A. P. World History Study Guide Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia

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A.P. World History

Study Guide Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia

Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

Please complete all vocabulary and identifications (to include places and events/eras). Must be kept in notebook for periodic notebook check.

  1. Four Noble Truths

  2. Nirvana

  3. Monism

  4. caste system

  5. citadel

  6. Varna

  7. Jati

  8. Laws of Manu

  9. *Vedanta

  10. Epics

  11. Maya

  12. Reincarnation

  13. Karma

  14. Dharma

  15. Nirvana

  16. *Ahimsa

  17. Monsoons

  18. Hinduism

  19. Buddhism

  20. Theravada Buddhism

  21. Mahayana Buddhism

  22. Polygyny

  23. Sati/Suttee

  24. soma.

  25. Stupas

  26. Enlightenment

  27. Jainism

  28. “World of the Fathers”

  29. Moksha


  1. Ásoka

  2. Brahman

  3. Indo-Aryan

  4. Brahmins

  5. Raja

  6. Fertility Cults

  7. Dravidian

  8. Pariahs

  9. Untouchables

  10. Varuna

  11. Siva

  12. Brahma

  13. Vishnu

  14. Siddhartha Gautama

  15. Maurya

  16. Chandragupta Maurya

  17. Gupta Rulers

  18. Buddah

  19. Indra

  20. Megasthenes.

  21. Alexander of Macedon.

  22. Bactrians

  23. White Huns.

  24. Charvaka sect

  25. Vardhamana Mahavira


  1. Himalayas

  2. Indus River Valley Civilization

  3. Khyber Pass

  4. Indus River

  5. Ganges River

  6. Deccan Plateau

  7. Indo-Gangetic Plain.

  8. Mauryan Empire

  9. Gupta Empire

  10. Pataliputra.

  11. Magadha

  12. Nalanda

  13. Ajanta Caves

  14. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro



  1. *Rig-Veda

  2. Bhagavad Gita

  3. Mahabharata

  4. Ramayana

  5. Vedas

  6. Upanishads

  7. Rock Edicts

  8. Panchantantra

  9. Four Noble Truths

  10. Eight Fold Path

  11. Indika

  12. Arthashastra

Chapter 4 Early Societies in South Asia

Guided Reading

  1. What happened after the Aryans and Dravidians mixed and intermingled?

  2. What did archaeologists in India discovert between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.?

  3. What was the earliest known urban society in India and why does it remain a mystery to archaeologist?

  4. Where were chickens first domesticated?

  5. Based on archaeological evidence from early Indian history, what do historians believe?

  6. What was the population at the height, Mohenjo-daro?

  7. Evidence relating to trade indicates that Harappan India traded with ___________

  8. Identify at least four facts about Harappan society.

  9. What does Harappan religion demonstrate?

  10. What happened to Harappan deities according to some scholars after the collapse of the Harappan society?

  11. What do scholars believe the major reason for the decline of the Harappan society?

  12. The Indo-Europeans who entered India called themselves Aryans, which means_____.

  13. Identify at least four facts about the Aryans.

  14. What was the biggest military advantage of the Indo-Europeans?

  15. Identify the social class in the caste system associated with warriors and aristocrats.

  16. What was the most important aspect of the Aryan religion during the early Vedic times?

  17. What are the two principal means to achieve the goal of moksha?

Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

Guided Reading

  1. Where does some of the best information about early Indian history come from?

  2. Describe India’s political landscape during the time of the Aryans.

  3. Who conquered India in 327 B.C.E.?

  4. Who was the first ruler to unify India?

  5. Who was Kautalya?

  6. Who did the Mauryan emperor Ashoka fight his bloodiest battle against?

  7. Who was the ruler during the high point of Mauryan success?

  8. What was one of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period?

  9. What happened after the collapse of the Mauryan empire in India? Who controlled the northwest territory?

  10. What caused the success and timing of trade, through the Indian Ocean basin?

  11. How did the two great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana portray women?

  12. What was one of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India?

  13. What was one of the biggest transformations of the caste system during Gupta period?

  14. What did the Charvaka sect believe?

  15. What was the greatest social contribution of the Jains?

  16. How did the Buddha believe one can gain salvation?

  17. The bodhisattva is associated with what religion?

  18. What is the Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna?

  19. Why did Buddhism eventually lose popularity in India?

  20. How did early Buddhism evolve into Mahayana Buddhism? How did that help spread the religion?


Please complete one of the following topics—must include

  1. Planning

  2. Thesis statement—to include time and place.

  3. Background

  4. At least 2 full body paragraphs (to contain at least 7-10 sentences each) you may write more than two paragraphs…sentence amount will vary depending on sentence length and number of paragraphs.

  5. Analysis

QUESTIONS TO OUTLINE/Thesis Statements—Make an outline for each question, listing the major points you want to discuss. You should practice writing your essay, following your outline carefully and making sure that you do not skip any of your major points. At this time you would want to add the relevant dates and details that will make your essay persuasive and accurate.—ASK MS.LEE FOR CHARTS TO HELP WITH ESSAY FORMAT!!!!!!

  • CCOT

  1. Analyze the role the Indian subcontinent played in the overall global trading system up to the year 600 C.E.

  2. Trace the development of India from the Vedic era to the Mauryan Dynasty and then to the Gupta Empire. Pay special attention to politics, religion, and social development.

  3. How did the status of women evolve from the Vedic Age to the Gupta era? (Use chart to help brainstorm your response)

  4. Discuss the origins, basic tenets, evolution, and impact of Hinduism. How did it affect people’s daily lives? What political role has it played?


  1. Compare the political, social, and cultural characteristics of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Indus Valley civilizations.

  2. Compare and contrast how Hinduism and Buddhism distinguished one’s role and function in society based on gender.

  3. Compare the Indian Caste System to other forms of social inequality (for example, slavery).

  4. Compare and contrast Jainism and Buddhism. What were their basic beliefs and practices? What were they a response to? How successful were they?


  1. What groups make up Indian Society? How does the diversity in India relate to the great proliferation of gods, sects, and local practices in Hinduism? Is this diversity a drawback or an advantage? Explain.


  1. Page 73—Map 4.1—answer both questions.

  2. Page 171—Map 9.1—answer question.


  1. Page 71-72 EYEWITNESS: Indra, War God of the Aryans

  2. Page 79—Sources from the Past

  3. Page 82—Sources from the Past

  4. Page 169-170—EYEWITNESS: Megasthenes: A Greek Perspective on Classical India

  5. Page 183—Sources from the Past

  6. Page 185—Sources from the Past

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