2nd Batxillerat unit 1 writing: For and Against Essays Introduction



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2nd Batxillerat UNIT 1
WRITING: For and Against Essays
Introduction
Paragraph 1
state topic (summary of the topic without giving your opinion)
Main Body
Paragraph 2

arguments for & justifi¬cations, examples, and/ or reasons


Paragraph 3
arguments against & justification, examples, and/or reasons
Conclusion
Final Paragraph
balanced consideration/ your opinion directly or indirectly

Points to consider


• Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for and against.
• Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the paragraph.
e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity.
• Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know…, etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel, etc.).

Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
• To list points:
Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally
• To list advantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of… is … The main/greatest/first advantage of… is …
• To list disadvantages:
One/Another/ A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of. The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage /drawback of… Another negative aspect of…
• To introduce points/arguments for or against:
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of… / against, A further common criticism of… / It could be argued that…..
It is often claimed/suggested
It is widely argued maintained that…..
It is generally felt/believed/held that…

Some/many/most people/experts/scientists/critics

claim/suggest/argue/feel that… / maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that…
advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that…
oppose the view that…
are in favour of/against…
are of the opinion that/convinced that…
are opposed to…

To add more points to the same topic:


in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention (the fact) that, also, not only … but also/as well, both … and, There is another side to the issue/question/argument of…
To make contrasting points:
on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so,
it may be said/argued/claimed that,…
others/many people oppose this viewpoint/strongly disagree…, claim/feel/believe this argument is incorrect/misguided
although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that
Opponents of … argue/believe/claim that…
The fact that… contradicts the belief/idea that…
While it is true to say that…, in fact…
While/Although …, it cannot be denied that…

Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
• To introduce examples:
for example, for instance, such as, like, in particular, particularly, especially, This is (clearly) illustrated/shown by the fact that… One/A clear/striking/ typical example of (this)… The fact that…. shows/illustrates that…
• To emphasise a point:
clearly, obviously, it is obvious, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed
• To express reality:
In fact, the fact (of the matter) is, actually, in practice, it is a fact that, in effect
• To make general statements:
as a (general) rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large, in most cases
• To make partially correct statements:
to a certain extent/degree, to some extent/degree, in a way/sense, this is partly true (but), to a limited extent, there is some truth in (this), in some cases, up to a point
• To explain/clarify a point:
in other words, that is to say, this/which means that
• To express cause:

owing to +INFINITIVE, due to (the fact that), on account of, on the grounds that, given that, because, as, since


• To express effect:

therefore, thus, as a result/consequence, consequently, so, for this reason, if… were to happen, … the effect/result would be…


• To express intention:

to + INFINITIVE, so as to +INFINITIVE, in order to +INFINITIVE, so that + SVO, with the intention of (+ing)



Useful expressions and linking words/phrases:

Conclusion:

In conclusion,


On balance,
All things considered,
Taking everything into account/consideration,
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
Finally/Lastly,

On the whole,



      • Conclusion expressing balanced considerations/opinion indirectly

……………………. it can be said/claimed that …
……………………. it seems/appears that…
……………………. it would seem that…
……………………. it is likely/unlikely/possible/foreseeable that …
……………………. it is clear/obvious that…
…………………….. there is no/little doubt that …
…………………….. it is true to say that …
…………………….. although it must be said that …
……………….……. it may be concluded/said that …

      • Conclusion expressing opinion directly

…………………………… it is my belief/opinion that …
…………………………… I (firmly) believe/feel/think that …
…………………………… I am convinced that …
…………………………… I am inclined to believe that …
…………………………… I (do not) agree that/with …

Practice
a) Choose the most suitable word or words given in parentheses.
01. Nowadays, television is one of the most popular forms of entertainment. ……………………………………………this it provides us with the most recent news.

(However/In addition to/Although)
02. There are many different kinds of programs on TV. ………………………there are sports programs, children's programs, and various types of comedy entertainment.

(On the other hand/Moreover/For instance)
03. Watching TV has become the main evening activity in many house-holds. ………………………..…………, many hobbies, such as model-making or dress-making, are not as popular as they used to be.

(As a result/However/Despite)
04. In parts of the USA, there are about 150 channels to choose from. …………………………, the 4 channels available in Britain seem a very narrow choice.

(On balance/In comparison/What is more)
05. Many people feel that TV takes up far too much of young people's time. ……………………………. this , they argue that the quality of the programs is poor, and that there is too much violence.

(In contrast/Personally/Besides)

06……………………………. television can be educational, I think it is better to read a book.



(In fact, / Moreover, / Even though)

07. As it can be said that there are both advantages and disadvantages of the new system for organising the timetable. ……………………………….., I would say it would be better to stick with the current system.



(On the whole / In order to / That is to say)

Sources: http://academicwriting.wikidot.com/for-and-against-essays



http://www.englishexpress.com.br/grammar/B3L2_Ex3.htm

LISTENING: Fame Game
Fill in the gaps


  1. There's the attention, the parties, the glamour and the money. But is being in the spotlight really as good as we think it is?

  2. But it's not all rosy in her day to day life. Simple things are made harder like stepping outside of her house to get the newspaper. Just catching a bite to eat. It can all be spun into a hurtful headline. And it's not just the celebrity in the firing line. Your family and friends could be hounded too.

  3. Many people find fame hard to deal with. Even footy players are expected to be role models, even though they're often just normal young guys with a talent for kicking a ball. And with the internet, celebrities can be made overnight when they're young and often completely unprepared for what's to come.

  4. When I first saw all these nasty comments I did cry. I felt like this was my fault and I shouldn't have done this and this was all because of me. Pop singer Amy Winehouse saw both sides of fame. She was praised for her music in the early days. But later on she was more often ridiculed as the whole world watched her life fall apart until she eventually died.



True or False?





TRUE

FALSE

  1. The public's desire for fame has made TV talent shows like Masterchef really popular.










  1. Toby Moulten decided to pull out of the show because he couldn’t stand seeing his face on the tabloids.










  1. Actor Jake Gyllenhaal was hounded by paparazzi who took a photo of him in the toilet.










  1. According to the reporter, celebrities shouldn’t complain about the advantages and disadvantages of being famous.











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