A. P. Psychology Social Psychology



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A.P. Psychology

Social Psychology


1.

Class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers. Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group's paper. This is most likely to lead to




A) social loafing

B) social facilitation

C) deindividuation

D) the bystander effect



E) risky shift




2.

Instant responses to viewing white and black faces may include activation of the amygdala. Research has suggested that this indicates

A)

cognitive dissonance

D)

group polarization

B)

the mere exposure effect

E)

halo effect

C)

implicit prejudice










3.

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

A)

the mere exposure effect

D)

scapegoat theory

B)

the just-world phenomenon

E)

proximity effect

C)

the bystander effect










4.

A situation in which the individual pursuit of self-interest leads to collective destruction is known as




A) group polarization B) deindividuation C) groupthink D) ingroup bias E) a social trap




5.

After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Matt who rarely exercises began to jog regularly. The change in Matt's behavior best illustrates the impact of

A)

normative social influence

D)

the mere exposure effect

B)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

E)

informational social influence

C)

social facilitation










6.

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________

A)

informational influence; normative influence

D)

normative influence; informational influence

B)

situational constraints; personality traits

E)

personality traits; situational constraints

C)

environmental influences; hereditary influences










7.

All of the following social psychological phenomena help to explain the behavior of subjects in Milgram's obedience to authority experiments except

A)

inaccessibility of values

D)

serial position effect

B)

physical and psychological buffers

E)

lack of social comparison

C)

perception of legitimate authority










8.

In the phenomena known as groupthink, an individual who takes on the responsibility of ridiculing or ostracizing dissenting members is known as the




A) enforcer B) goal-setter C) mindguard D) thought police E) mediator




9.

Contact hypothesis refers to

A)

a theory proposed to reduce stereotype and prejudice

B)

a hypothesis for addressing antisocial behavior

C)

the role of proximity in interpersonal attraction

D)

a mitigating factor in the bystander effect

E)

a theory related to Asch's conformity studies




10.

If one were to generalize from Sherif's study of conflict resolution between two groups of children campers, the best way for the United States and China to improve their relationship would be to

A)

hold highly publicized athletic contests between the two countries

B)

minimize their trade and economic exchanges

C)

conduct a joint space program designed to land humans on Mars

D)

allow citizens of each country the right to freely immigrate to the other country

E)

engage in supercompetitive ping pong diplomacy




11.

According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is most likely to result from

A)

stereotypes

D)

frustration

B)

the just-world phenomenon

E)

self-serving bias

C)

ingroup bias










12.

The ill-fated decision of President Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of

A)

Deindividuation

D)

the mere exposure effect

B)

the bystander effect

E)

groupthink

C)

social facilitation










13.

Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by

A)

ingroup bias

D)

superordinate goals

B)

social traps

E)

the mere exposure effect

C)

group polarization










14.

Normative social influence results from peoples' desire to

A)

clarify reality

D)

demonstrate self-restraint

B)

maintain personal control

E)

avoid deindividuation

C)

gain social approval










15.

When 12-year-old Jimmy saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in

A)

the mere exposure effect

D)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

B)

the fundamental attribution error

E)

the bystander effect

C)

cognitive dissonance theory










16.

This theory suggests that altruistic behavior is governed by calculations of rewards and costs

A)

attribution theory

D)

the two-factor theory of emotion

B)

social exchange theory

E)

social norm theory

C)

cognitive dissonance theory










17.

During an exam Vic impulsively copied several answers from a nearby student's paper. He felt uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enough to expose their test sheets. This theory best explains why Vic adopted this new attitude

A)

frustration-aggression theory

D)

cognitive dissonance theory

B)

attribution theory

E)

the two-factor theory

C)

social exchange theory










18.

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to

A)

experience any empathy for a stranger

B)

assume personal responsibility for helping the victim

C)

realize that the incident was really an emergency situation

D)

notice that the incident was taking place

E)

do any of the above




19.

Professor Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. He personally disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average high school grades. Professor Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor of their plan if

A)

the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion

B)

he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion

C)

committee voting is done by private ballot

D)

he has a high level of self-esteem

E)

he personally dislikes the other committee members




20.

The concept related to the Elaboration Likelihood Model that contends that persuasion occurs on the basis of superficial aspects of a message, like buying a certain car because it will make you more attractive to members of the opposite sex is known as

A)

reciprocal determinism

D)

central route

B)

deindividuation

E)

peripheral route

C)

social identification










21.

Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates

A)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

D)

the bystander effect

B)

social facilitation

E)

the mere exposure effect

C)

group polarization










22.

When prospective terrorists with electronic “chat rooms” interface online with others who share their attitudes, the Internet most likely serves as a medium for

A)

social facilitation

D)

cognitive dissonance

B)

the bystander effect

E)

GRIT

C)

group polarization










23.

After giving in to her friends' request that she drink alcohol with them, 17 year-old Namarla found that she couldn't resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. Her experience best illustrates

A)

ingroup bias

D)

the fundamental attribution error

B)

the mere exposure effect

E)

the bystander effect

C)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon










24.

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to

A)

neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group

B)

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others

C)

experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar

D)

lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity

E)

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request




25.

When the task of correctly identifying an individual in a slide of a four-person lineup was both difficult and important, participants in an experiment were especially likely to conform to others' wrong answers. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)

the fundamental attribution error.

D)

normative social influence.

B)

informational social influence.

E)

ingroup bias.

C)

the mere exposure effect.










26.

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as

A)

deindividuation

D)

social loafing

B)

the bystander effect

E)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

C)

group polarization










27.

The experience of empathy is most directly facilitated by this

A)

the bystander effect

D)

mirror-image perceptions

B)

emotional or mood contagion

E)

social facilitation

C)

the mere exposure effect










28.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, “teachers” exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when

A)

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University

B)

the learner complained of a slight heart condition just before the experiment began

C)

the learner screamed as the shocks became more punishing

D)

the learner was in another room where he couldn't be observed by the teacher

E)

the teacher was instructed to administer the learning test and someone else was asked to shock the learner




29.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Hillary developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of

A)

deindividuation

D)

mirror-image perceptions

B)

social facilitation

E)

the bystander effect

C)

role-playing










30.

The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people

A)

are victims of discrimination

B)

are irresponsible and unmotivated

C)

have parents who provided poor models of social responsibility

D)

attended schools that provided an inferior education

E)

are victims of bad luck.




31.

Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study

A)

the mere exposure effect

D)

deindividuation

B)

the fundamental attribution error

E)

conformity

C)

social facilitation










32.

After an exciting curling match in which the home team loses by one point, a crowd of fans throws bottles and begins to tear up the ice. This behavior is best understood in terms of

A)

the just-world phenomenon

D)

Groupthink

B)

deindividuation

E)

social facilitation

C)

the bystander effect










33.

Research suggesting that teacher expectations of students can have a powerful positive or negative effect on student performance is termed the

A)

Asch conformity effect

D)

self-serving bias

B)

cognitive consistency effect

E)

Rosenthal effect

C)

Hawthorne effect










34.

I like to smoke, but I know it's gross and it's bad for my health. This represents a type of

A)

cognitive dissonance

D)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

B)

group polarization

E)

the fundamental attribution error

C)

deindividuation










35.

Pine View students believe their school is better than the other schools in the world. This best illustrates

A)

the just-world phenomenon

D)

the reciprocity norm

B)

ingroup bias

E)

scapegoating

C)

the fundamental attribution error










36.

The following theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes

A)

equity theory

D)

social exchange theory

B)

scapegoat theory

E)

the two-factor theory

C)

cognitive dissonance theory










37.

A salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of

A)

the bystander effect

D)

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

B)

the fundamental attribution error

E)

deindividuation

C)

the social responsibility norm










38.

Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment best illustrated the impact of

A)

team membership on social loafing

D)

role-playing on attitudes

B)

groupthink on social conflict

E)

fundamental attribution error

C)

frustration on aggression










39.

Deindividuation refers to

A)

lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group

B)

the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior

C)

the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers

D)

a loss of self-awareness and restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

E)

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion




40.

Studies of role playing most directly highlight the effects of

A)

group size on social loafing

D)

actions on attitudes

B)

personal anonymity on deindividuation

E)

bystanders on altruism

C)

an audience on social facilitation










41.

The more cotton prices declined in the South between 1882 and 1930, the greater number of lynchings and violence against blacks occurred. This fact supports the theory that prejudice and discrimination are caused by

A)

stereotyping

D)

frustration-aggression

B)

cognitive dissonance

E)

locus of control

C)

interpersonal conflict










42.

Judgements about whether a behavior is more revealing about a person or situational variables have been studied by Fritz Heider and others under the heading of

A)

expectancy theory

D)

compliance theory

B)

cognitive dissonance theory

E)

attribution theory

C)

locus of control theory










43.

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people

A)

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others

B)

become more extreme in their opinions following group discussion

C)

more readily comply with a large request if they previously complied with a small request

D)

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar

E)

often fail to notice the influence they exert on others




44.

If one student in a classroom begins to cough, others are likely to do the same. This best illustrates

A)

deindividuation

D)

the bystander effect

B)

ingroup bias

E)

the chameleon effect

C)

the mere exposure effect










45.

An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster in third world nations are somehow more deserving of their fate best illustrates a potential consequence of

A)

deindividuation

D)

the just-world phenomenon

B)

ingroup bias

E)

the mere exposure effect

C)

the bystander effect








Free Response Essay Complete ONE of the following or both for extra credit
1. Define and provide an example for each of the following social psychological phenomena

A. deindividuation

B. contact hypothesis

C. cognitive dissonance

D. bystander effect

E. groupthink

F. frustration-aggression hypothesis

2. A. Briefly describe the famous experiments by each of the following social psychologists


Stanley Milgram

Solomon Asch

Philip Zimbardo

Leon Festinger



B. Why did the subjects in each experiment behave as they did? Describe the psychological phenomena that were proved and/or disproved by each?
TAKE HOME TEST DUE FRIDAY 4/20…


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