Lam, P. L., and A. Shiu. 2004. Efficiency and productivity of chinas thermal power generation. Review of Industrial Organization 24, : 73.
Lam, Pun-Lee, and Alice Shiu. 2001. A data envelopment analysis of the efficiency of china's thermal power generation. Utilities Policy 10, (2) (6): 75-83, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VFT-478YY07-4/2/ad456282fb6e5bb07871a3ce87092a4e.
Lambert, D. K., D. Dichev, and K. Raffiee. 1993. Ownership and sources of inefficiency in the provision of water services. Water Resources Research 29, (6): 1573-1578.
Land, A., M. F. Shutler, H. A. Kirthisingha, and Hugh Bradley. 1991. Branch operation: An investigation using DEA and regression. In Operational research '90., 261-276. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Land, K. C., C. A. Knox Lovell, and S. Thore. 1994. Productive efficiency under capitalism and state socialism - an empirical inquiry using chance-constrained data envelopment analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 46, (2): 139-152.
———. 1992. Productive efficiency under capitalism and state socialism - the chance-constrained programming approach. Public Finance-Finances Publiques 47, (S): 109-121.
Land, Kenneth C., C. A. Knox Lovell, and Sten Thore. 1993. Chance-constrained data envelopment analysis. Managerial and Decision Economics 14, (6): 541-554.
Lang, James R., and Peggy A. Golden. 1989. Evaluating the efficiency of SBDCs with data envelopment analysis: A longitudinal approach. Journal of Small Business Management 27, (2).
Lang, P., O. R. Yolalan, and O. Kettani. 1995. Controlled envelopment by face extension in DEA. Journal of the Operational Research Society 46, (4): 473-491.
Lang, Pascal, and Universit* Laval Facult* des sciences de,l'administration. 1992. Common sets of weights in data envelopment analysis. Document de travail (universit* laval. facult* des sciences de l'administration) ; 92-37. Sainte-Foy, Quebec: Faculte des sciences de l'administration Universite Laval.
Lansdowne, Z., L. Hjalmarsson, and J. Odeck. 1996. Efficiency of trucks in road construction and maintenance: An evaluation with data envelopment analysis. Computers and Operations Research 23, : 393.
Lansink, A. O., K. Pietola, and S. Backman. 2002. Effciency and productivity of conventional and organic farms in finland 1994-1997. European Review of Agricultural Economies 29, : 51.
Lansink, A. O., and E. Silva. 2004. Non-parametric production analysis of pesticides use in the netherlands. Journal of Productivity Analysis 21, : 49.
———. 2003. CO2 and energy efficiency of different heating technologies in the dutch glasshouse industry. Environmental and Resource Economics 24, : 395.
Lansink, Alfons Oude, and Stijn Reinhard. 2004. Investigating technical efficiency and potential technological change in dutch pig farming. Agricultural Systems 79, (3): 353.
Latruffe, Laure. 2004. Determinants of technical efficiency of crop and livestock farms in poland. Applied Economics 36, (12): 1255-63.
Latruffe, Laure, Kelvin Balcombe, Sophia Davidova, and Katarzyna Zawalinska. 2005. Technical and scale efficiency of crop and livestock farms in poland: Does specialization matter? Agricultural Economics 32, : 281.
Lauterbach, B., and A. Vaninsky. 1999. Ownership structure and firm performance: Evidence from israel. Journal of Management and Governance 3, : 189.
Laverty, G. W. 1996. The measurement of productive efficiency in further education in england : An application of data envelopment analysis.
Law, S. M., and J. F. Nolan. 2002. Measuring the impact of regulation: A study of canadian basic cable television. Review of Industrial Organization 21, : 231.
Learner, D. B., F. Y. Phillips, and J. J. Rousseau. 1997. A management system for monitoring and analyzing the productivity of armed forces recruiting. In IMPACT: How IC^2 institute affects public policy and business practices., eds. W. W. Cooper, S. Thore, D. Gobson and F. Phillips, 167-188. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Learner, David B., Fred Y. Phillips, Fred Young Phillips, and John James Rousseau. 1992. Contributions to marketing. In Systems and management science by extremal methods., 29-45. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Learner, David B., Fred Y. Phillips, and John J. Rousseau. 1988. Managing marketing productivity : Mathematical and computational advances allow improved management of services productivity, with particular application in marketing.
Lebel, Luc Georges. 1996. Performance and efficiency evaluation of logging contractors using data envelopment analysis (econometrics).Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; 0247.
Leclerc, A., and M. Fortin. 2003. Production et rationalisation des intermediaires financiers: Lecons a tirer de l'experience des caisses populaires acadiennes. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 74, : 397.
Lee, Chih-Tah. 1988. Duality of technology and economic behavior in a data envelopment Analysis/Assurance region context.Ph. D. dissertation, University of Houston.
Lee, Jang Hee, and Sang Chan Park. 2005. Intelligent profitable customers segmentation system based on business intelligence tools. Expert Systems with Applications 29, (1): 145.
Lee, Sangjae, Kidong Lee, and In Won Kang. 2005. Efficiency analysis of controls in EDI applications. Information & Management 42, (3): 425.
Lee, Y. Y., Y. T. Park, and H. S. Oh. 2000. The impact of competition on the efficiency of public enterprise: The case of korea telecom. Asia Pacific Journal of Management 17, : 423.
Lee, Yong Kyoon, Kyung Sam Park, and Soung Hie Kim. 2002. Identification of inefficiencies in an additive model based IDEA (imprecise data envelopment analysis). Computers & Operations Research 29, (12): 1661.
Legovic, T., V. Zutic, D. Vilicic, Z. Grzetic, and E. Thanassoulis. 1996. A data envelopment analysis approach to clustering operating units for resource allocation purposes. Omega 24, : 463.
Leibenstein, Harvey, and Shlomo Maital. 1992. Empirical estimation and partitioning of X-inefficiency: A data-envelopment approach. American Economic Review 82, (2): 428-434.
Leightner, J. E. 2002. The domestic effects of tight monetary policy in the wake of thailand"s financial crisis. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 7, : 242.
Lelas, Vedran. 1998. Chance constrained models for air pollution monitoring and control (risk management).Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin; 0227.
Leleu, Herve. A linear programming framework for free disposal hull technologies and cost functions: Primal and dual models. European Journal of Operational Research In Press, Corrected Proof, .
Leleu, Herve, and Benoit Dervaux. 1997. Comparaison des differentes mesures d'efficacite. Economie Et Prevision 0, (129-130): 101-119.
Leon, T., V. Liern, J. L. Ruiz, and I. Sirvent. 2003. A fuzzy mathematical programming approach to the assessment of efficiency with DEA models*1. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 139, (2) (10/16): 407-419, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V05-47TF7VG-1/2/bf1b3cdf7b0209ca59c6c92ba06d137d.
Lerme, Catherine Sylvie. 1992. Efficiency and frontier analysis with extension to strategic planning.Ph. D. dissertation, University Of Massachusetts.
Lertworasirikul, S., S. C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle, and J. A. Joines. Fuzzy BCC model for data envelopment analysis. Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making 2, : 337.
Lertworasirikul, Saowanee, Shu-Cherng Fang, Jeffrey A. Joines, and Henry L. W. Nuttle. 2003. Fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA): A possibility approach. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 139, (2): 379.
Levitt, M. S. Joyce M. A. S. 1987. The growth and efficiency of public spending. Cambridge: The National Institute of Economic and Social Research, Occasional Papers XLI, Cambridge University.
Lewin, Arie Y., and Lawrence M. Seiford, eds. 1997. Annals of operations research-special issue: From efficiency calculations to a new approach for organizing and analyzing data: DEA fifteen years later. Vol. 73. The Netherlands: Baltzer.
Lewin, Arie Y. 1983. Comments on `Measuring routine nursing service efficiency: A comparison of cost per patient day and data envelopment analysis models'. Health Services Research 18, (2, Part 1): 206-208.
Lewin, Arie Y., and C. A. Knox Lovell. 1990. Frontier analysis: Parametric and nonparametric approachs, annals issue. Journal of Econometrics 46, (1/2): 1-245.
Lewin, Arie Y., and J. W. Minton. 1986. Determining organizational effectiveness: Another look, and an agenda for research. Management Science 32, (5): 514-538.
Lewin, Arie Y., and Richard C. Morey. 1981. Measuring the relative efficiency and output potential of public sector organizations: An application of data envelopment analysis. International Journal of Policy Analysis and Information Systems 5, : 267-285.
Lewin, Arie Y., Richard C. Morey, and Thomas J. Cook. 1982. Evaluating the administrative efficiency of courts. Omega 10, (4): 401.
Lewin, Arie Y., Fred Young Phillips, and John James Rousseau. 1992. On learning from outliers. In Systems and management science by extremal methods., 11-17. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lewin, Arie Y., and Lawrence M. Seiford. 1997. Extending the frontiers of data envelopment analysis. Annals of Operations Research 73, : 1-11.
———. 1997. From efficiency calculations to a new approach for organizing and analyzing : DEA fifteen years later. Annals of operations research, v. 73. Bussum, the Netherlands: Baltzer Science.
Lewis, Herbert F., and Thomas R. Sexton. 2004. Network DEA: Efficiency analysis of organizations with complex internal structure. Computers & Operations Research 31, (9): 1365.
Ley, Eduardo. 1991. Eficiencia productiva: Un estudio aplicado al sector hospitalario. (with english summary.). Investigaciones Economicas 15, (1): 71-88.
———. 1991. Essays on applied production analysis.Ph. D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
Li, Dading. 1991. Alternative approaches to technical efficiency estimation: A comparative study.Ph. D. dissertation, McMaster University (Canada).
Li, Hongyu. 1992. On some contributions to productivity analysis of firms in an industry over time.Ph. D. dissertation, Graduate School of Business, University of Texas.
Li, Qi. 1994. Estimating a stochastic production frontier when the adjusted error is symmetric. University of Guelph. Dept. of Economics. Discussion Paper No. 1994-8, (3): 1-13.
Li, Shan. 1997. Analyzing efficiency and managerial performance: Using sensitivity scores of data envelopment analysis modelsGarland Publishers.
———. 1996. Analyzing efficiency and managerial performance : Using sensitivity scores of DEA models. Garland studies on industrial productivity. New York: Garland Pub.
———. 1995. A new approach to sensitivity analysis of the DEA models and their applications to ranking and productivity growth (data envelopment analysis).Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin; 0227.
Li, Susan X. 1998. Stochastic models and variable returns to scales in data envelopment analysis. European Journal of Operational Research 104, (3): 532.
Li, Susan X., Zhimin Huang, and John J. Rousseau. 1996. Rates of change and data envelopment analysis. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting - Decision Sciences Institute.
Li, Xiao-Bai, and Gary R. Reeves. 1999. A multiple criteria approach to data envelopment analysis. European Journal of Operational Research 115, (3): 507.
Liao, H. C., and Y. K. Chen. 2002. Optimizing multi-response problem in the taguchi method by DEA based ranking method. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 19, : 825.
Liao, Hung-Chang. 2005. Using N-D method to solve multi-response problem in taguchi. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 16, : 331.
———. 2004. A data envelopment analysis method for optimizing multi-response problem with censored data in the taguchi method. Computers & Industrial Engineering 46, (4): 817.
Lien, D., and Y. Peng. 1999. Measuring the efficiency of search engines: An application of data envelopment analysis. Applied Economics 31, : 1581.
Lien, Donald, and Yan Peng. 2001. Competition and production efficiency: Telecommunications in OECD countries. Information Economics and Policy 13, (1): 51.
Lim, Guan H., and Dipinder S. Randhawa. 2005. Competition, liberalization and efficiency: Evidence from a two-stage banking model on banks in hong kong and singapore. Managerial Finance 31, : 52.
Linna, M. 1998. Measuring hospital cost efficiency with panel data models. Health Economics 7, (5): 415-427.
Linna, Miika. 1999. Measuring hospital performance: The productivity, efficiency and costs of teaching and research in finnish hospitals.Ph.D. Dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology.
Linna, Miika, Anne Nordblad, and Matti Koivu. 2003. Technical and cost efficiency of oral health care provision in finnish health centres. Social Science & Medicine 56, (2): 343.
Lins ,M. P. Estellita, L. Angulo-Meza, and Moreira da Silva,A. C. 2004. A multi-objective approach to determine alternative targets in data envelopment analysis. Journal of the Operational Research Society 55, : 1090.
Lins, Marcos P. Estellita, Eliane G. Gomes, Soares de Mello,Joao Carlos C.B., and Soares de Mello,Adelino Jose R. 2003. Olympic ranking based on a zero sum gains DEA model. European Journal of Operational Research 148, (2): 312.
Linton, J. D., and Wade D. Cook. 1998. Technology implementation: A comparative study of canadian and US factories. INFOR 36, (3): 142-150.
Linton, J. D., S. T. Walsh, and J. Morabito. 2002. Analysis, ranking and selection of R&D projects in a portfolio. R&D Management 32, : 139.
Lissitsa, Alexej, and Martin Odening. 2005. Efficiency and total factor productivity in ukrainian agriculture in transition. Agricultural Economics 32, : 311.
Liu, Can, and Runsheng Yin. 2004. Poverty dynamics revealed in production performance and forestry in improving livelihoods: The case of west anhui, china. Forest Policy and Economics 6, (3-4): 391.
Liu, Fuh-Hwa Franklin, and Hui Lin Hai. 2005. The voting analytic hierarchy process method for selecting supplier. International Journal of Production Economics 97, (3): 308.
Liu, Fuh-Hwa Franklin, Chueng-Chiu Huang, and Yu-Lee Yen. 2000. Using DEA to obtain efficient solutions for multi-objective 0-1 linear programs. European Journal of Operational Research 126, (1): 51.
Liu, J., F. Y. Ding, and V. Lall. 2000. Using data envelopment analysis to compare suppliers for supplier selection and performance improvement. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 5, : 143.
López-Cortés, Gustavo, and P. N. Snowden. 1999. La banca mexicana, de la privatización a la intervención: Una perspectiva del AED, 1982-1996. El Trimestre Economico 66, (262): 259-91.
Los, Bart, and Marcel P. Timmer. 2005. The 'appropriate technology' explanation of productivity growth differentials: An empirical approach. Journal of Development Economics 77, (2): 517.
Lothgren, M. 2000. On the consistency of the DEA-based average efficiency bootstrap. Applied Economics Letters 7, : 53.
———. 1999. Bootstrapping the malmquist productivity index - a simulation study. Applied Economics Letters 6, : 707.
Lothgren, M., and M. Tambour. 1999. Bootstrapping the data envelopment analysis malmquist productivity index. Applied Economics 31, : 417.
———. 1999. Productivity and customer satisfaction in swedish pharmacies. A DEA network model. European Journal of Operational Research 115, (3): 449-458.
———. 1999. Testing scale efficiency in DEA models: A bootstrapping approach. Applied Economics 31, : 1231.
Löthgren, Mickael. 1998. How to bootstrap DEA estimators a monte carlo comparison. SSE/EFI working paper series in economics and finance (online), 223. Stockholm,: .
———. 1997. Bootstrapping the malmquist productivity index a simulation study. SSE/EFI working paper series in economics and finance (online), 204. Stockholm,: .
Lousteau, Carolyn Lutz. 1997. The impact of technology on the cost function of hospitals: An examination of the effects of the medicare prospective payment system on capital investment.Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Arlington; 2502.
Lovell, C. A. Knox. 1996. Applying efficiency measurement techniques to the measurement of productivity change. Journal of Productivity Analysis 7, (2-3): 329-340.
———. 1994. Linear programming approaches to the measurement and analysis of productive efficiency. TOP 2, (2): 175-248.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, and J. T. Pastor. 1995. Units invariant and translation invariant DEA models. Operations Research Letters 18, (3): 147-151.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, and Jesus T. Pastor. 1997. Target setting: An application to a bank branch network. European Journal of Operational Research 98, (2): 290.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, Jesus T. Pastor, and Judi A. Turner. 1995. Measuring macroeconomic performance in the OECD: A comparison of european and non-european countries. European Journal of Operational Research 87, (3): 507.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, P. Schmidt, Ali Dogramaci, and Rolf Fare. 1988. A comparison of alternative approaches to the measurement of productive efficiency. In Applications of modern production theory: Efficiency and productivity., 3-32. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, P. Vanden Eeckaut, W. E. Diewert, K. Spremann, and F. Stehling. 1993. Frontier tales: DEA and FDH. In Mathematical modeling in economics. Berlin: Physica-Verlag.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, Lawrence C. Walters, and L. L. Wood. 1994. Stratified models of education production using modified DEA and regression analysis. In Data envelopment analysis: Theory, methodology, and applications., eds. A. Charnes, W. W. Cooper, Arie Y. Lewin and Lawrence M. Seiford. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lovell, C. A. Knox, and K. D. Zieschang. 1994. The problem of new and disappearing commodities in the construction of price indexes. In Data envelopment analysis: Theory, methodology, and applications., eds. A. Charnes, W. W. Cooper, Arie Y. Lewin and Lawrence M. Seiford. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lozano , Sebastian, and Gabriel Villa. 2004. Centralized resource allocation using data envelopment analysis. Journal of Productivity Analysis 22, : 143.
Lozano, S., and G. Villa. 2005. Centralized DEA models with the possibility of downsizing. Journal of the Operational Research Society 56, : 357.
Lozano, S., G. Villa, and B. Adenso-Diaz. 2004. Centralised target setting for regional recycling operations using DEA. Omega 32, (2): 101.
Lozano, S., G. Villa, F. Guerrero, and P. Cortes. 2002. Measuring the performance of nations at the summer olympics using data envelopment analysis.