8th Grade Lesson



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Teaching

American History

For All

A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for



5th, 8th, and 11th grade teachers,

in partnership with

University Of California, Berkeley

History-Social Science Project



8th Grade Lesson: “Political Parties Begin”

Narahya Jolly, RUSD 8th Grade Teacher




Teaching American History for All

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

8th Grade Lesson: “Political Parties begin” – 8/13/08
Developed by: Narahya Jolly
Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:

How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?


8th Grade Year-long Focus Questions:

How did federalism shape the roles of the national and state governments?

How did the rights of citizens expand and contract during the 18th and 19th centuries?
Unit Focus:

The New Republic
Unit Focus Question:

How did the early leaders of the republic debate and handle conflicts about how to interpret the Constitution on social, political, and economic front?


Unit Working Thesis:

The early leaders of the republic, represented by Hamilton and Jefferson, split over views of to interpret the Constitution on social, political and economic issues. Hamilton had an elastic interpretation of the Constitution and believed in a strong Federal government led by highly educated wealthy individuals who supported the development of a business economy with a strong support of manufacturing and merchants including the formation of a National Bank. Jefferson had a strict interpretation of the Constitution that gave states all the rights not specifically granted to the Federal government. Jefferson emphasized the common people being able to control and make decisions locally with a stress on an agricultural society.


Lesson Focus Question:

How did the conflicts between Jefferson and Hamilton shape the politics of the nation?


Lesson Working Thesis:

With this conflict in perspectives, emerges the two party system which polarizes the nation between two camps of thinking as well as demonstrates the ongoing debate between having a strong central/federal government vs. giving states the right to make their own decisions.


Reading Strategy:

Develop two text-based, primary or secondary source reading strategies:



See attached handouts

1 -Sentence Level – sentences from textbook, p. 149 (KEY and student handout below)

1 - Passage level: Compare and Contrast from textbook pp. 149-154
Writing Strategy:

Question:

* How did the hopes and fears of those who belonged to the Federalists and to the Democratic-Republican party shape their beliefs about the best form of Federal (National) government? Analyze which perspective aligns with your hopes and fears for the nation.


Suggested Amount of Time:

How many days or class periods? Three and a half (One for sentence deconstruction & passage deconstruction, two and a half for writing strategy)

Textbook:

History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism. Palo Alto, California: Teachers’ Curriculum Institute., 2005, Chapter 11 Political Developments in the Early Republic, pp 145 – 159.
Other Resources:

Primary source(s)

Hamilton on the National Debt from “First Report on the Public Credit” on January 14, 1790 from



The Annals of America, Vol. 3, pp 407-412
Other possibilities/ resources below…

Jefferson, Thomas, Notes on the State of Virginia (1785), in The Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Adrienne Koch and William Peden (New York: Library of America, 1984), 280



And/or

Hamilton, Alexander, Report on Manufactures (1791), in Alexander Hamilton’s Papers on Public Credit, Commerce and Finance, ed Samuel McKee Jr (New York: The Liberal Arts Press, 1934), 190-102



&/or

Selections from these two above from …

Hoffman, EC and Gjerde, J., Major Problems in American History Volume 1: To 1877 (New York: Houghton & Mifflin Co, 2007), 156-158 “Republican Thomas Jefferson Celebrates the Virtue of the Yeoman Farmer, 1785” and “Federalist Alexander Hamilton Envisions a Developed American Economy, 1791.” In Chapter 6 – “Competing Visions of National Development in the Early National Period”


Secondary sources, literature, visuals, websites, etc. as needed

Hakim, Joy. A History of US: The New Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, Chapter Three The Parties Begin, pp 24 – 27



Context of the lesson in the unit:

This will happen towards the beginning of the unit, after reading the beginning of the Unit – Chapter 11 introduction , 11.2 and 11.3 with thorough discussion of Washington’s Farewell Address (looking at parts of the actual address and his recommendations). There will be some additional work done after this lesson chunk and the writing strategy will be a culminating essay.


Concept of citizenship embedded in the lesson:

In understanding the of these two individuals and how this resulted in the political parties, students will discuss and see how individual opinions and perspectives effect the US political process, and more directly how one of the primary means of engaging in the political process today is via political parties (and hopefully students will see the benefits as well as the limitations of that)



Lesson Procedure:

Day One: Reading Strategies (Sentence Deconstruction and Passage analysis – Compare/Contrast)

1. Introduction – background on the new administration – Washington’s cabinet and roles of Hamilton and Jefferson – review debates of time that spurned the dissolution of the Articles of Confederation and the forming of the Constitution



  • Step One… Look at passage on Alexander Hamilton in sentence completion. Pass out textbooks and Sentence deconstruction chart. Have blank overhead and explain chart…model first sentence, then do second sentence together and discuss…

  • Step Two… Introduce compare and contrast unit of two men’s ideas and perspectives and how that influences their political views on economy, best form of government, how they interpret the constitution, etc. Have students do the chart based on the reading (in small groups or individually)

  • HW: finish chart if didn’t in class


Day Two – Writing Strategy (note this does NOT necessarily come the day after the Reading Strategies – note: I will be inserting here reading “The New Nation Takes Shape – Hamilton on the National Debt” and “Critical Thinking Questions on Hamilton and Jefferson” where students are given eight quotes and they need to assign each to either Hamilton or Jefferson.)

2. Introduction - Review and Discuss chart (overhead) of Hamilton vs. Jefferson.



  • Step One… Have students discuss main differences between two.

  • Step Two… Introduce and explain writing strategy and writing frame and rubric (handout).

  • Step Three… Discuss the development of their analysis – connecting hopes and fears and views of human nature to perspective on form of government. Explore their opinion on the Hamilton vs Jefferson camps. Have them support their opinion. Brainstorm implications of these opinions (in terms of forms of government)

  • Step Four… Model filling out frame on overhead…

  • Step Five … Have students fill out writing frame. Discuss commentary and creating effective commentary…

  • HW: Find quotes to support your opinion. One quote (at least) for each Hamilton and Jefferson and one quote for their own opinion.

Day Three – Writing Strategy – Second day of Writing Strategy – not full day on this topic – just around half a period

2. Introduction – review writing frame and the use of each section to create a new paragraph. Review rubric. Remind / Review and model how to use the quotes they brought in and have commentary that matches it.



  • Step One… Students will get feedback on their quotes and commentary – peer groups (Teacher will float around during this ) We will discuss how to have effective commentary – should be a review at this point in the year…

  • HW: revise commentary and conclusion

Day Four – Writing Strategy – Third day of Writing Strategy –culminating in-class essay.
2. Introduction – Review rubric again

  • Step One… Students will write their essays! (Note, if you need to save a day – you could assign this as homework… but there is something to be said for giving the experience of an in class essay write)


History-Social Science Content Standards:
8.3 Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.

  1. Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).

  1. Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).


Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Historical Interpretation


  1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.

  2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.

  3. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.

  4. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.


Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.2 Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns.
RANDOM NOTES FOR TEACHER:

Hamilton: Federalists – strong national government run by wealthy , well educated men favored using national gov’t to support business, manufacturing and trade. Fr Revolution debate – favored G Britain


Jefferson: Republicans – mass of informed citizens to safeguard democracy – for states rights, interests of agrarian society (farmers/planters) Fr Rev is good – supported the French

History Alive – Ch 11 – Political Developments in the Early Republic (p.149) – KEY!!!



Time marker/ connector words

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?




Hamilton’s view of human nature

was shaped

by his wartime experiences.


What was his wartime experience? Why did he judge all humans based on this experience? Why did he feel that wartime behavior reflected human nature?

All too often

He [Hamilton]

had seen

people put their own interests and personal profit above patriotism and the needs of the country



What did he see, how were people only looking out for their own




Hamilton

concluded

“Every man ought [should] be supposed A knave [scoundrel] and to have no other end [goal] in all his actions, but private interests”

Put this quote in your own words




Most Federalists

shared

Hamilton’s view that people were basically selfish and out for themselves.




HAVE KIDS WRITE A RESPONSE…

For this reason,



Federalists

distrusted

any system of government that gave too much power to the “mob,” or the common people.

Why do they call common people a “mob” – notice inherent bias/point-of-view in their language…




Such a system said Hamilton

Could only lead

to “error, confusion, and instability.”


Interesting to see that Hamilton says it has to / must lead to this – that it is inevitable or necessary


Lesson Question: What was Hamilton’s view of Human Nature and why?

History Alive – Ch 11 – Political Developments in the Early Republic (p.149) –Student Exploration…



Time marker/ connector words

Who (subject)

Participants

Action words (verbs/ verb phrases)

Who, What, Where

Message

Questions or conclusions-

What connections can you make from this information?




Hamilton’s view of human nature

was shaped

by his wartime experiences.


What was his wartime experience? Why did he judge all humans based on this experience? Why did he feel that wartime behavior reflected human nature?

All too often

He [Hamilton]

had seen



What did he see, how were people only looking out for their own ?




Hamilton

concluded

“Every man ought [should] be supposed A knave [scoundrel] and to have no other end [goal] in all his actions, but private interests”

Put this quote in your own words:





Most Federalists

shared






For this reason,



Federalists

distrusted

any system of government that gave too much power to the “mob,” or the common people.

Why do they call common people a “mob” – notice inherent bias/point-of-view in their language…





Such a system said Hamilton

Could only lead


Interesting to see that Hamilton says it has to / must lead to this – that it is inevitable or necessary?


Lesson Question: What was Hamilton’s view of Human Nature and why?

Name: ______________ Class: ________ Date: __________
Comparing the Ideals of Hamilton and Jefferson from pp 149-154 in textbook.


Issue

Hamilton

Jefferson



Nature of Human Beings







Best form of Government with

Name of Party

and


its Ideals









Ideal Economy









View on the Constitution









Relations with Britain and France







Content Question: How do the ideas and ideals of Hamilton and Jefferson compare and contrast?
Name: ___________________ Class: ____________ Date:_________
Writing Preparation for Hamilton vs. Jefferson Essay
Essay Question: How did the hopes and fears of those who belonged to the Federalists and to the Democratic-Republican party shape their beliefs about the best form of Federal (National) government? Analyze which perspective aligns with your hopes and fears for the nation.
Introduction (First Paragraph)
Optional: Anecdote / hook (story – possibly personal background of H or J or you)

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Sentence (s) introducing the debate, giving some background information where Federalists/Hamilton and Dem-Republicans/Jefferson are introduced (summarize – don’t get into details)

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Your argument about which system (Strong/ weak central government) is more effective.

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________


Hamilton’s ideas on government (Second Paragraph):
Topic sentence: Hamilton was a _________________ (political party name) who believed in ________________ (strong/weak) Federal government.

What are Federalist hopes: ­­­­­­­­­­__________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What are the Federalist fears: _______________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What is the Federalist’s/Hamilton’s views on human nature? ___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________



Pivotal quote (Evidence): ________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________



Commentary / Explanation of quote: ________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

How did their views on human nature shape the form of government they thought is best? (Concluding sentence / Analysis)

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
Jefferson’s ideas on government (Third Paragraph):
Topic sentence: Jefferson was a _________________ (political party name) who believed in ________________ (strong/weak) Federal government.

What are Democratic-Republican hopes: ­­­­­­­­­­______________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What are the Democratic-Republican fears: ____________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What is the D-Republican’s/Jefferson’s views on human nature? ___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________



Pivotal quote (Evidence): ________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________



Commentary / Explanation of quote: ________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

How did their views on human nature shape the form of government they thought is best? (Concluding sentence / Analysis)

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________


My ideas on government – My conclusion (Fourth Paragraph):
Topic sentence: (Hamilton’s/Jefferson’s) _______________ conviction supports my argument that we need a ________________ (strong/weak) Federal government.

What are my hopes for our country? ­­­­­­­­­­__________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What are my fears for our country? ___________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­_____

_____________________________________________________________________

What are my views on human nature? ___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________



Pivotal quote (Evidence from your research): ________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________



Commentary / Explanation of quote: ________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

How do your views on human nature shape the form of government you think is best? (Concluding sentence)

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Concluding paragraph for the entire essay:

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­__

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________



NAME: ____________ CLASS: ____________ PARENT’S SIGNATURE: ________________
Rubric for Hamilton vs. Jefferson Essay
Essay Question: How did the hopes and fears of those who belonged to the Federalists and to the Democratic-Republican party shape their beliefs about the best form of Federal (National) government? Analyze which perspective aligns with your hopes and fears for the nation.


Section

Content

Possible Points

Self Grade

Teacher Grade

First Paragraph - Introduction

  • Optional – Anecdote / lead (EC – up to 3 pts)

  • Sentence (s) introducing the debate, giving some background information where Federalists/Hamilton and Dem-Republicans/Jefferson are introduced (3)

  • Your argument in this essay? (2)


5







2nd Paragraph – The Federalists and Hamilton

  • Topic sentence states overall idea of paragraph (1)

  • Hopes of Federalists explained (1)

  • Fears of Federalists explained (1)

  • View of Human Nature (1)

  • Pivotal Quote (1)

  • Commentary that explains quote (2)

  • Analysis (concluding sentence) that explains how hopes, fears and view of human nature influence the type of government supported by the party. (3)


10







3rd Paragraph – The Democratic-Republicans and Jefferson

  • Topic sentence states overall idea of paragraph (1)

  • Hopes of Dem-Reps explained (1)

  • Fears of Dem-Reps explained (1)

  • View of Human Nature (1)

  • Pivotal Quote (1)

  • Commentary that explains quote (2)

  • Analysis (concluding sentence) that explains how hopes, fears and view of human nature influence the type of government supported by the party. (3)


10







4th Paragraph

Your opinion and conclusion

  • Topic sentence states overall idea of paragraph (1)

  • Your Hopes for the country explained (1)

  • Your Fears for the country explained (1)

  • View of Human Nature (1)

  • Pivotal Quote (1)

  • Commentary that explains quote (2)

  • Analysis (conclusion) that explains how hopes, fears and view of human nature influence the type of government you feel is most effective. (3)


10







Mechanics

Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar errors eliminated

5







Title

The writer has given the essay a unique title, possibly a phrase taken from the essay

2










Total

42








PASSAGE SELECTION from History Alive, TCI p.149
Hamilton’s view of human nature was shaped by his wartime experiences. All too often, he had seen people put their own interests and personal profit above patriotism and the needs of the country. “Every man ought to be supposed a knave [scoundrel],” he concluded, “and to have no other end [goal] in all his actions, but private interests.”
Most Federalists shared Hamilton’s view that people were basically selfish ad out for themselves. For this reason, they distrusted any system of government that gave too much power to “the mob,” or the common people. Such a system, said Hamilton, could only lead to “error, confusion, and instability.”


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