# A psychologist showed participants 100 different cards, one at a time

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part (a).

(2)

(c)     Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in this experiment.

(2)

(d)     Identify the experimental design used in this study.

(1)

(Total 6 marks)

Q14.

A psychologist studying obedience conducted the following experiment.

A confederate (stooge) approached people in the street and instructed them to pick up a piece of litter and put it in a nearby bin. None of the people approached had dropped the litter.

There were two groups in the experiment.

Group A  The confederate (stooge) was dressed in everyday clothing.

Group B  The confederate (stooge) was dressed in a uniform.

The psychologist recorded how many people in each group obeyed the instruction of the confederate (stooge).

(a)     Identify the experimental design that was used in this study. Briefly explain one advantage of using this experimental design in this study.

(3)

(b)     Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in this experiment.

(2)

(c)     Use your knowledge of research into obedience to explain the likely outcome of this experiment.

(3)

(d)     Briefly outline one ethical issue that might have arisen in this experiment.

(2)

(Total 10 marks)

Q15.

A psychologist wanted to investigate whether or not people are influenced by the opinions of others.

The psychologist selected 100 pupils from a secondary school to be participants in the study.

The psychologist showed participants a cake which weighed 350 grams. The task for the participants was to estimate the weight of the cake in grams.

Participants were allocated randomly to one of two groups.

In Group A, 50 participants were asked individually to estimate the weight of the cake. The psychologist gave each participant a blank piece of paper on which to write his or her estimate.

In Group B, the other 50 participants were asked individually to estimate the weight of the cake. This time, the psychologist gave each participant a piece of paper which contained a list of five weights (493 grams, 512 grams, 502 grams, 485 grams and 601 grams). The participants were told that these were the estimates given by five people and that they should write their own estimate below these other estimates.

The psychologist expected that participants in Group B would be influenced by the five other estimates. She expected that they would write down a weight similar to the five estimates on the piece of paper.

The median estimates for the weight of the cake are shown in the table below.

The median estimate for the weight of the cake (in grams) in Group A and Group B

 Group A Estimate written on a blank piece of paper Group B Estimate written below the list of five other estimates The median estimate of the weight of the cake (in grams) 348 510

(a)     What might the psychologist conclude from the median scores shown in the table above?

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(b)     Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in this study.

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(c)     Explain how stratified sampling might have been used to select the participants in this study.

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(3)

(d)     (i)      The psychologist allocated the participants randomly to the two groups that were used in this study.

Explain how the psychologist could have allocated the participants randomly to the two groups.

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(d)     (ii)     Briefly explain one reason why random allocation of participants is important.

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Explain one reason why it would not have been appropriate to use a repeated measures design in this study.

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(f)      Identify and briefly explain one ethical issue that the psychologist should have considered in this study.

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(3)

(g)     (i)      After the study, the psychologist interviewed some of the participants in Group B.

Outline one type of interview that she might have conducted.

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(g)     (ii)     Explain one limitation of the type of interview that you have outlined in your answer to (g)(i).

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(2)

(Total 20 marks)

Q16.

Dave, a middle-aged male researcher, approached an adult in a busy street. He asked the adult for directions to the train station. He repeated this with 29 other adults.

Each of the 30 adults was then approached by a second researcher, called Sam, who showed each of them 10 photographs of different middle-aged men, including a photograph of Dave. Sam asked the 30 adults to choose the photograph of the person who had asked them for directions to the train station.

Sam estimated the age of each of the 30 adults and recorded whether each one had correctly chosen the photograph of Dave.

(a)     Identify one aim of this experiment.

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(2)

(b)     Suggest one reason why the researchers decided to use a field experiment rather than

a laboratory experiment. ......................................................................................................................

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(2)

(c)     Name the sampling technique used in this experiment. Evaluate the choice of this sampling technique in this experiment.

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(4)

(d)     Identify one possible extraneous variable in this experiment. Explain how this extraneous variable could have affected the results of this experiment.

Extraneous variable....................................................................................

How this extraneous variable could have affected the results of this experiment

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(4)

(Total 12 marks)

Q17.

A researcher studied the effect of context on memory. He used an independent groups design. He tested participants in one of two conditions.

In Condition 1, a group of 20 schoolchildren learned a list of 40 words in a classroom. This group then recalled the words in the same classroom.

In Condition 2, a different group of 20 schoolchildren learned the same list of 40 words in a classroom. This group then recalled the words in the school hall.

The researcher recorded the results and compared the mean number of words recalled in each condition.

(a)     Identify the independent variable in this study.

(1)

(b)     Use your knowledge of retrieval failure to explain the likely outcome of this study.

(3)

(c)     In this study, participants were randomly allocated to one of the two conditions. Explain how this might have been carried out.

(2)

(d)     In this study, the researcher used an independent groups design. The researcher decided to repeat the study with different participants and to use a matched pairs design.

Explain how these participants could be matched and then allocated to the conditions.

(2)

(Total 8 marks)

Q18.

A group of researchers conducted a survey about helping behaviour. They asked an opportunity sample of 200 university students to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained open and closed questions. The following are examples of questions used in the questionnaire:

A       Do you think that you are generally a helpful person?        Yes        No

B       What do you think most people would do if they were driving in the rain and saw a woman standing alone next to her broken-down car?

C       How would you react if someone walking in front of you slipped and fell over?

(a)     Identify an open question from A, B or C above. Give one advantage of using open questions.

Example of open question (write A, B or C) ................

(1)

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(1)

The researchers then categorised the responses given to question C above.

The results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: The number of participants who gave the following responses to question C

 Help the person Ignore the person Laugh at the person Other reactions 137 23 31 9

(b)     What conclusion might the researchers draw from the responses given in Table 1 above? Justify your answer.

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(2)

On the basis of the responses to question C, the researchers decided to conduct a further investigation. The aim was to see whether an individual’s helping behaviour might be affected by the presence of other people.

The participants were an opportunity sample of 40 first-year students. The students were told that they would be interviewed about university life. Each student was met by an interviewer and asked to wait. The interviewer then went into the next room. After two minutes there was a loud noise and a cry of pain from the next room.

Twenty participants took part in Condition 1 and the other 20 participants took part in Condition 2.

Condition 1  Each participant waited alone.

Condition 2  Each participant waited with another person who had previously been told by the researchers not to react to the sounds from the next room.

The researchers counted the number of participants in each condition who went to help the interviewer in the next room.

(c)     Write a suitable experimental hypothesis for the further investigation.

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(2)

(d)     Suggest one extraneous variable that might be present in the further investigation.

Explain why this variable should be controlled and how it could be controlled.

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(3)

(e)     Identify the experimental design used in the further investigation. Explain why this is a suitable experimental design for this study.

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(3)

(f)      Explain how random sampling might have been used to select the participants in the further investigation.

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(2)

The results of the further investigation are given below.

Table 2:  Number of participants who went to help the interviewer in Condition 1 and Condition 2

 Condition 1 (Participant waiting alone) Condition 2 (Participant waiting with another person) 20 9

(g)     Suggest a suitable graphical display that could be used to represent the data in Table 2. Justify your choice.

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(2)

(h)     After the further investigation, the researchers debriefed the participants. Discuss two points that the researchers should have included when they debriefed the participants.

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(4)

(Total 20 marks)

Q19.

A psychologist used an independent groups design to investigate whether or not a cognitive interview was more effective than a standard interview, in recalling information. For this experiment, participants were recruited from an advertisement placed in a local paper. The advertisement informed the participants that they would be watching a film of a violent crime and that they would be interviewed about the content by a male police officer.

The psychologist compared the mean number of items recalled in the cognitive interview with the mean number recalled in the standard interview.

(a)     Name the sampling technique used in this experiment.

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(1)

(b)     Suggest one limitation of using this sampling technique.

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(2)

(c)     Identify the independent variable and the dependent variable in this experiment.

Independent variable .................................................................................

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Dependent variable ....................................................................................

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(2)

(d)     Explain one advantage of using an independent groups design for this experiment.

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(2)

(e)     Discuss whether or not the psychologist showed an awareness of the British Psychological Society (BPS) Code of Ethics when recruiting participants for this experiment.

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(3)

(Total 10 marks)

Q20.

A researcher investigated whether people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are more aware of their own heartbeat than people who do not have OCD. A matched pairs design was used. This involved 10 people with OCD and 10 people without OCD. The researcher asked each participant to estimate how fast his or her heart was beating (in beats per minute) and this was compared to his or her actual heartbeat. It was found that people with OCD were more accurate at estimating their own heartbeat than people without OCD.

(a)     Identify the independent variable in this study.

(1)

(b)     This study is a quasi-experiment. Explain why this study is a quasi-experiment.

(2)

(c)     The researcher used a matched pairs design. Identify one relevant variable that could have been used to match participants in this study.

(1)

(2)

(Total 6 marks)

Q21.

A psychologist wanted to see whether or not there is a difference in the expectations that men and women have of their own numeracy skills. She obtained a sample of 15 men and 15 women from a factory. She conducted her study in two parts.

In the first part of the study, the psychologist said to each participant: “I want you to estimate how many marks you think you will get on a maths test that is suitable for 14-year-old children. If the test has a maximum score of 50, what mark do you think you will get?”

The psychologist recorded the estimate given by each participant and calculated the median estimates for the men and for the women.

The results of the study are given in Table 1.

Table 1: Median estimated maths test scores for men and women

 Median estimated maths test score Men 31 Women 19

(a)     Explain how a median score is calculated.

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(1)

(b)     Identify the dependent variable in this study.

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(1)

(c)     Write a suitable hypothesis for this study.

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(2)

(d)     Identify and explain the experimental design used in this study.

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(2)

(e)     Explain how the psychologist could have obtained a random sample of 15 men and a random sample of 15 women for this study.

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(3)

(f)      What conclusion could the psychologist draw from the median estimated scores in Table 1? Justify your answer.

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(2)

In the second part of the study, each participant took a 30-minute maths test suitable for 14-year-old children. The test took place under examination conditions. The psychologist marked the test. The maximum mark was 50.

The results of the maths test are given in Table 2.

Table 2: Median maths test scores for men and women

 Median maths test score Men 25 Women 25

(g)     Taking the results from both parts of the study (Table 1 and Table 2), what can the psychologist now conclude?

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(3)

(h)     After both parts of the study had been completed, the psychologist needed to debrief the participants.

Write a debrief that the psychologist could read out to the participants.

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(4)

(i)      This psychologist did not conduct a pilot study. Explain one reason why psychologists sometimes conduct pilot studies.

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(2)

(Total 20 marks)

Q22.

A researcher investigated whether memory for words presented with pictures was better than memory for words presented without pictures. The researcher used an independent groups design.

In Condition 1, participants were given a limited time to learn a list of 20 words. They were then asked to recall the 20 words in any order.

In Condition 2, participants were given the same time to learn the same 20 words, but this time each word was presented with a picture. For example, the word ‘appleߣ was presented alongside a picture of an apple. They were then asked to recall the 20 words in any order.

(a)     A pilot study is a small-scale investigation carried out before the main study.

Explain why it would be appropriate for this researcher to use a pilot study. In your answer you must refer to details of the experiment given above.

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(4)

(b)     State a non-directional hypothesis for this experiment.

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(2)

(c)     Explain two reasons why it was more appropriate to use an independent groups design than a repeated measures design.

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(4)

The range and median number of words correctly recalled for participants shown words without pictures and for participants shown words with pictures

 Condition 1 Words without pictures Condition 2 Words with pictures Median number of words correctly recalled 13 16 Range 11 13

(d)     What do the scores in the table above show?

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(2)

After he had carried out the experiment, the researcher noticed that one participant in Condition 1 had recalled all 20 words. The researcher thought that this participant might have used a strategy for memory improvement, even though he had not been told to do so.

(Total 12 marks)

Q23.

Imagine you have been asked to design a study to investigate possible gender differences in card sorting behaviours. You decide you will ask participants to sort a shuffled pack of playing cards into their suits of hearts, clubs, diamonds and spades. You decide you will time the participants as they do this using a stop watch.

Discuss the following aspects of this investigation:

•        with reference to the card sorting task, explain how you would ensure that this is made the same task for all participants

•        one methodological issue you should take into account when obtaining suitable participants for this study and explain how you would deal with this issue

•        how you would ensure that the experience of your participants is ethical.

(Total 9 marks)

Q24.

A psychologist wanted to test the effects of biological rhythms on the ability to solve maths problems. She used random sampling to form two groups each of 20 students.

She tested one group on one set of maths problems at 3 am in the morning. The other group were tested on another set of maths problems at 3 pm in the afternoon. She found that performance of the group tested at 3 pm was significantly better than the group tested at 3 am.

When submitted for peer review the paper was rejected because of serious design problems.

Explain one problem with the design of this study and suggest ways of dealing with this problem.

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(Total 4 marks)

Q25.

A researcher wanted to see whether cognitive behaviour therapy was an effective treatment for depression. Twenty depressed patients who had all recently completed a course of cognitive behaviour therapy were involved in the investigation. From their employment records, the researcher kept a record of the number of absences from work each patient had in the year following their treatment. This was compared with the number of absences from work each patient had in the year prior to their treatment.

Those patients who had fewer absences from work in the year following their treatment than in the year prior to their treatment were classified as ‘improved’ (+). Those patients who had more absences were classified as ‘deteriorated’ (-). Those patients who had the same number of absences were classified as ‘neither’ (0).

The results of the investigation are included in Table 1 below.

Table 1

 Patient Improved Deteriorated Neither 1 + 2 0 3 – 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 – 8 – 9 0 10 + 11 – 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 – 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 0

The researcher decided to use the sign test to analyse the data.

(a)     Explain two factors that the researcher had to take into account when deciding to use the sign test. Refer to the investigation above in your answer.

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(b)     Calculate the sign test value of s for the data in Table 1. Explain how you reached your answer.

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(2)

Table 2: Critical values for the sign test

 n 0.005 (one tailed) 0.01 (two tailed) 0.01 (one tailed) 0.02 (two tailed) 0.025 (one tailed) 0.05 (two tailed) 0.05 (one tailed) 0.10 (two tailed) 16 2 2 3 4 17 2 3 4 4 18 3 3 4 5

For significance, the value of the less frequent sign is equal to, or less than, the value of the table.

(c)     With reference to the critical values in Table 2, explain whether or not the value of s that you calculated in response to question (b) is significant at the 0.05 level for a two tailed test.

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(2)

(d)     The investigation above is based on secondary data.

In what ways would the use of primary data have improved this investigation?

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(e)     Outline the implications of psychological research for the economy. Refer to the investigation above in your answer.

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(5)

(Total 16 marks)

Q26.

A psychologist wanted to see if verbal fluency is affected by whether people think they are presenting information to a small group of people or to a large group of people.

The psychologist needed a stratified sample of 20 people. She obtained the sample from a company employing 60 men and 40 women.

The participants were told that they would be placed in a booth where they would read out an article about the life of a famous author to an audience. Participants were also told that the audience would not be present, but would only be able to hear them and would not be able to interact with them.

There were two conditions in the study, Condition A and Condition B.

Condition A: 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 5 listeners.

Condition B: the other 10 participants were told the audience consisted of 100 listeners.

Each participant completed the study individually. The psychologist recorded each presentation and then counted the number of verbal errors made by each participant.

(a)     Identify the dependent variable in this study.

(2)

(b)     Write a suitable hypothesis for this study.

(3)

(c)     Identify one extraneous variable that the psychologist should have controlled in the study and explain why it should have been controlled.

(3)

(d)     Explain one advantage of using a stratified sample of participants in this study.

(2)

(e)     Explain how the psychologist would have obtained the male participants for her stratified sample. Show your calculations.

(3)

(f)     The psychologist wanted to randomly allocate the 20 people in her stratified sample to the two conditions. She needed an equal number of males in each condition and an equal number of females in each condition. Explain how she would have done this.

(4)

(Total 17 marks)

Q27.

An experiment was carried out to test the effects of learning similar and dissimilar information on participants’ ability to remember.

In Stage 1 of the experiment, 10 participants in Group A, the ‘similar’ condition, were given a list of 20 place names in the UK. They were given two minutes to learn the list. 10 different participants in Group B, the ‘dissimilar’ condition, were given the same list of 20 place names in the UK. They were also given two minutes to learn the list.

In Stage 2 of the experiment, participants in Group A were given a different list of 20 more place names in the UK, and were given a further two minutes to learn it. Participants in Group B were given a list of 20 boys’ names, and were given a further two minutes to learn it.

In Stage 3 of the experiment, all participants were given five minutes to recall as many of the 20 place names in the UK, from the list in Stage 1, as they could. The raw data from the two groups is below.

Number of place names recalled from the list in Stage 1

 Group A Group B 5 11 6 10 4 11 7 13 8 12 4 14 5 15 4 11 6 14 7 14

(a)     What is the most appropriate measure of central tendency for calculating the average of the scores, from the table, in each of the two groups? Justify your answer.

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(b)     Calculate the measure of central tendency you have identified in your answer to part (a) for Group A and Group B. Show your calculations for each group.

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(4)

(c)     In Stage 3 of the experiment, several participants in Group A, the ‘similar’ condition, recalled words from the Stage 2 list rather than the Stage 1 list.

Use your knowledge of forgetting to explain why this may have occurred.

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(2)

(Total 8 marks)

Q28.

A cognitive psychologist investigating how memory works gave participants the same word list to recall in one of two conditions. All the words were of equal difficulty.

Condition 1: Ten participants recalled the words in the same room in which they had learned the words.

Condition 2: Ten different participants recalled the words in a room that was not the same room as that in which they had learned the words.

The following results were obtained:

Mean values and standard deviations for Condition 1 and Condition 2 in a memory experiment.

 Condition 1 Condition 2 Mean 15.9 10.6 Standard deviation 3.78 1.04

(a)     Why are the standard deviation values found in the study above useful descriptive statistics for the cognitive psychologist?

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(b)     Outline one problem of studying internal mental processes like memory ability by conducting experiments such as that described in part (a) above.

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(2)

(Total 4 marks)

Q29.

A psychologist wanted to see if creativity is affected by the presence of other people. To test this he arranged for 30 people to participate in a study that involved generating ideas for raising funds for a local youth club. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions.

Condition A: there were 15 participants in this condition. Each participant was placed separately in a room and was given 40 minutes to think of as many ideas as possible for raising funds for a local youth club. The participant was told to write down his or her ideas and these were collected in by the psychologist at the end of the 40 minutes.

Condition B: there were 15 participants in this condition. The participants were randomly allocated to 5 groups of equal size. Each group was given 40 minutes to think of as many ideas as possible for raising funds for a local youth club. Each group was told to write down their ideas and these were collected by the psychologist at the end of the 40 minutes.

The psychologist counted the number of ideas generated by the participants in both conditions and calculated the total number of ideas for each condition.

Total number of ideas generated in Condition A (when working alone) and in Condition B (when working in a group)

 Condition A Working alone Condition B Working in a group Total number of ideas generated 110 75

(a)     Identify the experimental design used in this study and outline one advantage of this experimental design.

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(b)     Describe one other experimental design that researchers use in psychology.

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(2)

(c)     Apart from using random allocation, suggest one way in which the psychologist might have improved this study by controlling for the effects of extraneous variables. Justify your answer.

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(d)     Write a suitable hypothesis for this study.

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(3)

(e)     From the information given in the description, calculate the number of participants in each group in Condition B.

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(1)

 The psychologist noticed that the number of ideas generated by each of the individual participants in Condition A varied enormously whereas there was little variation in performance between the 5 groups in Condition B. He decided to calculate a measure of dispersion for each condition.

(f)      Name a measure of dispersion the psychologist could use.

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(1)

(g)     The psychologist uses the measure of dispersion you have named in your answer to question (f). State how the result for each condition would differ.

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(1)

(h)     Explain how the psychologist could have used random allocation to assign the 15 participants in Condition B into the 5 groups.

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(3)

(i)      Using the information given in the table above, explain how the psychologist could further analyse the data using percentages.

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(2)

(j)      At the end of the study the psychologist debriefed each participant. Write a debriefing that the psychologist could read out to the participants in Condition A.

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Extra space....................................................................................................

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(6)

(Total 24 marks)

Q30.

Participants in an experiment were shown a film of a robbery. The participants were then divided into two groups. One group was interviewed using a standard interview technique and the other group was interviewed using the cognitive interview technique. All participants were then given an ‘accuracy score’ (out of 20) based on how closely their recall matched the events in the film (20 = completely accurate, 0 = not at all accurate).

The results of the experiment are shown in the table below.

The median accuracy score for the standard interview and the cognitive interview

 Standard interview Cognitive interview Median 10 15

(a)     Sketch an appropriate graphical display to show the median accuracy scores in the table above.