SURPRISE ATTACK : German tank divisions drive 60 miles into Allied area • Battle of the Bulge—Germans push back but have irreplaceable losses The Allies Liberate Europe continued Liberation of the Death Camps Allies in Germany, Soviets in Poland liberate concentration camps - find starving prisoners, corpses, evidence of killing Unconditional Surrender April 1945, Soviet army storms Berlin; Hitler commits suicide Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of German Reich ***May 8, 1945, V-E Day: THE THIRD REICH Surrenders Victory in Europe Day The Allies Liberate Europe continued Roosevelt’s Death FDR dies April 12; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes president VLAs with Die Rolls Visual details! Stalingrad: https://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=oJ3bzg-Tvt4&feature=fvwp Pearl harbor: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jU3kvXOI5B8 D Day beach landing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82RTzi5Vt7w Liberating Death camps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHcJtU9dr6I Pre Achieve WW2 “Hearing the Call” warmup: Thought/discussion question: DO people have to be able to HEAR in order to be allowed in the armed forces? Why or why not? Wrap Up: #1: VLA review with die roll details Battle of Britain: https://vimeo.com/64501437 Liberation of Camps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHcJtU9dr6I #2: Each student group or Solo create a TOP 10 things to know List from this section. Include: Important Events, People Ect. Be ready to share. Holocaust: Groups or Solo WEB or List at Least 10+ Facts you know about the Holocaust Why did happen? Places, or things associated with it? People that were associated with it? Things that happened during it? (Then we shall see some pwr pt info/vlas and ADD things to our webs…) Haldeman WW2 Battles In-Class Research Assignment Research from your notes and internet as needed and write a CLEVER essay in a letter format to your family or friends that are back home. Write a letter or NEWS REPORT home about AT least one of the events we learned about from WW2. Include 5 to10 accurate interesting details about the event. (more facts equals a better grade) Possible people to be: Be an American or German or Russian soldier, sailor, marine, a photographer, A War Production Board worker, or even a nurse, a WAAC or a wife, entertainer or girlfriend from the time or anyone else from that time that you may think of…. Include a Title, date of battle or event(s) your name AND sign it as someone from then… Assigned to US 2CP 9/30 Include A URL or CITE where the information came from of all of the Web site you got information from at the bottom of your essay…. In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb. VLA intro: Review your notes from Section 2! (5 min) Number a blank paper #1-5. Include your name and date. I shall ask you Questions reviewing section 2 …..dun dun dun…. VLA Intro: Die roll: Pacific War: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqM1zcGjt18 Clever headline and 4 details: Photo Analysis: Details? Headline? Prediction? The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide Japanese Advances In first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers an empire Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of US troops remain Doolittle’s Raid April 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on Tokyo The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide continued Battle of the Coral Sea May 1942, U.S., Australian Navy stop Japanese drive to Australia For first time since Pearl Harbor, Japanese invasion turned back **The Battle of Midway Admiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in Pacific Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan again AFTER MIDWAY: Allies advance island by island to Japan ****Called “Island hopping” Strategy) Battle of Midway ISLAnd Hopping Lt. Hiroo Onada surrenders Phillipines 1974! The Allied Offensive Allied offensive begins August 1942 in Guadalcanal October 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines - return of MacArthur The Allies Go on the Offensive The Japanese Defense Japan uses kamikaze attack—pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships Battle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan - Imperial Navy severely damaged; plays minor role after Iwo Jima Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan 6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive The Allies Go on the Offensive continued The Battle for Okinawa April 1945 U.S. Marines invade Okinawa April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die Allies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualties The Manhattan Project • J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project • July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert • President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan The Atomic Bomb Ends the War Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb (little Boy) 3 days later, bomb (Fat Man) dropped on city of Nagasaki September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders (VJ DAY) The Yalta Conference February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta - discuss post-war world FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations Human Costs of the War WW II most destructive war in human history The Nuremberg War Trials • Nuremberg trials—24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced - charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes Establish principle that people responsible for own actions in war Rebuilding Begins continued The Occupation of Japan MacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in Japan Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, government 2. - Hiroshima August 6, 1945 2. - Hiroshima August 6, 1945 a. Important military city. b. released bomb and destroyed city. Enola Gay c. No surrender. 3. - August 9, 1945 Nagasaki 3. - August 9, 1945 Nagasaki a. Japanese Emperor surrenders. b. Sept.2, 1945 peace treaty signed. Atomic Bomb effects More effects Wrap Up: 1.Vlas: Hiroshima bombing details X2 die roll. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwkyPvlWPM0 2. Whip Around Review After World War II, Americans adjust to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions. Warm up Section 3 War in Pacific Review Appoint a Writer and a Presenter in your group (or do this solo) Review yesterday’s : War in the Pacific Sec 3 Notes and Come to an Agreement on What your group feel are the TOP 5 Things to know from the section. List the Top 5 things that Will be On the Quiz! Vla WW2 Review Crash Course! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q78COTwT7nE (list details at end of your Chap 25 notes) Economic Gains Defense industries boom, unemployment falls to 1.2% in 1944 - average pay rises 10% during war Farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase in production - many pay off mortgages Percentage of women in work force rises to 35% *** ADD: USA emerged as the world’s dominate economic power and embraces CAPITALISM as our economic system. Population Shifts War triggers mass migrations to towns with defense industries Opportunity and Adjustment continued Social Adjustments Families adjust to fathers in military; mothers rear children alone Families must get to know each other again after fathers return Many couples rush to marry before husband goes overseas ****1944 GI or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act: Bill of Rights - pays education; loan guarantees for homes, new businesses Civil Rights Protests • Racial tensions rise in overcrowded Northern cities James Farmer founds Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - works on racial segregation in North • 1943 racial violence sweeps across country; Detroit riots worst case Discrimination and Reaction Tension in Los Angeles Anti-Mexican zoot suit riots involve thousands servicemen, civilians Japanese Americans Placed in Internment Camps Hawaii governor forced to order internment (confinement) of Japanese 1942 FDR signs removal of Japanese Americans in four Western states U.S. Army forces 110,000 Japanese Americans into prison camps 1944 Korematsu v. United States—Court rules in favor of internment After war, Japanese American Citizens League pushes for compensation 1988, Congress grants $20,000 to everyone sent to relocation camp Internment of Japanese Americans For Smack Down Prep: 1. On Your group single paper from the warm-up: Number & List as many terms, people, organizations and events from our chapter 25 and the videos as you can in 10 minutes. (longest group lists wins some EC if well behaved. Alternate: End of class/HW: review section 1- 4 notes And collaborate to write down a TOP10 list of questions (fill in the blank or multiple choice of 10 questions you Predict I may ask on the WW2 quiz.) This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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