8th Grade: Do You Remember! Created by Jim Deschenes Columbia Exchange
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8th Grade: Do You Remember! Columbia Exchange The movement of live things between hemispheres. Triangular Trade The transatlantic system in which goods, including slaves were exchanged between Africa, England (Europe) and the colonies in North America. Middle passage is the part of the triangle that brought slaves to the Americas. Great Awakening A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1740’s. Jonathan Edwards preached against the sins of man. It encouraged democratic Ideals and thoughts of independence. Physical Features of the 13 Colonies New England colonies short growing season, many rivers becomes the strongest economically. Middle colonies good area for raising cattle. Southern colonies are the warmest and was best suited for large farms. Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson. July 4th, 1776 It declared the new nation was free and independent of England. Gives the power to rule, to the people. “all men are created equal” “unalienable rights” Magna Carta Written in 1215 Provided the basis for establishing self-government. King John Limited the power of the King. Was the first known type of government in America. November 11th 1620 Expresses the ideals of self-government. Document signed on the Mayflower ship. English Bill of Rights An agreement signed by William and Mary to respect the rights of English citizens and of Parliament, including the right to free elections. The year was 1689. Parliament 8.1.4 Located in England Two house’s 1. House of Commons 2. House of Lords United States copied this system for our Legislative branch. French and Indian War A conflict in North America from 1754-1763. It was a world-wide struggle between England and France. George Washington fought in this war on the side of the British. Salutary Neglect After the French and Indian War England realized it need money to help pay for the cost of that war. After years of ignoring (salutary neglect) the colonies, the British government started to impose taxes on its American colonies The Quartering Act Sugar Act Stamp Act Townshend Acts Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts Lexington and Concord. Revolutionary War 1775-1783 The war last 8 years. French helps America in the war effort. George Washington leads his troops to victory over Lord Cornwallis of England. French Revolution The French were inspired by America’s Revolution and their experiment with democracy. 1789-1799 Though France helped us in our revolution America did not help France in theirs. Sometimes it is not good to be the King! New State Governments All 13 newly formed states including the 14th state of Vermont had state constitutions by 1777. Some shared characteristics are: No tax dollars for churches Branches of government Weak executive branch All had a republic form of government Some had a Bill of Rights. Articles of Confederation First government of the United States. 1777-1787 No Chief Executive No power to tax No national currency Shay’s Rebellion showed that the Articles of Confederation had a weak central (federal) government. Northwest Territory Territory covered by the Land Ordinance of 1785 States included: Ohio Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin Northwest Ordinance 1787 It described how the Northwest Territory would be governed. There would be no slavery in this territory. It was one of the successes under the Articles of Confederation. Preamble to the Constitution 8.2.2 The Founding Fathers' intentions regarding the Constitution's meaning and what they hoped the Constitution would achieve. Is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles. Constitutional Convention Summer of 1787 Held in Philadelphia Washington presided over the convention. Got rid of Articles of Confederation and created a new document. (U.S. Constitution) Seven Principles of the Constitution Republicanism Popular Sovereignty Separation of Powers Federalism Limited Government Checks and Balances Individual Rights The Great Compromise A bicameral legislature, two houses. (borrowed from England’s Parliament) Equal representation for the states in one house (Senate) and representation based on population in another. (House of Representatives) Three-Fifths Compromise Each slave counted as 3/5th of a person. For the purpose of levying taxes and the number of representatives. Checks and Balances Delegates were concerned that one branch of government would have more power than the other 2. The ability for each branch to check or control over the other branches. Federalism A system in which the state and federal (national) government share power. Federalists v. Anti-Federalists Federalist favored ratification of the constitution. Anti-federalists opposed ratification of the constitution. Federalists Papers Written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. Written 1787-1788 They’re a series of essay's that attempt to convince people to ratify the constitution. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the constitution. A few states would not ratify the new constitution without a Bill of Rights. 1st Amendment to the Constitution Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Freedom to peacefully assemble Freedom to petition the government. 2nd Amendment The right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. This is the right for Americans to own guns with a permit. 4th Amendment Protects the right to privacy and forbids unlawful searches and seizures. 5th Amendment No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Separation of Church and State It supported the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, and freedom of conscience. The government shall not interfere with the church and the church will have no influence on the government. Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom Creation Two Party Political System The disagreements between Jefferson and Hamilton in Washington’s administration led to the 2 party system. Hamilton favored a strong federal government. Jefferson favored more power to the states. Whiskey Rebellion Was a revolt of Pennsylvania corn farmers who wanted to overturn a high tax placed on whiskey. 1791 ( The first and only time a sitting President lead troops in the field). Washington on his horse “Nelson” A Bill A bill is a proposed law under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the congress (2/3) and signed by the President. Political Process Citizens can participate in the political process by 1. Voting 2. Help getting people elected. 3. Join political parties. Alien and Sedition Acts It gave power to the President to deport any alien he thought was dangerous. Prohibited printing anything malicious against the government. It posed a threat to 1st amendment guarantees. Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison is a landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review. It was also the first time in the world that a court invalidated a law by declaring it "unconstitutional." Free Press Free press prohibits the government from suppressing embarrassing information. The Free Press encourages open debate and discussion on public issues. George Washington’s Farewell Address 8.4.2 Washington warned the United States Avoid foreign entanglements Political parties that split the nation A military that was too powerful. Election of 1800 There was a tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives vote to break the tie. After 35 votes, Hamilton who did not like Jefferson or Burr decided Jefferson would be best and threw his support for him and on the 36th vote Jefferson became President. “we are all federalists we are all republicans” Louisiana Purchase Bought from France for 15 million dollars. Gave America control of the port of New Orleans. 1803 Doubled the size of the United States. Lewis and Clark The main purpose of the expedition was to explore the lands of the Louisiana Purchase. Sacagawea was their Native American guide. Chief Tecumseh In 1809 he tried to unite Native Americans to stop expansion into their lands from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. President James Monroe His presidency was known as the “Era of good feelings.” Economy was growing Manufacturing was growing Industrial Revolution was developing. Monroe Doctrine Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Poet Wrote Hiawatha, Paul Reveres’ Ride and the Courtship of Miles Standish. James Fenimore Cooper Writer Wrote The Last of the Mohicans. Wrote about life on the American frontier. Washington Irving Writer Wrote Rip Van Winkle and the Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Hudson River School is a style of painting. Artists painted lush natural landscapes. War Hawks 8.5.1 John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay were in favor of going to war with Britain. They wanted British aid to Native Americans stopped and they wanted the British out of Canada. Causes of the War of 1812 Impressments of U.S. citizens. Interference with American shipping. British support of Native resistance. Andrew “Old Hickory” Jackson was the Hero of the Battle of New Orleans. Effects of the War of 1812 Increased American Patriotism. Weakened Native American resistance. U.S. manufacturing grew. Star Spangled Banner Written by Francis Scott Key. While Fort McHenry was under fire, Key while being held aboard a British ship was inspired to write our national anthem. Oh say can you see, by the dawns early light… Andrew Jackson His presidency saw the rise of the “common man” in the political process. Introduced the “spoils system.” Did not like Second National Bank. His policy of Native Americans centered around removal from their homelands. In 1831, Cherokee appeal to the Supreme Court. Court rules in favor of the Cherokee. Jackson refuses to obey the law. He forces thousands of Native Americans off their land.To the Oklahoma Territory. Manifest Destiny The belief that the United States was meant to spread across the continent. From “sea to shinning sea” “Our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent.” - John L. O’Sullivan. Industrial Revolution Starts in late 18th century in England. It is when factory machines replaced hand-tools. When people began to leave their farms and work in factories. Texas Revolution 8.8.6 Stephen Austin leads 300 families to the Texas area. After 10 years Texans want independence from Mexico. After the battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto, Santa Ana is forced to surrender. Causes: War with Mexico of Texas to the United States. Annexation Disagreement of the border. Manifest Destiny War 1846 to 1848 Results of the War with Mexico The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war. Mexico ceded land to the United States for 15 million. U.S. pays claims citizens had against Mexico. U.S. Promises to protect 80,000 Mexicans living in Texas. Northeasterners Between 1790 and 1840 the U.S. doubled its size. Population went from 4 million to 17 million. In 1790 90% worked on farms. In 1840 60% worked on farms. Urbanization of the Northeast can be contributed to run by water power. The first mills were built in the early 1800’s. Henry Clay’s American System Establish a protective tariff. Establish a national bank. Improve the country’s transportation systems. Erie Canal Created a water route from New York City and Buffalo, New York. The canal opened up the Ohio valley and Great Lakes region. Made transportation . of goods much easier Transportation Revolution The transportation revolution of the 1800’s included canals, steamboats, and railroads. It provided great economic boost to the entire country. Ireland Potato Famine Occurred in the 1840’s. Over one million people died. Another one million Irish immigrated to the United States. Free Blacks in the North Frederick Douglas was a slave who escaped to the North. He published the abolitionists newspaper the North Star. In 1810 75% of blacks were free in the North, compared to 4% in the South. Though there were free blacks in the North they still suffered from discrimination. Horace Mann Called for free public schools to promote a educated population. Thought it would prevent social ills like crime and poverty. Women’s Suffrage Noted suffragists: 1. Lucretia Mott 2. Elizabeth Cady Staton 3. Susan B. Anthony. They all worked for suffrage, the passage for the right for women to vote. Transcendentalism Was a philosophy and literary movement that emphasized the unity of human beings with nature and the importance of self-reliance and individual conscience. Cotton Gin Invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. Could clean cotton 50 times faster. The cotton gin also extended slavery. Once invented more farmers turned to cotton to make money and more slaves were needed. Plantations of the South The majority of wealth and land in the south was concentrated in the hands of very few plantation owners. Approximately 30% of Southerners owned slaves. The other 70% of people believed they should still have slavery because their economy would collapse without it. Slavery Started in 1610 ended in 1865, that’s 255 years of slavery in North America. Most slaves we re held in Southern states. Slavery was a billion dollar business. There were around 4 million slaves set free in 1865. Nat Turner In Virginia in 1831 Turner and 70 followers killed 55 white men women and children. Turner was captured and hanged. State legislatures passed strict laws limiting the movement of slaves. Abolitionists Were people who argued that slavery was wrong and made attempts to end it. It went against the American political principle, “all men are created equal.” John Brown went to the gallows fighting to end slavery. Harriet Tubman Was called the Moses of the South. Was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad. Made 19 trips to the south freeing more than 300 slaves. Missouri Compromise A series of laws enacted to maintain the balance of free and slaves states. Missouri comes in as slave state, Maine comes in as a free state. No slavery above the 36º parallel. William Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist Editor of the newspaper, The Liberator Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. Underground Railroad It was neither underground nor was it a railroad. It was a series a secret routes that led escaped slaves to the North. They often followed the North Star. Gold discovered in 1848 near Sacramento. One year later 49’s arrived to make their fortune. Of the 300,000 who came to the area only a few made money. Those who sold materials, shovels, picks, pans made the most money. Pioneer Women Pioneer women were given more freedom than their eastern counterparts. Some slave women gained freedom in the west . In 1869 women were allowed to vote in Wisconsin. Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote of pioneer life with her “ Little House on the Prairie” series California Becomes a State in 1850 California’s petition for admission to the Union led to the Compromise of 1850. California admitted as a free state. Compromise of 1850 A series of laws intended to settle the differences between free states and slave states. The North gets Calif. as a free state and slavery is abolished in Washington D.C. South gets promise congress would allow slavery in territories won in the Mexican war. Also they get the Fugitive Slave Act. Henry Clay Known as the “Great Compromiser.” Was involved with both the 1820 and 1850 compromises. Instrumental in the Nullification Crisis. American System Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Allowed slaveholders to recapture runaway slaves in the North. This law backfires on the South. This law brought it to the spotlight, now more Northerners become abolitionists. The Kansas-Nebraska Act 8.9.5 A law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and allowed their citizens to decided if they wanted slavery, also known as popular sovereignty. Dred Scott v. Sanford The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and could be taken anywhere. Dred Scott remained a slave until is owner died a few years later. This court decision also stated that Congress could not ban slavery in the new territories. Lincoln-Douglas Debates Were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, and Stephen Douglas for the Senate in Illinois. (1858) The main issue for all of the debates was slavery. Lincoln lost the Senate seat to Douglas. John C. Calhoun and States Rights A theory that says that states had the right to judge whether a federal law was unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun argued on many occasions that’s states had the right to refuse to obey a federal law. Lincoln’s House Divided Speech His speech was delivered June 16th 1858 as he was running for the Senate. “A house divided against itself cannot stand." I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other.” Doctrine of Nullification The right of the state to reject a federal it considered unconstitutional. Calhoun argued that congress had no right to impose a tariff to one section of the country. Daniel Webster Northern Senator Fought against the Doctrine of Nullification. Felt it was the people not the states that made the Union. Wanted to keep states from seceding from the Union. Antebellum This term refers to the time before the Civil War. The North’s economy is based on manufacturing, businesses and factories. The South’s economy was based on slavery. Lincoln elected President 1860 Lincoln wins the election carrying all the Northern states, plus Oregon and California. (180 votes electoral college) Breckenridge carries the southern states. (72 votes electoral college) Southern states promise to secede from the Union if Lincoln is elected. Secession 7 states seceded from the Union before Lincoln took office March 4, 1861. South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas. April 12th 1861 4 more states seceded, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The Confederate States of America is formed. Jefferson Davis Davis is elected President of the Confederate States of America. He was Secretary of War under Democratic President Franklin Pierce. (1853-57) Resigned from the senate in 1861 to focus on Southern rebellion. Robert E. Lee Lincoln asked Lee to lead the Union army but Lee who is from Virginia could not go against his home state. Lee accepts to lead the Southern Army. Ulysses S. Grant After going through 7 generals Lincoln picks Grant because “he fights.” Grant defeats Lee’s army in April of 1865. Grant is later elected the 18th President of the United States. North’s advantages during the Civil War Larger population More industrial resources More money More railroads in miles. The United States was more recognized by foreign governments. South’s advantages: Civil War Main advantage most of the battles were in the Southern states. They just had to fight long enough to convince the North that it could not conquer the South. Fort Sumter Lincoln wanted the South to fire the first shot of the war. So he tried to send supplies to the fort but they were turned back. General Beauregard of the South asked the Fort to surrendered but the Union soldiers refused. So on April 12th 1861 Confederate batteries opened fire on Fort Sumter. Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issues the Proclamation January 1st 1863. It only free slaves in rebellion states and not in border states. It is not until 1865 and the passage of the 13th amendment that all slaves are set free. Gettysburg Address Lincoln’s speech was 267 words long. Lincoln thought his speech bombed. It was reprinted in many newspapers and has gone done in history as one of the best speeches ever given. After Gettysburg the momentum of the war turned in favor of the North. Lincoln is right here. November 19th 1863 54th Massachusetts Regiment 8.10.7 Approximately 200,000 free African Americans fought for the North. The 54th gained glory in an attempt to take Fort Wagner in Charlestown South Carolina. Civil War Battles Shiloh 23,000 deaths. Antietam 26,000 Second Manassas 25,000 Chancellorsville 28,000. A total of 640,000 deaths from both sides. Civil War Technology Cannons and bullets were improved. More accurate rifles. Ironclad warships that could withstand a cannon shot. Sherman’s March William Tecumsheh Sherman cut a path of destruction through the state of Georgia. He waged “total war.” He destroyed everything that could help support or sustain the South’s war effort. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address The war would end a month later and instead of punishing the South, Lincoln looked to forgive. “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” Speech given March 4th 1865 The North Wins the Civil War Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House. The South was physically, economically and spiritually devastated. Hatred between the North and South lasts for decades. Southern aristocracy was stripped of its power and wealth. Reconstruction Lasted from 1865 to 1877. Rebuild the South Give African Americans their freedoms. There was a process that the United States used to re-admit Southern states back into the Union. Charlestown, South Carolina. It took the South 40 years to recover. To be re-admitted to the Union Southern men must take a loyalty oath. Southern state governments constitutions must ban slavery. States must provided free education to blacks. Radical Republicans A group of congressmen who favored using the government to create a new order in the South. Give African Americans full citizenship. And, the right to vote. Freedman’s Bureau A federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War. It set up schools Hospitals Distributed food, clothes and fuel After the Civil War Most ex-slaves became sharecroppers. Many moved North Black Codes: laws passed that limited freedom of former slaves. Those who stayed in the South suffered extreme racism. Civil War Amendments The 13th amendment to the U.S. constitution abolished slavery. The 14th stated all citizens born within the U.S. are protected by the constitution. The 15th gave African American males the right to vote. Black Codes Poll tax Literacy test Grandfather clause All meant to deprive blacks the right to vote. Jim Crow Laws Laws meant to enforce the separation of white and black people in public places in the South. Ku Klux Klan A group that formed in 1866 that wanted to restore democratic control of the South and to keep former slaves powerless. Many African Americans were killed by the KKK. Native American Lands Major Events of the Indian Wars. 1. Sand Creek Massacre 2. Fetterman Massacre 3. Battle of Little Bighorn Wounded Knee Massacre. By 1890 the way of life for Native Americans comes to an end. Railroads 8.12.5 The search for gold, silver and copper and the building of railroads led to the demise of the buffalo and the way of life for Plains Indians. Promontory Point Utah is where the railroad being built west and the one being built east meet. Dawes Act This Act passed in 1887 was intended to encourage Native Americans to give up their traditional ways and become farmers. It was an attempt to “Americanize” their culture. Populist Party 1891-1896 This party wanted a policy that would raise crop prices. The terms "populist" and "populism" are commonly used for anti-elitist appeals in opposition to established interests and mainstream parties. William Jennings Bryan ran for President in 1896 with the support of the populist Party. The Grange The groups main purpose was to meet the needs of farm families. They formed cooperatives. That is a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit. Industrialization The Bessemer steel process used less coal in order to produce steel. More products were now being made of steel rather than iron. These listed below continued to fuel the Industrial Revolution. Plentiful Resources Growing Population Improved transportation High Immigration New Inventions Investment capital Government assistance Inventors From 1860 to 1909 inventions went from 75 a year to 350 a year. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1875. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and phonograph in 1879. Robber Barons A robber baron is a person who becomes wealthy through dishonest means. Andrew Carnegie made his money in the steel industry. John D. Rockefeller made his money in the oil business. Immigrants Between 1865 and 1900 immigrants from western and northern Europe contributed the growth of America’s major cities. The name refers to the process of gilding an object with a superficial layer of gold. Two photo’s of the Gilded Age which is accurate? Tenement building New York City Workers Organize Early Unions: 1. Knights of Labor 2. American Federation of Labor (AFL). These unions fight for safer working conditions, higher wages and child labor laws.
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