1. Variation exists in the population Competition for survival, most animals dying before reproducing



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  • 1. Variation exists in the population
  • 2. Competition for survival, most animals dying
  • before reproducing
  • 3. Survival of those most fit for the environment
  • 4. Offspring are from the survivors
  • 5. Offspring inherit the genes that made their parents
  • fit for the environment.
  • DIVERSITY EXISTS WITHIN POPULATION
  • Homo sapiens subgraduensis
  • DEATH IS NOT RANDOM; IT IS SELECTIVE
  • Changes in finch beak morphology during drought of 1976/1977
  • “Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of populations.
  • The study of the mechanisms of evolution falls within the province
  • of population genetics.”
  • --Theodosius Dobzhansky. 1951
  • THE MODERN SYNTHESIS
  • “Community of embryonic
  • structure reveals community
  • of descent.”
  • CHARLES DARWIN
  • ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
  • 1859
  • “Embryology rises greatly in interest, when we look at the embryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the progenitor, either in its class or larval state, of all the members of the same great class.”
  • Sir Richard Owen
  • HOMOLOGY
  • “The same organ in all its
  • varieties of form”
  • Serial Homology
  • Derived forms within
  • the same organism
  • Special Homology
  • Versus
  • Analogy
  • Forms similar due to
  • same function
  • KARL ERNST von BAER:
  • “The general features of a large group of animals
  • appear earlier in development than do the specialized
  • features of a smaller group…The early embryo is never like a lower animal, but only like its early embryo.”
  • DARWIN (1874):
  • “Thus, if we may rely on embryology, ever the safest guide in classification, it seems that we have at last gained a clue to the source whence the Vertebrata were
  • derived.”
  • AGGASIZ (1874):
  • “One could hardly open a scientific Journal or any
  • popular essay on Natural History without meeting some allusion to the Ascidians as our ancestors.”
  • THEOLOGICALLY TRAINED PASSENGERS
  • ABOARD HMS BEAGLE
  • Charles Darwin, 22
  • Cambridge University, 1830
  • EVIDENCE of COMMON DESCENT:
  • 1. Material evidence
  • Biblical Archeology
  • Paleontology
  • Herod’s Palace, Israel
  • Fossil Archeopterix showing feather
  • imprints and a reptilian body
  • EVIDENCE for COMMON DESCENT:
  • 2. VESTIGIAL APPARATUS
  • “Old Testament” Stories
  • Would the story of Ahab been
  • independently created in Judaism
  • and in Christianity?
  • Would the aortic arch have been
  • independently created in fish and
  • In mammals?
  • CLADOGRAM (Partial) OF WESTERN RELIGIONS
  • DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION
  • TWO CLADOGRAMS of WESTERN RELIGION BASED on DIFFERENT SYNAPOMORPHIES
  • Synapomorphies of liturgy
  • and ritual: Protestantism
  • splits from Catholicism
  • Synapomorphy of papal
  • primacy: Protestantism splits
  • from Orthodoxy
  • INDEPENDENT EVIDENCE for COMMON DESCENT:
  • 3. Historical Records
  • Religious textual documentation
  • Biological genetic documentation
  • GENETIC EVIDENCE for DESCENT WTH MODIFICATION
  • MOLECULAR SYNAPOMORPHIES
  • Phylogenetic tree made from interspersed DNA elements. Four transposon
  • insertions, at loci 4-7, define a clade of whales and hippos.
  • Ernst Haeckel
  • “ONTOGENY RECAPITULATES
  • PHYLOGENY””HY
  • ONTOGENY
  • PHYLOGENY
  • ONTOGENY RECAPITULATES
  • PHYLOGENY:
  • Correspondence
  • Terminal addition
  • Truncation
  • Evolution is based on Haeckel’s diagrams about as much as Christianity is based on
  • Titian’s paintings.
  • HAECKEL’S CRIMES WERE FAR WORSE:
  • “The lower races…are physiologically nearer the mammals--apes and dogs--than to the
  • civilized European. We must, therefore, assign a totally different value to their lives.”
  • “He (Jesus) is generally regarded as being purely Jewish. Yet the characteristics
  • Which distinguish his high and noble personality and which give distinct impress to his religion are certainly not Semitical. They are the features of the higher Arian race.”
  • --The Riddle of the World, 1899
  • “Haeckel’s “incautious generalization” has “done more to delay
  • the progress of sound phylogeny than any other modern speculation.”
  • -E. S. Goodrich, 1924
  • “It is difficult, even if possible, to say whether the differences or the resemblances have a greater zoological value (because we have no clearly defined standard of zoological value).”
  • -A. Sedgwick, 1894.
  • THE DEMISE of EVOLUTIONARY MORPHOLOGY…
  • …AND THE EXODUS TO GENETICS
  • "Morphology having been explored in its minutest corners, we turned elsewhere...The geneticist is the successor of the morphologist."
  • -W. Bateson, 1894
  • EXORCISING THE GHOST of ERNST HAECKEL from BIOLOGY:
  • Stephen J. Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, 1977.
  • Confusion of von Baer with Haeckel. Von Baer established
  • commonality of embryonic forms. Haeckel believed that
  • embryos of later organisms
  • past through adult stages of
  • primitive organisms.
  • 2. Darwin used von Baer, not Haeckel. However, Haeckel became popular and eclipsed the Darwinian/von Baer view.
  • “Small changes modifying the distribution in time and space of the same structures are sufficient to affect deeply the form, the functioning, and the behavior of the final product--the adult animal. It is always a matter of using the same elements, of adjusting them here or there, of arranging various combinations to produce new objects of increasing complexity. It is always a matter of tinkering.”
  • FRANÇOIS JACOB: EVOLUTION AS TINKERING
  • with REGULATORY GENES in the EMBRYO
  • RICHARD B. GOLDSCHMIDT:
  • Evolution consists of inherited changes of development
  • Functional biology = anatomy, gene expression
  • Development = [Functional biology]/t
  • Evolution = [Development]/t
  • HOMOLOGOUS GENES for ANALOGOUS TRAITS
  • Mouse Pax 6 instructs fly compound eye formation in antenna
  • HOMOLOGOUS HOX GENES: DERIVATION
  • HOMOLOGOUS HOX SEQUENCES:EXPRESSION
  • MUTATIONS IN
  • REGULATORY GENES CAN GIVE THE PROTEINS NEW
  • PROPERTIES: UBX
  • ACQUIRES THE ABILITY to REPRESS
  • DISTAL-LESS in the
  • INSECT CLADE
  • R. Galant and S. B. Carroll,
  • 2002. Nature 415:910.
  • Ronschaugen, M. et al.
  • 2002. Nature 415: 914.
  • .
  • Chick
  • Hindlimb
  • Duck
  • Hindlimb
  • BMP
  • Gremlin
  • Apoptosis
  • Newborn
  • HOW THE DUCK GOT ITS WEBBED FEET
  • Merino et al., 1999. Dev. Biol. 200: 35 - 45.
  • Untreated
  • Chick Hindlimb
  • Chick Hindlimb Treated
  • with Gremlin-Containing Bead in Interdigital Space
  • ORIGIN OF FEATHERS FROM SCALES
  • Through Repetition of SHH-BMP Interactions
  • (Harris, M., et al., 2002)
  • (Jernvall et al., 2000)
  • GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS PREDICT
  • MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES BETWEEN SPECIES
  • MATHEMATICAL MODELING of TOOTH EVOLUTION BY ANALYSIS
  • of GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES
  • (A. Salazar-Ciudad and J. Jernvall, 2002)
  • Developmental Mechanisms for
  • Phylogeny
  • Shigeru Kuratani et al. 2001. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B 356: 1615-1632
  • Variation within
  • population
  • Variation between populations
  • Genes in adults competing for
  • reproductive success
  • Genes in embryonic
  • and larval organisms
  • building structures
  • Arrival of the fittest
  • Natural selection
  • Phylogeny
  • Population Genetics
  • Developmental Genetics
  • A NEW EVOLUTIONARY SYNTHESIS
  • EXPLAINING BIODIVERSITY


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